Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Quinones E.

17 Analytical Tools for Multi-Residue Analysis of Some Oxygenated Metabolites of PAHs (Hydroxylated, Quinones) in Sediments

Authors: I. Berger, N. Machour, F. Portet-Koltalo

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic and carcinogenic pollutants produced in majority by incomplete combustion processes in industrialized and urbanized areas. After being emitted in atmosphere, these persistent contaminants are deposited to soils or sediments. Even if persistent, some can be partially degraded (photodegradation, biodegradation, chemical oxidation) and they lead to oxygenated metabolites (oxy-PAHs) which can be more toxic than their parent PAH. Oxy-PAHs are less measured than PAHs in sediments and this study aims to compare different analytical tools in order to extract and quantify a mixture of four hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) and four carbonyl PAHs (quinones) in sediments. Methodologies: Two analytical systems – HPLC with on-line UV and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-UV-FLD) and GC coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) – were compared to separate and quantify oxy-PAHs. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was optimized to extract oxy-PAHs from sediments. Results: First OH-PAHs and quinones were analyzed in HPLC with on-line UV and fluorimetric detectors. OH-PAHs were detected with the sensitive FLD, but the non-fluorescent quinones were detected with UV. The limits of detection (LOD)s obtained were in the range (2-3)×10-4 mg/L for OH-PAHs and (2-3)×10-3 mg/L for quinones. Second, even if GC-MS is not well adapted to the analysis of the thermodegradable OH-PAHs and quinones without any derivatization step, it was used because of the advantages of the detector in terms of identification and of GC in terms of efficiency. Without derivatization, only two of the four quinones were detected in the range 1-10 mg/L (LODs=0.3-1.2 mg/L) and LODs were neither very satisfying for the four OH-PAHs (0.18-0.6 mg/L). So two derivatization processes were optimized, comparing to literature: one for silylation of OH-PAHs, one for acetylation of quinones. Silylation using BSTFA/TCMS 99/1 was enhanced using a mixture of catalyst solvents (pyridine/ethyle acetate) and finding the appropriate reaction duration (5-60 minutes). Acetylation was optimized at different steps of the process, including the initial volume of compounds to derivatize, the added amounts of Zn (0.1-0.25 g), the nature of the derivatization product (acetic anhydride, heptafluorobutyric acid…) and the liquid/liquid extraction at the end of the process. After derivatization, LODs were decreased by a factor 3 for OH-PAHs and by a factor 4 for quinones, all the quinones being now detected. Thereafter, quinones and OH-PAHs were extracted from spiked sediments using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) followed by GC-MS analysis. Several mixtures of solvents of different volumes (10-25 mL) and using different extraction temperatures (80-120°C) were tested to obtain the best recovery yields. Satisfactory recoveries could be obtained for quinones (70-96%) and for OH-PAHs (70-104%). Temperature was a critical factor which had to be controlled to avoid oxy-PAHs degradation during the MAE extraction process. Conclusion: Even if MAE-GC-MS was satisfactory to analyze these oxy-PAHs, MAE optimization has to be carried on to obtain a most appropriate extraction solvent mixture, allowing a direct injection in the HPLC-UV-FLD system, which is more sensitive than GC-MS and does not necessitate a previous long derivatization step.

Keywords: derivatizations for GC-MS, microwave assisted extraction, on-line HPLC-UV-FLD, oxygenated PAHs, polluted sediments

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16 Modified Poly (Pyrrole) Film-Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: S. Korkut, M. S. Kilic, E. Erhan

Abstract:

In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly (Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, phenol biosensor, polypyrrole, poly (glutaraldehyde)

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15 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.

Abstract:

Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

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14 Synthesis and Characterization of PVDF, FG, PTFE, and PES Membrane Distillation Modified with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., RomeroC.

Abstract:

The Silver Nanoparticles (AgNP) are used as deliver of heat on surface of Membrane Distillation in order to fight against Thermal Polarization and improving the Desalination Process. In this study AgNPwere deposited by dip coating process over PVDF, FG hydrophilic, and PTFE hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized by SEM, EDS, contact angle, Pore size distributionand using a UV lamp and a thermal camera were measured the performance of heat deliver. The presence of AgNP 50 – 150 nm and the increase in absorption of energy over membrane were verified.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, plasmon effect, heat deliver

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13 Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide

Authors: Indra Gonzalez Ojeda, Tatiana Quinones, Manuel Rosario, Igor Lednev, Juan Lopez Garriga

Abstract:

Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, hydrogen sulfide, protein folding, raman spectroscopy

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12 Creativity in Industrial Design as an Instrument for the Achievement of the Proper and Necessary Balance between Intuition and Reason, Design and Science

Authors: Juan Carlos Quiñones

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Time has passed since the industrial design has put murder on a mass-production basis. The industrial design applies methods from different disciplines with a strategic approach, to place humans at the centers of the design process and to deliver solutions that are meaningful and desirable for users and for the market. This analysis summarizes some of the discussions that occurred in the 6th International Forum of Design as a Process, June 2016, Valencia. The aims of this conference were finding new linkages between systems and design interactions in order to define the social consequences. Through knowledge management we are able to transform the intangible aspect by using design as a transforming function capable of converting intangible knowledge into tangible solutions (i.e. products and services demanded by society). Industrial designers use knowledge consciously as a starting point for the ideation of the product. The handling of the intangible becomes more and more relevant over time as different methods emerge for knowledge extraction and subsequent organization. The different methodologies applied to the industrial design discipline and the evolution of the same discipline methods underpin the cultural and scientific background knowledge as a starting point of thought as a response to the needs; the whole thing coming through the instrument of creativity for the achievement of the proper and necessary balance between intuition and reason, design and science.

Keywords: creative process, creativity, industrial design, intangible

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11 Copper (II) Complex of New Tetradentate Asymmetrical Schiff Base Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catecholase-Mimetic Activity

Authors: Cahit Demetgul, Sahin Bayraktar, Neslihan Beyazit

Abstract:

Metalloenzymes are enzyme proteins containing metal ions, which are directly bound to the protein or to enzyme-bound nonprotein components. One of the major metalloenzymes that play a key role in oxidation reactions is catechol oxidase, which shows catecholase activity i.e. oxidation of a broad range of catechols to quinones through the four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Studies on the model compounds mimicking the catecholase activity are very useful and promising for the development of new, more efficient bioinspired catalysts, for in vitro oxidation reactions. In this study, a new tetradentate asymmetrical Schiff-base and its Cu(II) complex were synthesized by condensation of 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one and by using an appropriate Cu(II) salt, respectively. The prepared compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis and magnetic susceptibility. The catecholase-mimicking activity of the new Schiff Base Cu(II) complex was performed for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) in methanol at 25 °C, where the electronic spectra were recorded at different time intervals. The yield of the quinone (3,5-DTBQ) was determined from the measured absorbance at 400 nm of the resulting solution. The compatibility of catalytic reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics was also investigated. In conclusion, we have found that our new Schiff Base Cu(II) complex presents a significant capacity to catalyze the oxidation reaction of the catechol to o-quinone.

Keywords: catecholase activity, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Schiff base, transition metals

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10 Synthesis and Theoretical Calculations of Carbazole Substituted Pyridopyrimidine Urea/Thioure Derivatives and Studies Their PPO Enzyme Activity

Authors: Arleta Rifati Nixha, Mustafa Arslan, Adem Ergün, Nahit Gencer

Abstract:

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), sometimes referred to as phenol oxidase, catecholase, phenolase, catechol oxidase, or even tyrosinase, is considered to be an o-dipenol. PPO (EC 1.14.18.1), a multifunctional copper containing enzyme, is widely distributed in nature. It catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: a hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and an oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity), both using molecular oxygen. Additionaly, investigation demonstrated that various dermatological disorders, such as age spots and freckle, were caused by the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation. Tyrosinase has also been linked to Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. Nitrogen heterocycles have received a great deal of attention in the literature because of biological properties. Especially, among these heterocyclic systems, pyridine containing compounds have been the subject of expanding research efforts in heteroaromatic and biological chemistry. The pyrido [2,3-d] pyrimidine heterocycles, which are those annelated to a pyrimidine ring, are important because of their wide range of biological and pharmaceutical applications (i.e., bronchodilators, vasodilators) and their anti-allergic, cardiotonic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective activities. In this study series of 12 new carbazole substituted pyridopyrimidine urea(thiourea) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated effect on PPO. Additionally, we presented structure-activity relationship analyses and theoretical calculations of the compounds.

Keywords: carbazole, pyridopyrimidine, urea, thiourea, tyrosinase inhibitors

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9 Phytochemical Screening, Anticancer, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extracts of Mabolo (Diospyros philippinensis A. DC.)

