Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6458

Search results for: anaerobic treatment

6458 H2 Production and Treatment of Cake Wastewater Industry via Up-Flow Anaerobic Staged Reactor

Authors: Manal A. Mohsen, Ahmed Tawfik


Hydrogen production from cake wastewater by anaerobic dark fermentation via upflow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR) was investigated in this study. The reactor was continuously operated for four months at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21.57 hr, PH value of 6 ± 0.6, temperature of 21.1°C, and organic loading rate of 2.43 gCOD/l.d. The hydrogen production was 5.7 l H2/d and the hydrogen yield was 134.8 ml H2 /g CODremoved. The system showed an overall removal efficiency of TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN, and Carbohydrates of 40 ± 13%, 59 ± 18%, 84 ± 17%, 28 ± 27%, and 85 ± 15% respectively during the long term operation period. Based on the available results, the system is not sufficient for the effective treatment of cake wastewater, and the effluent quality of UASR is not complying for discharge into sewerage network, therefore a post treatment is needed (not covered in this study).

Keywords: cake wastewater industry, chemical oxygen demand (COD), hydrogen production, up-flow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6457 Estimation of Bio-Kinetic Coefficients for Treatment of Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, J. Adeyemo


Anaerobic modeling is a useful tool to describe and simulate the condition and behaviour of anaerobic treatment units for better effluent quality and biogas generation. The present investigation deals with the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with varying organic loads. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of the influent and effluent of the bioreactor were determined at various retention times to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The bio-kinetic coefficients in the modified Stover–Kincannon kinetic and methane generation models were determined to study the performance of anaerobic digestion process. At steady-state, the determination of the kinetic coefficient (K), the endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), the maximum growth rate of microorganisms (µmax), the growth yield coefficient (Y), ultimate methane yield (Bo), maximum utilization rate constant Umax and the saturation constant (KB) in the model were calculated to be 0.046 g/g COD, 0.083 (dˉ¹), 0.117 (d-¹), 0.357 g/g, 0.516 (L CH4/gCODadded), 18.51 (g/L/day) and 13.64 (g/L/day) respectively. The outcome of this study will help in simulation of anaerobic model to predict usable methane and good effluent quality during the treatment of industrial wastewater. Thus, this will protect the environment, conserve natural resources, saves time and reduce cost incur by the industries for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater. It will also contribute to a sustainable long-term clean development mechanism for the optimization of the methane produced from anaerobic degradation of waste in a close system.

Keywords: brewery wastewater, methane generation model, environment, anaerobic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
6456 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye


As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: anaerobic digester, foaming, biogas, surfactant, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
6455 Economic Analysis of an Integrated Anaerobic Digestion and Ozonolysis System

Authors: Tshilenge Kabongo, John Kabuba


The distillery wastewater has become major issues in sanitation sectors. One of the solutions to overcome this sewage is to install the Wastewater Treatment Plant. Economic analysis is fundamentally required for its viability. Integrated anaerobic digestion and advanced oxidation (AD-AOP) in the treatment of distillery wastewater (DWW), anaerobic digestion achieved sufficient biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals of 95% and 75%, respectively, and methane production of 0.292 L/g COD removed at an organic loading rate of 15 kg COD/m3/d. However, a considerable amount of biorecalcitrant compounds still existed in the anaerobically treated effluent, contributing to a residual COD of 4.5 g/L and an intense dark brown color. To remove the biorecalcitrant color and COD, ozonation, which is an AOP, was introduced as a post-treatment method to AD. Ozonation is a highly competitive treatment technique that can be easily applied to remove the biorecalcitrant compounds, including color, and turbidity. In the ozonation process carried out for an hour, more than 80% of the color was removed at an ozone dose of 45 mg O3/L/min (corresponding to 1.8 g O3/g COD). Thus, integrating AD with the AOP can be effective for organic load and color reductions during the treatment of DWW. The deliverable established the best configuration of the AD-AOP system, where DWW is first subjected to AD followed by AOP post-treatment. However, for establishing the feasibility of the industrial application of the integrated system, it is necessary to carry out the economic analysis. This may help the starting point of the wastewater treatment plant construction and its operation and maintenance costs.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, economic analysis, integrated anaerobic digestion, ozonolysis, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
6454 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid


