Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4108

Search results for: critical flux

4108 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang


According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

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4107 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew


The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
4106 Effect of External Radiative Heat Flux on Combustion Characteristics of Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Piloted-Ignition and Radiative Auto-Ignition Modes

Authors: Jia-Jia He, Lin Jiang, Jin-Hua Sun


Rigid polyurethane foam (RPU) has been extensively applied in building insulation system, yet with high flammability for being easily ignited by high temperature spark or radiative heat flux from other flaming materials or surrounding building facade. Using a cone calorimeter by Fire Testing Technology and thermal couple tree, this study systematically investigated the effect of radiative heat flux on the ignition time and characteristic temperature distribution during RPU combustion under different heat fluxes gradient (12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 kW/m²) with spark ignition/ignition by radiation. The ignition time decreases proportionally with increase of external heat flux, meanwhile increasing the external heat flux raises the peak heat release rate and impresses on the vertical temperature distribution greatly. The critical ignition heat flux is found to be 15 and 25 kW/m² for spark ignition and radiative ignition, respectively. Based on previous experienced ignition formula, a methodology to predict ignition times in both modes has been developed theoretically. By analyzing the heat transfer mechanism around the sample surroundings, both radiation from cone calorimeter and convection flow are considered and calculated theoretically. The experimental ignition times agree well with the theoretical ones in both radiative and convective conditions; however, the observed critical ignition heat flux is higher than the calculated one under piloted-ignition mode because the heat loss process, especially in lower heat flux radiation, is not considered in this developed methodology.

Keywords: rigid polyurethane foam, cone calorimeter, ignition time, external heat flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
4105 Effect of Zinc Oxide on Characteristics of Active Flux TIG Welds of 1050 Aluminum Plates

Authors: H. Fazlinejad, A. Halvaee


In this study, characteristics of ATIG welds using ZnO flux on aluminum was investigated and compared with TIG welds. Autogenously AC-ATIG bead on plate welding was applied on Al1050 plate with a coating of ZnO as the flux. Different levels of welding current and flux layer thickness was considered to study the effect of heat input and flux quantity on ATIG welds and was compared with those of TIG welds. Geometrical investigation of the weld cross sections revealed that penetration depth of the ATIG welds with ZnO flux, was increased up to 2 times in some samples compared to the TIG welds. Optical metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations revealed similar microstructures in TIG and ATIG welds. Composition of the ATIG welds slag was also analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In both TIG and ATIG samples, the lowest values of microhardness were observed in the HAZ.

Keywords: ATIG, active flux, weld penetration, Al 1050, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
4104 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan


This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

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4103 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi


The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

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4102 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon


The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: end effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor

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4101 Establishment of the Regression Uncertainty of the Critical Heat Flux Power Correlation for an Advanced Fuel Bundle

Authors: L. Q. Yuan, J. Yang, A. Siddiqui


A new regression uncertainty analysis methodology was applied to determine the uncertainties of the critical heat flux (CHF) power correlation for an advanced 43-element bundle design, which was developed by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to achieve improved economics, resource utilization and energy sustainability. The new methodology is considered more appropriate than the traditional methodology in the assessment of the experimental uncertainty associated with regressions. The methodology was first assessed using both the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the Taylor Series Method (TSM) for a simple linear regression model, and then extended successfully to a non-linear CHF power regression model (CHF power as a function of inlet temperature, outlet pressure and mass flow rate). The regression uncertainty assessed by MCM agrees well with that by TSM. An equation to evaluate the CHF power regression uncertainty was developed and expressed as a function of independent variables that determine the CHF power.

Keywords: CHF experiment, CHF correlation, regression uncertainty, Monte Carlo Method, Taylor Series Method

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4100 Modification of Fick’s First Law by Introducing the Time Delay

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan


Fick's first law relates the diffusive flux to the concentration field, by postulating that the flux goes from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, with a magnitude that is proportional to the concentration gradient (spatial derivative). It is clear that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous and should be some time delay in this propagation. But Fick’s first law doesn’t consider this delay which results in some errors especially when there is a considerable time delay in the process. In this paper, we introduce a time delay to Fick’s first law. By this modification, we consider that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous. In order to verify this claim an application sample in fluid diffusion is discussed and the results of modified Fick’s first law, Fick’s first law and the experimental results are compared. The results of this comparison stand for the accuracy of the modified model. The modified model can be used in any application where the time delay has considerable value and neglecting its effect reflects in undesirable results.