Authors: Jarel Elgin Tolentino, Arby Denise Nera, Mary Rose Roco, Angela Vianca Aspa, Nikko Beltran, Else Dapat

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Drug resistance by cells has been the problem in the medical field for decades now. The use of medicinal plants as a source of creating powerful drugs has been nowadays recognized worldwide to treat such resistant diseases. In the present study, the potential for Diospyros philippinensis A. DC. to inhibit growth of both bacteria and cancer cell line was conducted. The leaf crude extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and examined for potential bioactivities by employing several assays like Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium assay for the antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extract, respectively. Phytochemical test results of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, quinones, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, carbohydrate, cardenolides and proteins. The leaf extracts were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, high antioxidant activity (99.22% ± 0.005) but did not show any sign of cytotoxicity towards HCT116 (ATCC CCL-247). The study therefore concludes that D. philippinensis A. DC. leaf extract can be a source of antibacterial and chemopreventive agents. This claim may be used as basis for future investigation.

Keywords: bioassay, medicinal plants, plant crude extracts, phytochemical screening

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8 Isotopes Used in Comparing Indigenous and International Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Varieties

Authors: Raluca Popescu, Diana Costinel, Elisabeta-Irina Geana, Oana-Romina Botoran, Roxana-Elena Ionete, Yazan Falah Jadee 'Alabedallat, Mihai Botu

Abstract:

Walnut production is high in Romania, different varieties being cultivated dependent on high yield, disease resistance or quality of produce. Walnuts have a highly nutritional composition, the kernels containing essential fatty acids, where the unsaturated fraction is higher than in other types of nuts, quinones, tannins, minerals. Walnut consumption can lower the cholesterol, improve the arterial function and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the composition of walnuts of indigenous and international varieties all grown in Romania, in order to identify high-quality indigenous varieties. Oil has been extracted from the nuts of 34 varieties, the fatty acids composition and IV (iodine value) being afterwards measured by NMR. Furthermore, δ13C of the extracted oil had been measured by IRMS to find specific isotopic fingerprints that can be used in authenticating the varieties. Chemometrics had been applied to the data in order to identify similarities and differences between the varieties. The total saturated fatty acids content (SFA) varied between n.d. and 23% molar, oleic acid between 17 and 35%, linoleic acid between 38 and 59%, linolenic acid between 8 and 14%, corresponding to iodine values (IV - total amount of unsaturation) ranging from 100 to 135. The varieties separated in four groups according to the fatty acids composition, each group containing an international variety, making possible the classification of the indigenous ones. At both ends of the unsaturation spectrum, international varieties had been found.

Keywords: δ13C-IRMS, fatty acids composition, 1H-NMR, walnut varieties

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7 Saponins vs Anthraquinones: Different Chemicals, Similar Ecological Roles in Marine Symbioses

Authors: Guillaume Caulier, Lola Brasseur, Patrick Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut

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Saponins and quinones are two major groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in the biosphere. More specifically, triterpenoid saponins and anthraquinones are mainly found in a wide variety of plants, bacteria and fungi. In the animal kingdom, these natural organic compounds are rare and only found in small quantities in arthropods, marine sponges and echinoderms. In this last group, triterpenoid saponins are specific to holothuroids (sea cucumbers) while anthraquinones are the chemical signature of crinoids (feather stars). Depending on the species, they present different molecular cocktails. Despite presenting different chemical properties, these molecules share numerous similarities. This study compares the biological distribution, the pharmacological effects and the ecological roles of holothuroid saponins and crinoid anthraquinones. Both of them have been defined as allomones repelling predators and parasites (i.e. chemical defense) and have interesting pharmacological properties (e.g. anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer). Our study investigates the chemical ecology of two symbiotic associations models; between the snapping shrimp Synalpheus stimpsonii associated with crinoids and the Harlequin crab Lissocarcinus orbicularis associated with holothuroids. Using behavioral experiments in olfactometers, chemical extractions and mass spectrometry analyses, we discovered that saponins and anthraquinones present a second ecological role: the attraction of obligatory symbionts towards their hosts. They can, therefore, be defined as kairomones. This highlights a new paradigm in marine chemical ecology: Chemical repellents are attractants to obligatory symbionts because they constitute host specific chemical signatures.