An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/ HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/ and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/ During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
6453 A Study on the Effect of Cod to Sulphate Ratio on Performance of Lab Scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

Authors: Neeraj Sahu, Ahmad Saadiq


Anaerobic sulphate reduction has the potential for being effective and economically viable over conventional treatment methods for the treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater. However, a major challenge in anaerobic sulphate reduction is the diversion of a fraction of organic carbon towards methane production and some minor problem such as odour problems, corrosion, and increase of effluent chemical oxygen demand. A high-rate anaerobic technology has encouraged researchers to extend its application to the treatment of complex wastewaters with relatively low cost and energy consumption compared to physicochemical methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio on the performance of lab scale UASB reactor. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated for 170 days. In which first 60 days, for successful start-up with acclimation under methanogenesis and sulphidogenesis at COD/SO₄²⁻ of 18 and were operated at COD/SO₄²⁻ ratios of 12, 8, 4 and 1 to evaluate the effects of the presence of sulfate on the reactor performance. The reactor achieved maximum COD removal efficiency and biogas evolution at the end of acclimation (control). This phase lasted 53 days with 89.5% efficiency. The biogas was 0.6 L/d at (OLR) of 1.0 kg COD/m³d when it was treating synthetic wastewater with effective volume of reactor as 2.8 L. When COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio changed from 12 to 1, slight decrease in COD removal efficiencies (76.8–87.4%) was observed, biogas production decreased from 0.58 to 0.32 L/d, while the sulfate removal efficiency increased from 42.5% to 72.7%.

Keywords: anaerobic, chemical oxygen demand, organic loading rate, sulphate, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
6452 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi


Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
6451 How to Capitalize on BioCNG at a Wastewater Plant

Authors: William G. "Gus" Simmons


Municipal and industrial wastewater plants across our country utilize anaerobic digestion as either primary treatment or as a means of waste sludge treatment and reduction. The emphasis on renewable energy and clean energy over the past several years, coupled with increasing electricity costs and increasing consumer demands for efficient utility operations has led to closer examination of the potential for harvesting the energy value of the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion. Although some facilities may have already come to the belief that harvesting this energy value is not practical or a top priority as compared to other capital needs and initiatives at the wastewater plant, we see that many are seeing biogas, and an opportunity for additional revenues, go up in flames as they continue to flare. Conversely, few wastewater plants under progressive and visionary leadership have demonstrated that harvesting the energy value from anaerobic digestion is more than “smoke and hot air”. From providing thermal energy to adjacent or on-campus operations to generating electricity and/or transportation fuels, these facilities are proving that energy harvesting can not only be profitable, but sustainable. This paper explores ways in which wastewater treatment plants can increase their value and import to the communities they serve through the generation of clean, renewable energy; also presented the processes in which these facilities moved from energy and cost sinks to sparks of innovation and pride in the communities in which they operate.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, harvesting energy, biogas, renewable energy, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
6450 Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment with Different Intensities on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery from Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: D. Hephzibah, P. Kumaran, N. M. Saifuddin


