Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1403

Search results for: silver nanoparticles

1403 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Daucus carota Extract

Authors: M. R. Bindhu, M. Umadevi


Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by Daucus carota extract as reducing agent was reported here. The involvement of phytochemicals in the Daucus carota extract in the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles has been established using XRD and UV-vis studies. The UV-vis spectrum of the prepared silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 450 nm. The obtained silver nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with the average size of 15 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from bright spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. This new, simple and natural method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Keywords: Daucus carota, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance

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1402 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: basil leaves, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, plant extract

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1401 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: Supriya, J. K. Basu, S. Sengupta


Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: biopolymer, microwave irradiation, silver nanoparticles, water pollutant

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1400 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, L. Abrunhosa, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa


Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp., seeds, silver nanoparticles, soybean

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1399 Nano Gold and Silver for Control of Mosquitoes Manipulating Nanogeometries

Authors: Soam Prakash, Namita Soni


The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Currently, nanoparticle research is an area of intense scientific interest. Silver (Ag) and Gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) have been the focus of fungi and plant based syntheses. Silver and gold nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver and gold. These particles are of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Silver and gold have been use in the wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, electronic field, treatment of burns, wounds, and several bacterial infections. There is a crucial need to produce new insecticides due to resistance and high-cost of organic insecticides which are more environmentally-friendly, safe, and target-specific. Synthesizing nanoparticles using plants and microorganisms can eliminate this problem by making the nanoparticles more biocompatible. Here we reviewed the mosquitocidal and antimicrobials activity of silver and gold nanoparticles using fungi, plants as well as bacteria.

Keywords: nano gold, nano silver, Malaria, Chikengunia, dengue control

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1398 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Different Types of Plants

Authors: Khamael Abualnaja, Hala M. Abo-Dief


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the subject of important recent interest, present in a large range of applications such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, we describe an effective and environmental-friendly technique of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using silver nitrate solution and the extract of mint, basil, orange peel and Tangerines peel which used as reducing agents. Silver Nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed the average particle size of mint, basil, orange peel, Tangerines peel are 30, 20, 12, 10 nm respectively. This is for the first time that any plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, scanning electron microscopy, plants

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1397 Rapid Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata Leaf Extract

Authors: Siva Prasad Peddi


Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from silver nitrate through a rapid green synthesis method using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract as a reducing cum stabilizing agent. The experimental procedure was readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and could be easily scaled up. The silver nanoparticles thus obtained were characterized using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS) which yielded an absorption peak at 416 nm. The biomolecules responsible for capping of the bio-reduced silver nanoparticles synthesized using plant extract were successfully identified through FTIR analysis. It was evinced through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and spherical in shape. The average size of the particles obtained using Scherrer’s formula was 27.4 nm. The adopted technique for silver nanoparticle synthesis is suitable for large-scale production.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, characterization, Eclipta prostrata

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1396 Beijerinckia indica Extracellular Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Clinical Pathogens

Authors: Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Denis Kuznetsov


This work investigated the use of Beijerinckia indica extracellular extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by different methods, such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, and TEM analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by the change in color from light yellow to dark brown. The absorbance peak obtained at 430 nm confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed the cubic crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the presence of groups that acts as stabilizing and reducing agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by TEM analysis. These nanoparticles were found to inhibit pathogenic bacterial strains. This work proved that the bacterial extract is a potential eco-friendly candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties. 

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Beijerinckia indica, characterisation, extracellular extracts, silver nanoparticles

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1395 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan


Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: bacteria, biosynthesis, silver-phosphate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, nanoparticle

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1394 Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai


Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.

Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, core-shell arrangement, mycosynthesis, sequential reduction

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1393 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Echinacea Flower Extract and Characterization

Authors: Masood Hussain, Erol Pehlivan, Ahmet Avci, Ecem Guder


Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by using echinacea flower extract as reducing/protecting agent. The effects of various operating parameters and additives on the dimensions such as stirring rate, temperature, pH of the solution, the amount of extract and concentration of silver nitrate were optimized in order to achieve monodispersed spherical and small size echinacea protected silver nanoparticles (echinacea-AgNPs) through biosynthetic method. The surface roughness and topography of synthesized metal nanoparticles were confirmed by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HRTEM) results elaborated the formation of uniformly distributed Echinacea protected AgNPs (Echinacea-AgNPs) having an average size of 30.2±2nm.