Keywords: anthraquinones, kairomones, marine symbiosis, saponins, attractant

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6 Physicochemical and Functional significance of Two Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Cultivars Gola and Surakhi from Pakistan

Authors: Naila Safdar, Faria Riasat, Azra Yasmin

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Lychee is an emerging fruit crop in Pakistan. Two famous cultivars of lychee, Gola and Surakhi, were collected from Khanpur Orchard, Pakistan and their whole fruit (including peel, pulp and seed) was investigated for pomological features and therapeutic activities. Both cultivars differ in shape and size with Gola having large size (3.27cm length, 2.36cm width) and more flesh to seed ratio (8.65g). FTIR spectroscopy and phytochemical tests confirmed presence of different bioactive compounds like phenol, flavonoids, quinones, anthraquinones, tannins, glycosides, and alkaloids, in both lychee fruits. Atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated an increased amount of potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, and calcium in Gola and Surakhi fruits. Small amount of trace metals, zinc and copper, were also detected in lychee fruit, while heavy metals lead, mercury, and nickel were absent. These two lychee cultivars were also screened for antitumor activity by Potato disc assay with maximum antitumor activity shown by aqueous extract of Surakhi seed (77%) followed by aqueous extract of Gola pulp (74%). Antimicrobial activity of fruit parts was checked by agar well diffusion method against six bacterial strains Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp. MB083, and Bacillus sp. MB141. Highest antimicrobial activity was shown by methanolic extract of Gola pulp (27mm ± 0.70) and seed (19.5mm ± 0.712) against Enterococcus faecalis. DPPH scavenging assay revealed highest antioxidant activity by aqueous extract of Gola peel (98.10%) followed by n-hexane extract of Surakhi peel (97.73%). Results obtained by reducing power assay also corroborated with the results of DPPH scavenging activity.

Keywords: antimicrobial evaluation, antitumor assay, gola, phytoconstituents, reactive oxygen species, Surakhi

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5 Enhanced Methane Yield from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste with Coconut Biochar as Syntrophic Metabolism Biostimulant

Authors: Maria Altamirano, Alfonso Duran

Abstract:

Biostimulation has recently become important in order to improve the stability and performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. This strategy involves the addition of nutrients or supplements to improve the rate of degradation of a native microbial consortium. With the aim of biostimulate sytrophism between secondary fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea, improving metabolite degradation and efficient conversion to methane, the addition of conductive materials, mainly carbon based have been studied. This research seeks to highlight the effect that coconut biochar (CBC) has on the metanogenic conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), analyzing the surface chemistry properties that give biochar its capacity to serve as a redox mediator in the anaerobic digestion process. The biochar characterization techniques were electrical conductivity (EC) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Effect of coconut biochar addition was studied using Authomatic Methane Potential Test System (AMPTS II) applying a one-way variance analysis to determine the dose that leads to higher methane performance. The surface chemistry of the CBC could confer properties that enhance the AD process, such as the presence of alkaline and alkaline earth metals and their hydrophobicity that may be related to their buffering capacity and the adsorption of polar and non-polar compounds, such as NH4+ and CO2. It also has aromatic functional groups, just as quinones, whose potential as a redox mediator has been demonstrated and its morphology allows it to form an immobilizing matrix that favors a closer activity among the syntrophic microorganisms, which directly contributed in the oxidation of secondary metabolites and the final reduction to methane, whose yield is increased by 39% compared to controls, with a CBC dose of 1 g/L.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biochar, biostimulation, syntrophic metabolism

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4 Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards

Authors: Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

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Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.

Keywords: bacteria, eco-friendly management, organic, pear, plant extract

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3 Antimicrobial Activity, Phytochemistry and Toxicity Of Extracts Of Naturally Growing and Cultivated Aloe Turkanensis

Authors: Zachary Muthii Rukenya, James Mbaria, Peter Mbaabu, Kiama Stephen Gitahi, Ronald Onzago