Anaerobic digestion is a well-known technique for sustainable energy recovery from sewage sludge. However, sewage sludge digestion is restricted due to certain factors. Pre-treatment methods have been established in various publications as a promising technique to improve the digestibility of the sewage sludge and to enhance the biogas generated which can be used for energy recovery. In this study, continuous flow microwave (MW) pre-treatment with different intensities were compared by using 5 L semi-continuous digesters at a hydraulic retention time of 27 days. We focused on the effects of MW at different intensities on the sludge solubilization, sludge digestibility, and biogas production of the untreated and MW pre-treated sludge. The MW pre-treatment demonstrated an increase in the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (sCOD/tCOD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Besides that, the total volatile solid (TVS) removal efficiency and tCOD removal efficiency also increased during the digestion of the MW pre-treated sewage sludge compared to the untreated sewage sludge. Furthermore, the biogas yield also subsequently increases due to the pre-treatment effect. A higher MW power level and irradiation time generally enhanced the biogas generation which has potential for sustainable energy recovery from sewage treatment plant. However, the net energy balance tabulation shows that the MW pre-treatment leads to negative net energy production.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, microwave pre-treatment, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
6449 Enhance Biogas Production by Enzymatic Pre-Treatment from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Authors: M. S. Tajul Islam, Md. Zahangir Alam


To enhance biogas production through anaerobic digestion, the application of various type of pre-treatment method has some limitations in terms of sustainable environmental management. Many studies on pretreatments especially chemical and physical processes are carried out to evaluate the anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production. Among the pretreatment methods acid and alkali pre-treatments gained the highest importance. Previous studies have showed that although acid and alkali pretreatment has significant effect on degradation of biomass, these methods have some negative impact on environment due to their hazard in nature while enzymatic pre-treatment is environmentally friendly. One of the constrains to use of enzyme in pretreatment process for biogas production is high cost which is currently focused to reduce cost through fermentation of waste-based media. As such palm oil mill effluent (POME) as an abundant resource generated during palm oil processing at mill is being used a potential fermentation media for enzyme production. This low cost of enzyme could be an alternative to biogas pretreatment process. This review is to focus direct application of enzyme as enzymatic pre-treatment on POME to enhanced production of biogas.

Keywords: POME, enzymatic pre-treatment, biogas, lignocellulosic biomass, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
6448 Comparison of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and an Anaerobic Filter for Treating Wheat Straw Washwater

Authors: Syazwani Idrus, S. Charles J. Banks, Sonia Heaven


The study compared the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and anaerobic filters (AF) for the treatment of wheat straw washwater (WSW) which has a high concentration of Potassium ions. The trial was conducted at mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). The digesters were started up over a 48-day period using a synthetic wastewater feed and reached an organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 g COD L^-1 day^-1 with a specific methane production (SMP) of 0.333 L CH4 g^-1 COD. When the feed was switched to WSW it was not possible to maintain the same loading rate as the SMP in all reactors fell sharply to less than 0.1 L CH4 g^-1 COD, with the AF affected more than the UASB. On reducing the OLR to 3 g COD L^-1 day^-1 the reactors recovered to produce 0.21 L CH4 g^-1 CODadded and gave 82% COD removal. A discrepancy between the COD consumed and the methane produced could be accounted for through increased maintenance energy requirement of the microbial community for osmo-regulation as K+ was found to accumulate in the sludge and in the UASB reached a concentration of 4.5 mg K g^-1 wet weight of granules.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, osmotic stress, chemical oxygen demand, specific methane production

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
6447 Organic Substance Removal from Pla-Som Family Industrial Wastewater through APCW System

Authors: W. Wararam, K. Angchanpen, T. Pattamapitoon, K. Chunkao, O. Phewnil, M. Srichomphu, T. Jinjaruk


The research focused on the efficiency for treating high organic wastewater from pla-som production process by anaerobic tanks, oxidation ponds and constructed wetland treatment systems (APCW). The combined system consisted of 50-mm plastic screen, five 5.8 m3 oil-grease trap tanks (2-day hydraulic retention time; HRT), four 4.3 m3 anaerobic tanks (1-day HRT), 16.7 m3 oxidation pond no.1 (7-day HRT), 12.0 m3 oxidation pond no.2 (3-day HRT), and 8.2 m3 constructed wetland plot (1-day HRT). After washing fresh raw fishes, they were sliced in small pieces and were converted into ground fish meat by blender machine. The fish meat was rinsed for 8 rounds: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 by tap water and 4 and 8 by rice-wash-water, before mixing with salt, garlic, steamed rice and monosodium glutamate, followed by plastic wrapping for 72-hour of edibility. During pla-som production processing, the rinsed wastewater about 5 m3/day was fed to the treatment systems and fully stagnating storage in its components. The result found that, 1) percentage of treatment efficiency for BOD, COD, TDS and SS were 93, 95, 32 and 98 respectively, 2) the treatment was conducted with 500-kg raw fishes along with full equipment of high organic wastewater treatment systems, 3) the trend of the treatment efficiency and quantity in all indicators was similarly processed and 4) the small pieces of fish meat and fish blood were needed more than 3-day HRT in anaerobic digestion process.

