Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Hazim Qiblawey

7 Synthesis of High-Antifouling Ultrafiltration Polysulfone Membranes Incorporating Low Concentrations of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Abdulqader Alkhouzaam, Hazim Qiblawey, Majeda Khraisheh


Membrane treatment for desalination and wastewater treatment is one of the promising solutions to affordable clean water. It is a developing technology throughout the world and considered as the most effective and economical method available. However, the limitations of membranes’ mechanical and chemical properties restrict their industrial applications. Hence, developing novel membranes was the focus of most studies in the water treatment and desalination sector to find new materials that can improve the separation efficiency while reducing membrane fouling, which is the most important challenge in this field. Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the materials that have been recently investigated in the membrane water treatment sector. In this work, ultrafiltration polysulfone (PSF) membranes with high antifouling properties were synthesized by incorporating different loadings of GO. High-oxidation degree GO had been synthesized using a modified Hummers' method. The synthesized GO was characterized using different analytical techniques including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR), Raman spectroscopy, and CHNSO elemental analysis. CHNSO analysis showed a high oxidation degree of GO represented by its oxygen content (50 wt.%). Then, ultrafiltration PSF membranes incorporating GO were fabricated using the phase inversion technique. The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and showed a clear effect of GO on PSF physical structure and morphology. The water contact angle of the membranes was measured and showed better hydrophilicity of GO membranes compared to pure PSF caused by the hydrophilic nature of GO. Separation properties of the prepared membranes were investigated using a cross-flow membrane system. Antifouling properties were studied using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and humic acid (HA) as model foulants. It has been found that GO-based membranes exhibit higher antifouling properties compared to pure PSF. When using BSA, the flux recovery ratio (FRR %) increased from 65.4 ± 0.9 % for pure PSF to 84.0 ± 1.0 % with a loading of 0.05 wt.% GO in PSF. When using HA as model foulant, FRR increased from 87.8 ± 0.6 % to 93.1 ± 1.1 % with 0.02 wt.% of GO in PSF. The pure water permeability (PWP) decreased with loadings of GO from 181.7 L.m⁻².h⁻¹.bar⁻¹ of pure PSF to 181.1, and 157.6 L.m⁻².h⁻¹.bar⁻¹ with 0.02 and 0.05 wt.% GO respectively. It can be concluded from the obtained results that incorporating low loading of GO could enhance the antifouling properties of PSF hence improving its lifetime and reuse.

Keywords: antifouling properties, GO based membranes, hydrophilicity, polysulfone, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
6 Ragging and Sludging Measurement in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Pompilia Buzatu, Hazim Qiblawey, Albert Odai, Jana Jamaleddin, Mustafa Nasser, Simon J. Judd


Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is challenged by the tendency for the membrane permeability to decrease due to ‘clogging’. Clogging includes ‘sludging’, the filling of the membrane channels with sludge solids, and ‘ragging’, the aggregation of short filaments to form long rag-like particles. Both sludging and ragging demand manual intervention to clear out the solids, which is time-consuming, labour-intensive and potentially damaging to the membranes. These factors impact on costs more significantly than membrane surface fouling which, unlike clogging, is largely mitigated by the chemical clean. However, practical evaluation of MBR clogging has thus far been limited. This paper presents the results of recent work attempting to quantify sludging and clogging based on simple bench-scale tests. Results from a novel ragging simulation trial indicated that rags can be formed within 24-36 hours from dispersed < 5 mm-long filaments at concentrations of 5-10 mg/L under gently agitated conditions. Rag formation occurred for both a cotton wool standard and samples taken from an operating municipal MBR, with between 15% and 75% of the added fibrous material forming a single rag. The extent of rag formation depended both on the material type or origin – lint from laundering operations forming zero rags – and the filament length. Sludging rates were quantified using a bespoke parallel-channel test cell representing the membrane channels of an immersed flat sheet MBR. Sludge samples were provided from two local MBRs, one treating municipal and the other industrial effluent. Bulk sludge properties measured comprised mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, capillary suction time (CST), particle size, soluble COD (sCOD) and rheology (apparent viscosity μₐ vs shear rate γ). The fouling and sludging propensity of the sludge was determined using the test cell, ‘fouling’ being quantified as the pressure incline rate against flux via the flux step test (for which clogging was absent) and sludging by photographing the channel and processing the image to determine the ratio of the clogged to unclogged regions. A substantial difference in rheological and fouling behaviour was evident between the two sludge sources, the industrial sludge having a higher viscosity but less shear-thinning than the municipal. Fouling, as manifested by the pressure increase Δp/Δt, as a function of flux from classic flux-step experiments (where no clogging was evident), was more rapid for the industrial sludge. Across all samples of both sludge origins the expected trend of increased fouling propensity with increased CST and sCOD was demonstrated, whereas no correlation was observed between clogging rate and these parameters. The relative contribution of fouling and clogging was appraised by adjusting the clogging propensity via increasing the MLSS both with and without a commensurate increase in the COD. Results indicated that whereas for the municipal sludge the fouling propensity was affected by the increased sCOD, there was no associated increased in the sludging propensity (or cake formation). The clogging rate actually decreased on increasing the MLSS. Against this, for the industrial sludge the clogging rate dramatically increased with solids concentration despite a decrease in the soluble COD. From this was surmised that sludging did not relate to fouling.