Keywords: Fick's first law, flux, diffusion, time delay, modified Fick’s first law

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4099 Measurement and Simulation of Axial Neutron Flux Distribution in Dry Tube of KAMINI Reactor

Authors: Manish Chand, Subhrojit Bagchi, R. Kumar


A new dry tube (DT) has been installed in the tank of KAMINI research reactor, Kalpakkam India. This tube will be used for neutron activation analysis of small to large samples and testing of neutron detectors. DT tube is 375 cm height and 7.5 cm in diameter, located 35 cm away from the core centre. The experimental thermal flux at various axial positions inside the tube has been measured by irradiating the flux monitor (¹⁹⁷Au) at 20kW reactor power. The measured activity of ¹⁹⁸Au and the thermal cross section of ¹⁹⁷Au (n,γ) ¹⁹⁸Au reaction were used for experimental thermal flux measurement. The flux inside the tube varies from 10⁹ to 10¹⁰ and maximum flux was (1.02 ± 0.023) x10¹⁰ n cm⁻²s⁻¹ at 36 cm from the bottom of the tube. The Au and Zr foils without and with cadmium cover of 1-mm thickness were irradiated at the maximum flux position in the DT to find out the irradiation specific input parameters like sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α). The f value was 143 ± 5, indicates about 99.3% thermal neutron component and α value was -0.2886 ± 0.0125, indicates hard epithermal neutron spectrum due to insufficient moderation. The measured flux profile has been validated using theoretical model of KAMINI reactor through Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP). In MCNP, the complex geometry of the entire reactor is modelled in 3D, ensuring minimum approximations for all the components. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.1 as well as S (α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions are considered. The neutron flux has been estimated at the corresponding axial locations of the DT using mesh tally. The thermal flux obtained from the experiment shows good agreement with the theoretically predicted values by MCNP, it was within ± 10%. It can be concluded that this MCNP model can be utilized for calculating other important parameters like neutron spectra, dose rate, etc. and multi elemental analysis can be carried out by irradiating the sample at maximum flux position using measured f and α parameters by k₀-NAA standardization.

Keywords: neutron flux, neutron activation analysis, neutron flux shape factor, MCNP, Monte Carlo N-Particle Code

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4098 Optimization of a Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machine Using Laminated Segmented Rotor

Authors: Seyedmilad Kazemisangdehi, Seyedmehdi Kazemisangdehi


Flux switching permanent magnet machines are considered for wide range of applications because of their outstanding merits including high torque/power densities, high efficiency, simple and robust rotor structure. Therefore, several topologies have been proposed like the PM exited flux switching machine, hybrid excited flux switching type, and so on. Recently, a novel laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine was introduced. It features flux barriers on rotor structure to enhance the performances of machine including torque ripple reduction and also torque and efficiency improvements at the same time. This is while, the design of barriers was not optimized by the authors. Therefore, in this paper three coefficients regarding the position of the barriers are considered for optimization. The effect of each coefficient on the performance of this machine is investigated by finite element method and finally an optimized design of flux barriers based on these three coefficients is proposed from different points of view including electromagnetic torque maximization and cogging torque/torque ripple minimization. At optimum design from maximum developed torque aspect, this machine generates 0.65 Nm torque higher than that of the not-optimized design with an almost 0.4 % improvement in efficiency.

Keywords: finite element analysis, FSPM, laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine, optimization

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4097 Effect of Variable Fluxes on Optimal Flux Distribution in a Metabolic Network

Authors: Ehsan Motamedian


Finding all optimal flux distributions of a metabolic model is an important challenge in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to identify all alternate optimal solutions of a large scale metabolic network. The algorithm reduces the model to decrease computations for finding optimal solutions. The algorithm was implemented on the Escherichia coli metabolic model to find all optimal solutions for lactate and acetate production. There were more optimal flux distributions when acetate production was optimized. The model was reduced from 1076 to 80 variable fluxes for lactate while it was reduced to 91 variable fluxes for acetate. These 11 more variable fluxes resulted in about three times more optimal flux distributions. Variable fluxes were from 12 various metabolic pathways and most of them belonged to nucleotide salvage and extra cellular transport pathways.