Keywords: organic substance, Pla-Som family industry, wastewater, APCW system

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
6446 Comparative Study on Hydrothermal Carbonization as Pre- and Post-treatment of Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Sludge: Focus on Energy Recovery, Resources Transformation and Hydrochar Utilization

Authors: Mahmood Al Ramahi, G. Keszthelyi-Szabo, S. Beszedes


Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical reaction that utilizes saturated water and vapor pressure to convert waste biomass to C-rich products This work evaluated the effect of HTC as a pre- and post-treatment technique to anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy sludge, as information in this field is still in its infancy, with many research and methodological gaps. HTC effect was evaluated based on energy recovery, nutrients transformation, and sludge biodegradability. The first treatment approach was executed by applying hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) under a range of temperatures, prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy sludge. Results suggested an optimal pretreatment temperature at 210 °C for 30 min. HTC pretreatment increased methane yield and chemical oxygen demand removal. The theoretical model based on Boyle’s equation had a very close match with the experimental results. On the other hand, applying HTC subsequent to AD increased total energy production, as additional energy yield was obtained by the solid fuel (hydrochar) beside the produced biogas. Furthermore, hydrothermal carbonization of AD digestate generated liquid products (HTC digestate) with improved chemical characteristics suggesting their use as liquid fertilizers.

Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization, anaerobic digestion, energy balance, sludge biodegradability, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
6445 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar


The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
6444 Biochar Assisted Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recycling

Authors: A. Pokharel, A. Farooque, B. Acharya


Pyrolysis can be used for energy production from waste biomass of agriculture and forestry. Biochar is the solid byproduct of pyrolysis and its cascading use can offset the cost of the process. A wide variety of research on biochar has highlighted its ability to absorb nutrients, metal and complex compounds; filter suspended solids; enhance microorganisms’ growth; retain water and nutrients as well as to increase carbon content of soil. In addition, sustainable biochar systems are an attractive approach for carbon sequestration and total waste management cycle. Commercially available biochar from Sigma Aldrich was studied for adsorption of nitrogen from effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. Adsorption isotherm and breakthrough curve were determined for the biochar. Similarly, biochar’s effects in aerobic as well as anaerobic bioreactors were also studied. In both cases, the biomass was increased in presence of biochar. The amount of gas produced for anaerobic digestion of fruit mix (apple and banana) was similar but the rate of production was significantly faster in biochar fed reactors. The cumulative goal of the study is to use biochar in various wastewater treatment units like aeration tank, secondary clarifier and tertiary nutrient recovery system as well as in anaerobic digestion of the sludge to optimize utilization and add value before being used as a soil amendment.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recyling, wastewater treatment, soil amendment

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
6443 Study of the Anaerobic Degradation Potential of High Strength Molasses Wastewater