Keywords: Echinacea flower extract, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, morphology

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1392 Influence of Hydrogen Ion Concentration on the Production of Bio-Synthesized Nano-Silver

Authors: M.F. Elkady, Sahar Zaki, Desouky Abd-El-Haleem


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are already widely prepared using different technologies. However, there are limited data on the effects of hydrogen ion concentration on nano-silver production. In this investigation, the impact of the pH reaction medium toward the particle size, agglomeration and the yield of the produced bio-synthesized silver were established. Quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles were synthesized through the biosynthesis green production process using the Egyptian E. coli bacterial strain 23N at different pH values. The formation of AgNPs has been confirmed with ultraviolet–visible spectra through identification of their characteristic peak at 410 nm. The quantitative production yield and the orientation planes of the produced nano-silver were examined using X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Quantitative analyses indicated that the silver production yield was promoted at elevated pH regarded to increase the reduction rate of silver precursor through both chemical and biological processes. As a result, number of the nucleus and thus the size of the silver nanoparticles were tunable through changing pH of the reaction system. Accordingly, the morphological structure and size of the produced silver and its aggregates were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. It was considered that the increment in pH value of the reaction media progress the aggregation of silver clusters. However, the presence of stain 23N biomass decreases the possibility of silver aggregation at the pH 7.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, reaction media pH, nano-silver characterization

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1391 Metal Nanoparticles Caused Death of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Cells

Authors: O. S. Adeyemi, C. G. Whiteley


The present study determined the toxic potential of metal nanoparticles in cell culture system. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized following established "green" protocols. The synthesized nanoparticles, in varying concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 µM were evaluated for toxicity in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. The nanoparticles promoted a generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced cell viability to less than 50% in the demonstration of cellular toxicity. The nanoparticles; gold and the silver-gold mixture had IC50 values of 56.65 and 18.44 µM respectively. The IC50 concentration for silver nanoparticles could not be determined. Furthermore, the probe of the cell death using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed the partial involvement of apoptosis as well as necrosis. Our results revealed cellular toxicity caused by the nanoparticles but the mechanism remains yet undefined.

Keywords: cell death, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, toxicity

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1390 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad


Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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1389 An Easy-Applicable Method for In situ Silver Nanoparticles Preparation into Wool Fibers

Authors: Salwa Mowafi, Mohamed Rehan, Hany Kafafy


In this study, three different systems including room temperature, conventional water bath heating and microwave irradiation technique will be employed in the fabrication of silver nanoparticle-wool fibers. The silver nanoparticles will be synthesized in-situ incorporated into wool fibers under redox active bio-template of wool protein which facilitates the reduction of Ag+ to nanoparticulate Ag0. Silver NPs incorporated wool fiber will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR, TGA, silver content and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanism of binding Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers matrix will be discussed. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the coloration, antimicrobial, UV-protection and catalytic properties of the wool fibers will be evaluated. The overall results of this study indicate that the Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers will be applied as colorants for wool fibers with improving in its multi-functionality properties. So, this study provides a simple approach for innovative protein fibers design by applying the optical properties of Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles.

Keywords: microwave irradiation technique, multi-functionality properties, silver nanoparticles, wool fibers

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1388 Removal of Iron (II) from Wastewater in Oil Field Using 3-(P-Methyl) Phenyl-5-Thionyl-1,2,4-Triazoline Assembled on Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: E. M. S. Azzam, S. A. Ahmed, H. H. Mohamed, M. A. Adly, E. A. M. Gad


In this work we prepared 3-(p-methyl) phenyl-5-thionyl-1,2,4-triazoline (C1). The nanostructure of the prepared C1 compound was fabricated by assembling on silver nanoparticles. The UV and TEM analyses confirm the assembling of C1 compound on silver nanoparticles. The effect of C1 compound on the removal of Iron (II) from Iron contaminated samples and industrial wastewater samples (produced water from oil processing facility) were studied before and after their assembling on silver nanoparticles. The removal of Iron was studied at different concentrations of FeSO4 solution (5, 14 and 39 mg/l) and field sample concentration (661 mg/l). In addition, the removal of Iron (II) was investigated at different times. The Prepared compound and its nanostructure with AgNPs show highly efficient in removing the Iron ions. Quantum chemical descriptors using DFT was discussed. The output of the study pronounces that the C1 molecule can act as chelating agent for Iron (II).