Keywords: flux variability, metabolic network, mixed-integer linear programming, multiple optimal solutions

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4096 The Influence of Different Flux Patterns on Magnetic Losses in Electric Machine Cores

Authors: Natheer Alatawneh


The finite element analysis of magnetic fields in electromagnetic devices shows that the machine cores experience different flux patterns including alternating and rotating fields. The rotating fields are generated in different configurations range between circular and elliptical with different ratios between the major and minor axis of the flux locus. Experimental measurements on electrical steel exposed to different flux patterns disclose different magnetic losses in the samples under test. Consequently, electric machines require special attention during the cores loss calculation process to consider the flux patterns. In this study, a circular rotational single sheet tester is employed to measure the core losses in electric steel sample of M36G29. The sample was exposed to alternating field, circular field, and elliptical fields with axis ratios of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The measured data was implemented on 6-4 switched reluctance motor at three different frequencies of interest to the industry as 60 Hz, 400 Hz, and 1 kHz. The results disclose a high margin of error that may occur during the loss calculations if the flux patterns issue is neglected. The error in different parts of the machine associated with considering the flux patterns can be around 50%, 10%, and 2% at 60Hz, 400Hz, and 1 kHz, respectively. The future work will focus on the optimization of machine geometrical shape which has a primary effect on the flux pattern in order to minimize the magnetic losses in machine cores.

Keywords: alternating core losses, electric machines, finite element analysis, rotational core losses

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4095 Effect of Hydraulic Diameter on Flow Boiling Instability in a Single Microtube with Vertical Upward Flow

Authors: Qian You, Ibrahim Hassan, Lyes Kadem


An experiment is conducted to fundamentally investigate flow oscillation characteristics in different sizes of single microtubes in vertical upward flow direction. Three microtubes have 0.889 mm, 0.533 mm, and 0.305 mm hydraulic diameters with 100 mm identical heated length. The mass flux of the working fluid FC-72 varies from 700 kg/m2•s to 1400 kg/m2•s, and the heat flux is uniformly applied on the tube surface up to 9.4 W/cm2. The subcooled inlet temperature is maintained around 24°C during the experiment. The effect of hydraulic diameter and mass flux are studied. The results showed that they have interactions on the flow oscillations occurrence and behaviors. The onset of flow instability (OFI), which is a threshold of unstable flow, usually appears in large microtube with diversified and sustained flow oscillations, while the transient point, which is the point when the flow turns from one stable state to another suddenly, is more observed in small microtube without characterized flow oscillations due to the bubble confinement. The OFI/transient point occurs early as hydraulic diameter reduces at a given mass flux. The increased mass flux can delay the OFI/transient point occurrence in large hydraulic diameter, but no significant effect in small size. Although the only transient point is observed in the smallest tube, it appears at small heat flux and is not sensitive to mass flux; hence, the smallest microtube is not recommended since increasing heat flux may cause local dryout.

Keywords: flow boiling instability, hydraulic diameter effect, a single microtube, vertical upward flow

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4094 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz


In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: heat flux, Herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity

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4093 Flux-Linkage Performance of DFIG Under Different Types of Faults and Locations

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky


The double-fed induction generator wind turbine has recently received a great attention. The steady state performance and response of double fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine are now well understood. This paper presents the analysis of stator and rotor flux linkage dq models operation of DFIG under different faults and at different locations.