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Aloe turkanensis is one of the widely used medicinal shrub and in Kenya the plant is mainly found in Baringo, Isiolo, Laikipia, Turkana and West Pokot Counties where it is used in ethno-medicine and ethno-veterinary medicine. The Turkana community uses the plant products to manage malaria, wounds, stomach ache, constipation, pain, skin infection, poultry diseases and retained afterbirth in cows. This evaluated the efficacy and safety of the plant obtained from Turkana County, Kenya. Preliminary data on the use of the plant in the county was collected through observation, photographing and interviews. A sample of the whole plant was harvested in Natira sublocation, in ex-Turkana west district in February 2012 after identification by Aloe-working group herbalists who voluntarily provided information on its medicinal uses. Botanical identification was done at Kenya Forest Research Centre in Karura where voucher specimen was deposited. Cold maceration using 70% methanol and distilled water was used for extraction. Bioassays were to determine the effects of the plant extracts on brine shrimp and selected bacterial and fungal cultures. The extracts were tested in-vitro activity against standard cultures of B. cereus (ATCC 11778), S. aureus (ATCC25923), P. aeroginosa (ATCC 27853), E. coli (ATCC 25922) and a human infections clinical isolate of C. albicans. The extracts of Aloe turkanensis inhibited the growth B. cereus (100-200 mg/ml), S. aureus (50-100 mg/ml), P. aeroginosa (200mg/ml), E. coli (400mg/ml) while C. albicans was not affected. The extracts also inhibited the growth of S. aureus and B. cereus with mean diameters of inhibition zones being 19.75±1 mm and 18.5±05 mm reapectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tarpenoids, steroids, quinones, saponins and tannins in the plant extracts. The extract was found to be non-toxic at a concentration of 1000µg/ml with a 100% survival of Brine Shrimp larva. It was concluded that Aloe turkanensis growing the study area has metabolites that inhibit the growth of microorganisms and is however, there is need for further studies to validate the in-vivo bioactivity of the plant and more generate adequate toxicological data.to support conservation, value chain addition of its products and widespread use as a herbal remedy.

Keywords: Aloe turkanensis, bioactivity, cultivated, human infections

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2 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama

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Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

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1 Cytotoxic Effects of Ag/TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Unicellular Organism Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Juan Bernal-Martinez, Zoe Quinones-Jurado, Miguel Waldo-Mendoza, Elias Perez

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Introduction and Objective: Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) have been characterized as effective antibacterial compounds against E. aureous, E. coli, Salmonella and others. Because these nanoparticles have been used in plastic-food containers, there is a concern about the toxicity of Ag-TiO2 NP for higher organisms from protozoan, invertebrates, and mammals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of Ag-TiO2 NP on the survival and swimming behavior of the unicellular organism Paramecium tetraurelia. Material and Methods: Preparation of metallic silver on TiO2 surface was based on chemical reduction route of AgNO3. Aqueous suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was preparing by adding 5 g of TiO2 to 250 ml of deionized water and followed by sonication for 10 min. The required amount of AgNO3 solutions was added to TiO2 suspension, maintaining heating and stirring. Silver concentration was 0.5, 1.5, 5.0, 25, 35 and 45 % w/w versus TiO2. Paramecium tetraurelia (Carolina Biological, Cat. # 131560) was used as a biological preparation. It was cultured in artificial culture media made as follows: Stigmasterol 5 mg/ml of ethanol, Caseaminoacids 0.3 gr/lt.; KCl 4mM; CaCl2 1mM; MgCl2 100uM and MOPS 1mM, pH 7.3. This media was inoculated with Enterobacter-sp. Paramecium was concentrated after 24 hours of incubation by centrifugation. The pellet of cells was resuspended in 4.1.1 solution prepared as follows (in mM): KCl, 4 mM; CaCl2, 1mM and Trizma, 1mM; pH 7.3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to evaluate the appropriate dispersion and topographic distribution AgNPs deposited on TiO2. The experimental solutions were prepared as follows: 50 mg of Polyvinyhlpirolidone were added to 5 ml of 4.1.1. solution. Then, 50 mg of powder 25-Ag-TiO2 was added, mixing for 10 min and sonicated for 60 min. Survival of Paramecium and possible toxic effects after 25-Ag-TiO2 treatment was observed through an inverted microscope. The Paramecium swimming behavior and possible dead cells were recorded for periods of approximately 20-50 seconds by using a digital USB camera adapted to the microscope. Results and Discussion: TEM micrographs demonstrated the topographic distribution of AgNPs deposited on TiO2. 25Ag-TiO2 NP was efficiently dissolved and dispersed in 4.1.1 solution at concentrations from 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/ml. When Paramecium were treated with 25Ag-TiO2 NP at 100 ug/ml, it was observed that cells started swimming backwards. This backward swimming behavior is the typical avoiding reaction of the ciliate in response to a noxious stimulus. After 10 min of incubation, it was observed that Paramecium stopped swimming backwards and exploited. We can argue that this toxic effect of 25Ag-TiO2 NP is probably due to the calcium influx and calcium accumulation during the long-lasting swimming backwards. Conclusions: Here we have demonstrated that 25Ag-TiO2 NP has a specific toxic effect on an organism higher than bacteria such as the protozoan Paremecium. Probably these toxic phenomena could be expected to be observed in a higher organism such as invertebrates and mammals.

Keywords: Ag-TiO2, calcium permeability, cytotoxicity, paramecium

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