Keywords: triazole derivatives, silver nanoparticles, iron (II), oil field

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1387 Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon

Authors: Hamza Simsir, Nurettin Eltugral, Selhan Karagöz


Surface modification and functionalization has been an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in nano science and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for the intended applications can be achieved with surface functionalization. In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized from German beech wood, was investigated. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands. Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they were mixed together and shaken in distilled water. Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4 and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed on the AC surface in distilled water.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, ligand, activated carbon, adsorption

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1386 Optimization of the Enzymatic Synthesis of the Silver Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: Lela Pintarić, Iva Rezić, Ana Vrsalović Presečki


Considering an enormous increase of the use of metal nanoparticles with the exactly defined characteristics, the main goal of this research was to found the optimal and environmental friendly method of their synthesis. The synthesis of the inorganic core-shell nanoparticles was optimized as a model. The core-shell nanoparticles are composed of the enzyme core belted with the metal ions, oxides or salts as a shell. In this research, enzyme urease was the core catalyst and the shell nanoparticle was made of silver. Silver nanoparticles are widespread utilized and some of their common uses are: as an addition to disinfectants to ensure an aseptic environment for the patients, as a surface coating for neurosurgical shunts and venous catheters, as an addition to implants, in production of socks for diabetics and athletic clothing where they improve antibacterial characteristics, etc. Characteristics of synthesized nanoparticles directly depend on of their size, so the special care during this optimization was given to the determination of the size of the synthesized nanoparticles. For the purpose of the above mentioned optimization, sixteen experiments were generated by the Design of Experiments (DoE) method and conducted under various temperatures, with different initial concentration of the silver nitrate and constant concentration of the urease of two separate manufacturers. Synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) method on Malvern NanoSight NS300. Results showed that the initial concentration of the silver ions does not affect the concentration of the synthesized silver nanoparticles neither their size distribution. On the other hand, temperature of the experiments has affected both of the mentioned values.

Keywords: core-shell nanoparticles, optimization, silver, urease

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1385 Role of NaCl and Temperature in Glycerol Mediated Rapid Growth of Silver Nanostructures

Authors: L. R. Shobin, S. Manivannan


One dimensional silver nanowires and nanoparticles gained more interest in developing transparent conducting films, catalysis, biological and chemical sensors. Silver nanostructures can be synthesized by varying reaction conditions such as the precursor concentration, molar ratio of the surfactant, injection speed of silver ions, etc. in the polyol process. However, the reaction proceeds for greater than 2 hours for the formation of silver nanowires. The introduction of etchant in the medium promotes the growth of silver nanowires from silver nanoparticles along the [100] direction. Rapid growth of silver nanowires is accomplished using the Cl- ions from NaCl and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant. The role of Cl- ion was investigated in the growth of the nanostructured silver. Silver nanoparticles (<100 nm) were harvested from glycerol medium in the absence of Cl- ions. Trace amount of Cl- ions (2.5 mM -NaCl) produced the edge joined nanowires of length upto 2 μm and width ranging from 40 to 65 nm. Formation and rapid growth (within 25 minutes) of long, uniform silver nanowires (upto 5 μm) with good yield were realized in the presence of 5 mM NaCl at 200ºC. The growth of nanostructures was monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal the morphology of the silver nano harvests. The role of temperature in the reduction of silver ions, growth mechanism for nanoparticles, edge joined and straight nanowires will be discussed.

Keywords: silver nanowires, glycerol mediated polyol process, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy

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1384 One Step Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Biological Activity

Authors: Samy M. Shaban, Ismail Aiad, Mohamed M. El-Sukkary, E. A. Soliman, Moshira Y. El-Awady


In situ and green synthesis of cubic and spherical silver nanoparticles were developed using sun light as reducing agent in the presence of newly prepared cationic surfactant which acting as capping agents. The morphology of prepared silver nanoparticle was estimated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the size distribution determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrophobic chain length of the prepared surfactant effect on the stability of the prepared silver nanoparticles as clear from zeta-potential values. Also by increasing chain length of the used capping agent the amount of formed nanoparticle increase as indicated by increasing the absorbance. Both prepared surfactants and surfactants capping silver nanoparticles showed high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: photosynthesis, hexaonal shapes, zetapotential, biological activity

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1383 Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex

Authors: Shahnaz Ashrafpour, Tahereh Tohidi Moghadam, Bijan Ranjbar


Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 µM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

Keywords: nanocarrier, nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance, quenching fluorescence

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1382 Synergistic Effect between Titanium Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles in Polymeric Binary Systems

Authors: Raquel C. A. G. Mota, Livia R. Menezes, Emerson O. da Silva


Both silver nanoparticles and titanium dioxide have been extensively used in tissue engineering since they’ve been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and present a bactericide effect when added to a polymeric matrix. In this work, the focus is on fabricating binary systems with both nanoparticles so that the synergistic effect can be investigated. The systems were tested by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and had both their bioactivity and bactericide effect tested. The binary systems presented different properties than the individual systems, enhancing both the thermal and biological properties as was to be expected. The crystallinity was also affected, as indicated by the finding of the DSC and XDR techniques, and the NMR showed a good dispersion of both nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. These findings indicate the potential of combining TiO₂ and silver nanoparticles in biomedicine.