Keywords: double fed induction motor, wind energy, flux linkage, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
4092 Protection of the Object of the Critical Infrastructure in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková


With the increasing dependence of countries on the critical infrastructure, it increases their vulnerability. Big threat is primarily in the human factor (personnel of the critical infrastructure) and in terrorist attacks. It emphasizes the development of methodology for searching of weak points and their subsequent elimination. This article discusses methods for the analysis of safety in the objects of critical infrastructure. It also contains proposal for methodology for training employees of security services in the objects of the critical infrastructure and developing scenarios of attacks on selected objects of the critical infrastructure.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, object of critical infrastructure, protection, safety, security, security audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
4091 Analysis of Flux-Linkage Performance of DFIG by Using Simulink under Different Types of Faults and Locations

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky


The double-fed induction generator wind turbine has recently received a great attention. The steady state performance and response of double fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine are now well understood. This paper presents the analysis of stator and rotor flux linkage dq models operation of DFIG under different faults and at different locations.

Keywords: double fed induction motor, wind energy, flux linkage, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
4090 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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4089 Research on the Aero-Heating Prediction Based on Hybrid Meshes and Hybrid Schemes

Authors: Qiming Zhang, Youda Ye, Qinxue Jiang


Accurate prediction of external flowfield and aero-heating at the wall of hypersonic vehicle is very crucial for the design of aircrafts. Unstructured/hybrid meshes have more powerful advantages than structured meshes in terms of pre-processing, parallel computing and mesh adaptation, so it is imperative to develop high-resolution numerical methods for the calculation of aerothermal environment on unstructured/hybrid meshes. The inviscid flux scheme is one of the most important factors affecting the accuracy of unstructured/ hybrid mesh heat flux calculation. Here, a new hybrid flux scheme is developed and the approach of interface type selection is proposed: i.e. 1) using the exact Riemann scheme solution to calculate the flux on the faces parallel to the wall; 2) employing Sterger-Warming (S-W) scheme to improve the stability of the numerical scheme in other interfaces. The results of the heat flux fit the one observed experimentally and have little dependence on grids, which show great application prospect in unstructured/ hybrid mesh.

Keywords: aero-heating prediction, computational fluid dynamics, hybrid meshes, hybrid schemes

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4088 Reconstruction of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Simulate Uncoupled Growth of Zymomonas mobilis

Authors: Maryam Saeidi, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati


Zymomonas mobilis is known as an example of the uncoupled growth phenomenon. This microorganism also has a unique metabolism that degrades glucose by the Entner–Doudoroff (ED) pathway. In this paper, a genome-scale metabolic model including 434 genes, 757 reactions and 691 metabolites was reconstructed to simulate uncoupled growth and study its effect on flux distribution in the central metabolism. The model properly predicted that ATPase was activated in experimental growth yields of Z. mobilis. Flux distribution obtained from model indicates that the major carbon flux passed through ED pathway that resulted in the production of ethanol. Small amounts of carbon source were entered into pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle to produce biomass precursors. Predicted flux distribution was in good agreement with experimental data. The model results also indicated that Z. mobilis metabolism is able to produce biomass with maximum growth yield of 123.7 g (mol glucose)-1 if ATP synthase is coupled with growth and produces 82 mmol ATP gDCW-1h-1. Coupling the growth and energy reduced ethanol secretion and changed the flux distribution to produce biomass precursors.

Keywords: genome-scale metabolic model, Zymomonas mobilis, uncoupled growth, flux distribution, ATP dissipation

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4087 Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan

Authors: Asmat Siddiqui, Noor Us Saher


Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.

Keywords: coastal contamination, enrichment factor, geo-indicator, heavy metal flux

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4086 Effect of Drag Coefficient Models concerning Global Air-Sea Momentum Flux in Broad Wind Range including Extreme Wind Speeds

Authors: Takeshi Takemoto, Naoya Suzuki, Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Masako Terui, George Truscott


Drag coefficient is an important parameter in order to correctly estimate the air-sea momentum flux. However, The parameterization of the drag coefficient hasn’t been established due to the variation in the field data. Instead, a number of drag coefficient model formulae have been proposed, even though almost all these models haven’t discussed the extreme wind speed range. With regards to such models, it is unclear how the drag coefficient changes in the extreme wind speed range as the wind speed increased. In this study, we investigated the effect of the drag coefficient models concerning the air-sea momentum flux in the extreme wind range on a global scale, comparing two different drag coefficient models. Interestingly, one model didn’t discuss the extreme wind speed range while the other model considered it. We found that the difference of the models in the annual global air-sea momentum flux was small because the occurrence frequency of strong wind was approximately 1% with a wind speed of 20m/s or more. However, we also discovered that the difference of the models was shown in the middle latitude where the annual mean air-sea momentum flux was large and the occurrence frequency of strong wind was high. In addition, the estimated data showed that the difference of the models in the drag coefficient was large in the extreme wind speed range and that the largest difference became 23% with a wind speed of 35m/s or more. These results clearly show that the difference of the two models concerning the drag coefficient has a significant impact on the estimation of a regional air-sea momentum flux in an extreme wind speed range such as that seen in a tropical cyclone environment. Furthermore, we estimated each air-sea momentum flux using several kinds of drag coefficient models. We will also provide data from an observation tower and result from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) concerning the influence of wind flow at and around the place.