Keywords: clogging, membrane bioreactors, ragging, sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
5 The Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width Between Finite Posets

Authors: Walied Hazim Sharif


The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for h w -inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-exrensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets is given to implement the presented theorems.

Keywords: faithful extension, poset, extension, inextension, height, width, hw-extensive, hw-inextensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
4 Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width between Finite Posets

Authors: Walied Hazim Sharif


The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for hw-inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-extensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets are given to implement the presented theorems.

Keywords: faithful extension, poset, extension, inextension, height, width, hw-extensive, hw-inextensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3 Underneath Vehicle Inspection Using Fuzzy Logic, Subsumption, and Open Cv-Library

Authors: Hazim Abdulsada


The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, mobile robots, Opencv, subsumption, under vehicle inspection

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
2 Application of Systems Engineering Tools and Methods to Improve Healthcare Delivery Inside the Emergency Department of a Mid-Size Hospital

Authors: Mohamed Elshal, Hazim El-Mounayri, Omar El-Mounayri


Emergency department (ED) is considered as a complex system of interacting entities: patients, human resources, software and hardware systems, interfaces, and other systems. This paper represents a research for implementing a detailed Systems Engineering (SE) approach in a mid-size hospital in central Indiana. This methodology will be applied by “The Initiative for Product Lifecycle Innovation (IPLI)” institution at Indiana University to study and solve the crowding problem with the aim of increasing throughput of patients and enhance their treatment experience; therefore, the nature of crowding problem needs to be investigated with all other problems that leads to it. The presented SE methods are workflow analysis and systems modeling where SE tools such as Microsoft Visio are used to construct a group of system-level diagrams that demonstrate: patient’s workflow, documentation and communication flow, data systems, human resources workflow and requirements, leadership involved, and integration between ER different systems. Finally, the ultimate goal will be managing the process through implementation of an executable model using commercialized software tools, which will identify bottlenecks, improve documentation flow, and help make the process faster.

Keywords: systems modeling, ED operation, workflow modeling, systems analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
1 Modified Model-Based Systems Engineering Driven Approach for Defining Complex Energy Systems

Authors: Akshay S. Dalvi, Hazim El-Mounayri


The internal and the external interactions between the complex structural and behavioral characteristics of the complex energy system result in unpredictable emergent behaviors. These emergent behaviors are not well understood, especially when modeled using the traditional top-down systems engineering approach. The intrinsic nature of current complex energy systems has called for an elegant solution that provides an integrated framework in Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). This paper mainly presents a MBSE driven approach to define and handle the complexity that arises due to emergent behaviors. The approach provides guidelines for developing system architecture that leverages in predicting the complexity index of the system at different levels of abstraction. A framework that integrates indefinite and definite modeling aspects is developed to determine the complexity that arises during the development phase of the system. This framework provides a workflow for modeling complex systems using Systems Modeling Language (SysML) that captures the system’s requirements, behavior, structure, and analytical aspects at both problem definition and solution levels. A system architecture for a district cooling plant is presented, which demonstrates the ability to predict the complexity index. The result suggests that complex energy systems like district cooling plant can be defined in an elegant manner using the unconventional modified MBSE driven approach that helps in estimating development time and cost.

Keywords: district cooling plant, energy systems, framework, MBSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 57