Authors: M. Mischopoulou, P. Naidis, S. Kalamaras, T. Kotsopoulos, P. Samaras


The treatment of high strength wastewater by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor has several benefits, such as high organic removal efficiency, short hydraulic retention time along with low operating costs. In addition, high volumes of biogas are released in these reactors, which can be utilized in several industrial facilities for energy production. This study aims at the examination of the application potential of anaerobic treatment of wastewater, with high molasses content derived from yeast manufacturing, by a lab-scale UASB reactor. The molasses wastewater and the sludge used in the experiments were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of a baker’s yeast manufacturing company. The experimental set-up consisted of a 15 L thermostated UASB reactor at 37 ◦C. Before the reactor start-up, the reactor was filled with sludge and molasses wastewater at a ratio 1:1 v/v. Influent was fed to the reactor at a flowrate of 12 L/d, corresponding to a hydraulic residence time of about 30 h. Effluents were collected from the system outlet and were analyzed for the determination of the following parameters: COD, pH, total solids, volatile solids, ammonium, phosphates and total nitrogen according to the standard methods of analysis. In addition, volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition of the effluent was determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), as an indicator to evaluate the process efficiency. The volume of biogas generated in the reactor was daily measured by the water displacement method, while gas composition was analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The effluent quality was greatly enhanced due to the use of the UASB reactor and high rate of biogas production was observed. The anaerobic treatment of the molasses wastewater by the UASB reactor improved the biodegradation potential of the influent, resulting at high methane yields and an effluent with better quality than the raw wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas production, molasses wastewater, UASB reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
6442 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık


Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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6441 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager


In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

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6440 Anaerobic Digestion of Spent Wash through Biomass Development for Obtaining Biogas

Authors: Sachin B. Patil, Narendra M. Kanhe


A typical cane molasses based distillery generates 15 L of waste water per liter of alcohol production. Distillery waste with COD of over 1,00,000 mg/l and BOD of over 30,000 mg/l ranks high amongst the pollutants produced by industries both in magnitude and strength. Treatment and safe disposal of this waste is a challenging task since long. The high strength of waste water renders aerobic treatment very expensive and physico-chemical processes have met with little success. Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of distillery waste may provide high degree of treatment and better recovery of biogas. It may prove more feasible in most part of tropical country like India, where temperature is suitable for thermophilic micro-organisms. Researchers have reviled that, at thermophilic conditions due to increased destruction rate of organic matter and pathogens, higher digestion rate can be achieved. Literature review reveals that the variety of anaerobic reactors including anaerobic lagoon, conventional digester, anaerobic filter, two staged fixed film reactors, sludge bed and granular bed reactors have been studied, but little attempts have been made to evaluate the usefulness of thermophilic anaerobic treatment for treating distillery waste. The present study has been carried out, to study feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic digestion to facilitate the design of full scale reactor. A pilot scale anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFFB) of capacity 25m3 was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned for thermophilic (55-65°C) anaerobic digestion at a constant pH of 6.5-7.5, because these temperature and pH ranges are considered to be optimum for biogas recovery from distillery wastewater. In these conditions, working of the reactor was studied, for different hydraulic retention times (HRT) (0.25days to 12days) and variable organic loading rates (361.46 to 7.96 Kg COD/m3d). The parameters such as flow rate and temperature, various chemical parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demands (COD), biogas quantity, and biogas composition were regularly monitored. It was observed that, with the increase in OLR, the biogas production was increased, but the specific biogas yield decreased. Similarly, with the increase in HRT, the biogas production got decrease, but the specific biogas yield was increased. This may also be due to the predominant activity of acid producers to methane producers at the higher substrate loading rates. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that for thermophilic conditions the highest COD removal percentage was obtained at an HRT of 08 days, thereafter it tends to decrease from 8 to 12 days HRT. There is a little difference between COD removal efficiency of 8 days HRT (74.03%) and 5 day HRT (78.06%), therefore it would not be feasible to increase the reactor size by 1.5 times for mere 4 percent more efficiency. Hence, 5 days HRT is considered to be optimum, at which the biogas yield was 98 m3/day and specific biogas yield was 0.385 CH4 m3/Kg CODr.