Keywords: air-sea interaction, drag coefficient, air-sea momentum flux, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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4085 Water Reclamation from Synthetic Winery Wastewater Using a Fertiliser Drawn Forward Osmosis System Evaluating Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic and Cellulose Triacetate Forward Osmosis Membranes

Authors: Robyn Augustine, Irena Petrinic, Claus Helix-Nielsen, Marshall S. Sheldon


This study examined the performance of two commercial forward osmosis (FO) membranes; an aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membrane, and cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane in a fertiliser is drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) system for the reclamation of water from synthetic winery wastewater (SWW) operated over 24 hr. Straight, 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ fertiliser solutions were evaluated as draw solutions in the FDFO system. The performance of the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA FO membranes were evaluated in terms of permeate water flux (Jw), reverse solute flux (Js) and percentage water recovery (Re). The average water flux and reverse solute flux when using 1 M KCl as a draw solution against controlled feed solution, deionised (DI) water, was 11.65 L/m²h and 3.98 g/m²h (AQP) and 6.24 L/m²h and 2.89 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. Using 1 M NH₄NO₃ as a draw solution yielded average water fluxes and reverse solute fluxes of 10.73 L/m²h and 1.31 g/m²h (AQP) and 5.84 L/m²h and 1.39 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. When using SWW as the feed solution and 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ as draw solutions, respectively, the average water fluxes observed were 8.15 and 9.66 L/m²h (AQP) and 5.02 and 5.65 L/m²h (CTA). Membrane water flux decline was the result of a combined decrease in the effective driving force of the FDFO system, reverse solute flux and organic fouling. Permeate water flux recoveries of between 84-98%, and 83-89% were observed for the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA membrane, respectively after physical cleaning by flushing was employed. The highest water recovery rate of 49% was observed for the 1 M KCl fertiliser draw solution with AQP-based biomimetic membrane and proved superior in the reclamation of water from SWW.

Keywords: aquaporin biomimetic membrane, cellulose triacetate membrane, forward osmosis, reverse solute flux, synthetic winery wastewater and water flux

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4084 Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer Using Wettability Patterned Surfaces

Authors: Dong Il Shim, Geehong Choi, Donghwi Lee, Namkyu Lee, Hyung Hee Cho


Effective cooling technology is required to secure thermal stability in extreme heat generated systems such as integrated electronic devices and power generated systems. Pool boiling heat transfer is one of the powerful cooling mechanisms using phase change phenomena. Critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are main factors to evaluate the performance of boiling heat transfer. CHF is the limitation of boiling heat transfer before film boiling which occurs thermal failure. Surface wettability is an important surface characteristic of boiling heat transfer. A hydrophilic surface has higher CHF through effective working fluid supply to local hot spots. A hydrophobic surface promotes the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) to enhance HTC. In this study, superbiphilic surfaces, which is combined with superhydrophillic and superhydrophobic, are applied on boiling experiments to maximize boiling performance. We conducted pool boiling heat transfer using DI water at a saturated temperature and recorded bubble dynamics using a high-speed camera with 2000 fps. As a result, superbiphilic patterned surfaces promote ONB and enhance both CHF and HTC. This study demonstrates the enhanced boiling performance using superbiphilic surfaces by effective nucleation and separation of liquid/vapor pathway. We expect that further enhancement of heat transfer could be achieved in future work using optimized patterned surfaces.