Keywords: spent wash, anaerobic digestion, biomass, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6439 Three-Stage Anaerobic Co-digestion of High-Solids Food Waste and Horse Manure

Authors: Kai-Chee Loh, Jingxin Zhang, Yen-Wah Tong


Hydrolysis and acidogenesis are the rate-controlling steps in an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Considering that the optimum conditions for each stage can be diverse diverse, the development of a multi-stage AD system is likely to the AD efficiency through individual optimization. In this research, we developed a highly integrate three-stage anaerobic digester (HM3) to combine the advantages of dry AD and wet AD for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and horse manure. The digester design comprised mainly of three chambers - high-solids hydrolysis, high-solids acidogenesis and wet methanogensis. Through comparing the treatment performance with other two control digesters, HM3 presented 11.2 ~22.7% higher methane yield. The improved methane yield was mainly attributed to the functionalized partitioning in the integrated digester, which significantly accelerated the solubilization of solid organic matters and the formation of organic acids, as well as ammonia in the high-solids hydrolytic and acidogenic stage respectively. Additionally, HM3 also showed the highest volatile solids reduction rate among the three digesters. Real-time PCR and pyrosequencing analysis indicated that the abundance and biodiversity of microorganisms including bacteria and archaea in HM3 was much higher than that in the control reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, high-solids, food waste and horse manure, microbial community

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
6438 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa


As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pH

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6437 Determination of the Effect of Kaolin on the Antimicrobial Activity of Metronidazole-Kaolin Interaction

Authors: Omaimah Algohary


Kaolin is one of the principle intestinal adsorbents, has traditionally been used internally in the treatment of various enteric disorders, colitis, enteritis, dysentery, and diarrhea associated with food and alkaloidal poisoning and in traveler’s diarrhea. It binds to and traps bacteria and its toxins and gases in the gut. It also binds to water in the gut, which helps to make the stools firmer, hence giving symptomatic relief. Metronidazole is a synthetic antibacterial agent that is used primarily in the treatment of various anaerobic infections such as intra-abdominal infections, antiprotozoal, and as amebicidal. The need for safe, therapeutically effective antidiarrheal combination continuously lead to effective treatment. Metronidazol used for treatment of anaerobic bacteria and kaolin , when administered simultaneously, Metronidazole–Kaolin interactions have been reported by FDA but not studied. This project is the first to study the effect of Metronidazole–Kaolin interactions on the antimicrobial activity of metronidazole. Agar diffusion method performed to test the antimicrobial activity of metronidazole–kaolin antidiarrheal combination from aqueous solutions at an in-vivo simulated pHs conditions that obtained at 37+0.5 °C on Helicobacter pylori as anaerobic bacteria and E.coli as aerobic bacteria and used as a control for the technique. The antimicrobial activity of metronidazole combination as 1:1 and 1:2 with kaolin was abolished in acidic media as no zones of inhibition shown compared to only metronidazole that used as a control. In alkaline media metronidazole combination as 1:1 and 1:2 with kaolin showed diminutive activity compared to the control. These results proved that the kaolin adsorb metronidazole and abolish its antimicrobial activity and such combination should be avoided.

Keywords: kaolin, metronidazole, interaction, Helicobacter pylori. E. coli, antimicrobial activity

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6436 Performance of an Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


The submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR used cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5 L bioreactor at 30-35 ℃. Active layer was orientated to feed stream for minimizing membrane fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution applied as draw solution (DS). Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneously control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progress, the average water flux was around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process showed greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial of ammonia was removed. On the other hand, the average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Subsequently, the overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater. Therefore, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for the conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

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6435 Relationship between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Youth Soccer Players

Authors: Turgay Ozgur, Bahar Ozgur, Gurcan Yazici


The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and relatively easy to conduct anaerobic power tests such as Sergeant (SJ) and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), the flexibility Sit&Reach test (S&R) and Hexagon Agility (HA) test in twenty youth soccer players, aged 14 years. Players completed YYIR1 and other performance tests [(SJ), (SBJ] in two consecutive days. The mean YYIR1 distances for the players was 1454 ± 420 m. Peak Anaerobic Power (PAPw) was calculated using SJ (cm) scores. The mean PAPw was 2966,83w. Spearman’s correlation test results revealed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between HA and YYIR1 tests (r = -0.72, p=0.000) and no significant correlation was found between anaerobic power tests and YYIR1. In conclusion, as a test to measure player’s intermittent aerobic capacity YYIR1 test and anaerobic power test results have not shown significant correlation. Although the YYIR1 test has been used in talent identification, anaerobic qualifications of player’s should be assessed using designated performance tests.

Keywords: yo-yo test, anaerobic power, soccer, sergeant jump test

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6434 Energy Potential of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste - Colombian Housing

Authors: Esteban Hincapie


The growing climate change, global warming and population growth have contributed to the energy crisis, aggravated by the generation of organic solid waste, as a material with high energy potential. From the context of waste generation in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, was evaluated the potential of energy content in organic solid waste generated in La Herradura housing complex, through anaerobic digestion process in batch reactors, with mixtures of substrate, water and inoculum 1: 3: 0.2 and 1: 3: 0, reaching a total biogas production of 0,2 m³/Kg y 0,14 m³/Kg respectively, in a period of 38 days under temperature conditions of 24°C. The volume of biogas obtained was equivalent to the monthly consumption of natural gas for 75 apartments or 1.856 Kw of electric power. For the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, a production of 7.152Kw of electric power was estimated for a month, from the treatment of 22.319 tons of organic solid waste that would not be taken to the landfill. The results indicate that the treatment of organic waste from anaerobic digestion is a sustainable option to reduce pollution, contribute to the production of alternative energies and improve the efficiency of urban metabolism.

Keywords: alternative energies, anaerobic digestion, solid waste, sustainable construction, urban metabolism, waste management

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6433 Comparison of Bactec plus Blood Culture Media to BacT/Alert FAN plus Blood Culture Media for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Clinical Samples Containing Antibiotics

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Ela Tasdogan, Ercan Kurtipek


Aim: The aim of this study was to compare resin based Bactec plus aerobic/anaerobic blood culture bottles (Becton Dickinson, MD, USA) and polymeric beads based BacT/Alert FA/FN plus blood culture bottles (bioMerieux, NC, USA) in terms of microorganisms recovery rates and time to detection (TTD) in the patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Method: Blood culture samples were taken from the patients who admitted to the intensive care unit and received antibiotic treatment. Forty milliliters of blood from patients were equally distributed into four types of bottles: Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus. Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media were compared to culture recovery rates and TTD. Results: Blood culture samples were collected from 382 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and 245 patients who were diagnosed as having bloodstream infections were included in the study. A total of 1528 Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus blood culture bottles analyzed and 176, 144, 154, 126 bacteria or fungi were isolated, respectively. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were significantly more frequently isolated in the resin-based Bactec Plus bottles than in the polymeric beads based BacT/Alert Plus bottles. The Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media recovery rates were similar for fungi and anaerobic bacteria. The mean TTDs in the Bactec Plus bottles were shorter than those in the BacT/Alert Plus bottles regardless of the microorganisms. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resin-containing media is a reliable and time-saving tool for patients who are receiving antibiotic treatment due to sepsis in the intensive care unit.

Keywords: Bactec Plus, BacT/Alert Plus, blood culture, antibiotic

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6432 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) during Start-Up Period

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa


Appropriate start-up of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is considered to be the most delicate and important issue in the anaerobic process, and depends on several factors such as wastewater composition, reactor configuration, inoculum and operating conditions. In this work, the start-up performance of an ABR with working volume of 30 liters, fed continuously with synthetic food industrial wastewater along with semi-batch study to measure the methangenic activity by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test were carried out at various organic loading rates (OLRs) to determine the best OLR used to start up the reactor. The comparison was based on COD removal efficiencies, start-up time, pH stability and methane production. An OLR of 1.8 Kg COD/m3d (5400 gCOD/m3 and 3 days HRT) showed best overall performance with COD removal efficiency of 94.44% after four days from the feeding and methane production of 3802 ml/L with an overall SMA of 0.36 gCH4-COD/gVS.d