Keywords: boiling heat transfer, wettability, critical heat flux, heat transfer coefficient

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4083 Finite Element Analysis of High Performance Synchronous Reluctance Machines

Authors: T. Mohanarajah, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany


This paper analyses numerous features of the synchronous Reluctance Motor (Syn-RM) and propose a rotor for high electrical torque, power factor & efficiency using Finite Element Method (FEM). A comprehensive analysis completed on solid rotor structure while the total thickness of the flux guide kept constant. A number of tests carried out for nine different studies to find out optimum location of the flux guide, the optimum location of multiple flux guides & optimum wall thickness between flux guides for high-performance reluctance machines. The results are concluded with the aid of FEM simulation results, the saliency ratio and machine characteristics (location, a number of barriers & wall width) analysed.

Keywords: electrical machines, finite element method, synchronous reluctance machines, variable reluctance machines

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4082 Optimization of Heat Insulation Structure and Heat Flux Calculation Method of Slug Calorimeter

Authors: Zhu Xinxin, Wang Hui, Yang Kai


Heat flux is one of the most important test parameters in the ground thermal protection test. Slug calorimeter is selected as the main sensor measuring heat flux in arc wind tunnel test due to the convenience and low cost. However, because of excessive lateral heat transfer and the disadvantage of the calculation method, the heat flux measurement error of the slug calorimeter is large. In order to enhance measurement accuracy, the heat insulation structure and heat flux calculation method of slug calorimeter were improved. The heat transfer model of the slug calorimeter was built according to the energy conservation principle. Based on the heat transfer model, the insulating sleeve of the hollow structure was designed, which helped to greatly decrease lateral heat transfer. And the slug with insulating sleeve of hollow structure was encapsulated using a package shell. The improved insulation structure reduced heat loss and ensured that the heat transfer characteristics were almost the same when calibrated and tested. The heat flux calibration test was carried out in arc lamp system for heat flux sensor calibration, and the results show that test accuracy and precision of slug calorimeter are improved greatly. In the meantime, the simulation model of the slug calorimeter was built. The heat flux values in different temperature rise time periods were calculated by the simulation model. The results show that extracting the data of the temperature rise rate as soon as possible can result in a smaller heat flux calculation error. Then the different thermal contact resistance affecting calculation error was analyzed by the simulation model. The contact resistance between the slug and the insulating sleeve was identified as the main influencing factor. The direct comparison calibration correction method was proposed based on only heat flux calibration. The numerical calculation correction method was proposed based on the heat flux calibration and simulation model of slug calorimeter after the simulation model was solved by solving the contact resistance between the slug and the insulating sleeve. The simulation and test results show that two methods can greatly reduce the heat flux measurement error. Finally, the improved slug calorimeter was tested in the arc wind tunnel. And test results show that the repeatability accuracy of improved slug calorimeter is less than 3%. The deviation of measurement value from different slug calorimeters is less than 3% in the same fluid field. The deviation of measurement value between slug calorimeter and Gordon Gage is less than 4% in the same fluid field.

Keywords: correction method, heat flux calculation, heat insulation structure, heat transfer model, slug calorimeter

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4081 Superconducting Properties of Fe Doped in Cu-Site of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy

Authors: M. A. Suazlina, H. Azhan, S. A. Syamsyir, S. Y. S. Yusainee


Fe2O3 was doped to Bi-2223 superconductor prepared in bulk form using high purity oxide powders via solid state reaction technique with intermediate grinding. A stiochiometric of x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 Fe are systematically added to the well balanced Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy in order to trace the effect of Fe doping to the system. Microstructure, resistive transitions, phase volume, and cell parameters were hence investigated. Substitution of Fe is found to slowly decrease the Bi-2223 phase volume and the resistive transitions for x=0.00 – 0.10 samples whereas accelerated formation of the Bi-2212 phase is detected for further substitutions. Changes in superconducting properties of Fe-doping Bi-2223 system were discussed and the findings were further compared with available literature.

Keywords: BSCCO, critical temperature, critical current density, XRD, flux pinning

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4080 Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Koshi Suzuki


Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.

Keywords: construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method

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4079 The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: J. Nisar, S. Halim


The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

Keywords: construction management, critical path method, project scheduling network, precedence diagram method

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