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, anaerobic reactor start-up, food industrial wastewater, specific methanogenic activity

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6431 LCA of Waste Disposal from Olive Oil Production: Anaerobic Digestion and Conventional Disposal on Soil

Authors: T. Tommasi, E. Batuecas, G. Mancini, G. Saracco, D. Fino


Extra virgin olive-oil (EVO) production is an important economic activity for several countries, especially in the Mediterranean area such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia. The two major by-products from olive oil production, solid-liquid Olive Pomace (OP) and the Olive Mill Waste Waters (OMWW), are still mainly disposed on soil, in spite of the existence of legislation which already limits this practice. The present study compares the environmental impacts associated with two different scenarios for the management of waste from olive oil production through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The two alternative scenarios are: (I) Anaerobic Digestion and (II) current Disposal on soil. The analysis was performed through SimaPro software and the assessment of the impact categories was based on International Life Cycle Data and Cumulative Energy Demand methods. Both the scenarios are mostly related to the cultivation and harvesting phase and are highly dependent on the irrigation practice and related energy demand. Results from the present study clearly show that as the waste disposal on soil causes the worst environmental performance of all the impact categories here considered. Important environmental benefits have been identified when anaerobic digestion is instead chosen as the final treatment. It was consequently demonstrated that anaerobic digestion should be considered a feasible alternative for olive mills, to produce biogas from common olive oil residues, reducing the environmental burden and adding value to the olive oil production chain.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, waste management, agro-food waste, biogas

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6430 Application of a Submerged Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for High-Strength Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


Recently, anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) has been widely utilized, which combines anaerobic biological treatment process and membrane filtration, that can be present an attractive option for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Conventional AnMBR is having several advantages, such as improving effluent quality, compact space usage, lower sludge yield, without aeration and production of energy. However, the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the AnMBR permeate was negligible which become the biggest disadvantage. In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that utilizes osmotic pressure as driving force to extract clean water without additional external pressure. The pore size of FO membrane is kindly mentioned the pore size, so nitrogen or phosphorus could effectively improve removal of nitrogen or phosphorus. Anaerobic bioreactor with FO membrane (AnOMBR) can retain the concentrate organic matters and nutrients. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable resource. Due to the high rejection property of FO membrane, the high amount of phosphorus could be recovered from the combination of AnMBR and FO. In this study, development of novel submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR utilizes cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5.5 L bioreactor at 30-35℃. Active layer-facing feed stream orientation was utilized, for minimizing fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate draw solution (DS) at a cross flow velocity of 0.7 cm/s. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution was used as DS. Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneous control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progressed, the average water flux was achieved around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process show greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial removal of ammonia, and finally average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Therefore, AnOMBR system periodically utilizes MF membrane extracted for phosphorus recovery with simultaneous pH adjustment. The overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is having potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater, and hence, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

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6429 Biological Treatment of a Mixture of Iodine-Containing Aromatic Compounds from Industrial Wastewaster

Authors: A. Elain, M. Le Fellic, A. Le Pemp, N. Hachet


Iodinated Compounds (IC) are widely detected contaminants in most aquatic environments including sewage treatment plant, surface water, ground water and even drinking water, up to the µg.L-1 range. As IC contribute in the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) level, their removal or dehalogenation is expected. We report here on the biodegradability of a mixture of IC from an industrial effluent using a microbial consortium adapted to grow on IC as well as the native microorganisms. Both aerobic and anaerobic treatments were studied during batch experiments in 500-mL flasks. The degree of mineralization and recovery of iodide were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron acceptor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive deiodination of IC while sodium chloride even at high concentration (22 g.l-1) had no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S RNA gene sequence (MicroSeq®) was applied to provide a better understanding of the degradative microbial community.

Keywords: iodinated compounds, biodegradability, deiodination, electron-accepting conditions, microbial consortium

Procedia PDF Downloads 241