Keywords: metallic nanoparticles, nanotechnology, polymer nanocomposites, polymer science

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1381 Silver Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Purification

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Rajkumar


Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known for their excellent antimicrobial agents, and thus can be used as alternative disinfectant agents. However, released silver nanoparticles is a threat to naturally occurring microorganisms. This paper exhibits information on the environmental fate, toxicological effects, and application of AgNP and the current estimate on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of AgNP in different aqueous solutions, as well as their application as alternative disinfectants in water-treatment systems. It also gives a better approximation and experimental data of AgNP’s antimicrobial properties at different water chemistry conditions. A saturation-type fitting curve was established, showing the survival of bacteria under different water chemistry conditions as a function of the size of the nanoparticles. The results obtained show that silver nanoparticles in surface water, ground water, and brackish water are stable. The paper demonstrates the comparative study of AgNP-impregnated point-of-use ceramic water filters and ceramic filters impregnated with silver nitrate. It is observed that AgNP-impregnated ceramic water filters are more appropriate for this application due to the lesser amount of silver desorbed. Experimental data of the comparison of a polymer-based quaternary amine functionalized silsesquioxanes compound and AgNP are also tabulated and conclusions are analysed with the goal of optimizing. The simplicity of synthesis and application of Silver nanoparticles enables us to consider its effective modified version for the purification of water.

Keywords: disinfectant agent, purification of water, nano particles, water treatment

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1380 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.


Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

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1379 Preparation and Characterization of Organic Silver Precursors for Conductive Ink

Authors: Wendong Yang, Changhai Wang, Valeria Arrighi


Low ink sintering temperature is desired for flexible electronics, as it would widen the application of the ink on temperature-sensitive substrates where the selection of silver precursor is very critical. In this paper, four types of organic silver precursors, silver carbonate, silver oxalate, silver tartrate and silver itaconate, were synthesized using an ion exchange method, firstly. Various characterization methods were employed to investigate their physical phase, chemical composition, morphologies and thermal decomposition behavior. It was found that silver oxalate had the ideal thermal property and showed the lowest decomposition temperature. An ink was then formulated by complexing the as-prepared silver oxalate with ethylenediamine in organic solvents. Results show that a favorable conductive film with a uniform surface structure consisting of silver nanoparticles and few voids could be produced from the ink at a sintering temperature of 150 °C.

Keywords: conductive ink, electrical property, film, organic silver

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1378 Fabrication and Characterization of Glass Nanofibers through Electrospinning of Silica Sol-Gel along with in situ Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles

Authors: Mahsa Kangazian Kangazi, Ali Akbar Ghareh Aghaji, Majid Montazer


Nowadays, silica nanofibers are highly regarded among the inorganic nanofibers due to the high reactivity and availability of silicon compounds in nature. Sol-gel process is required for electrospinning of silica nanofibers in which a metal alkoxide is hydrolyzed, and the viscosity is increased. In this study, silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were synthesized and electrospun from a mixture of silica sol with an easy spinnable polymer (PVA) as an additive. The silica sol contains tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), silver nitrate, distilled water, nitric acid, and ethanol. Nanofibers were formed through electrospinning setup. The nanofibers were calcinated to remove the solvent and additive polymer. Consequently, pure silica nanofibers were produced. FTIR analysis indicated entire removal of polyvinyl alcohol from the structure and formation of silan groups. The presence of silver, silica and oxygen was confirmed by EDX. Also, XRD patterns revealed the presence of silver nanoparticles with a mean crystal size of 18 nm. FESEM images showed that adding silver nitrate into the sol-gel, resulted in lower nanofibers diameter from 286 to 136 nm. Furthermore, the electrospun nanofibers were more resistance in acidic media than alkaline media.

Keywords: in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles, silica nanofibers, sol-gel, tetraethyl orthosilicate

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1377 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Toxicity and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Kiran Shehzadi, Yasmeen Akhtar, Mujahid Ameen, Tabinda Ijaz, Shoukat Siddique


Nanoparticles, due to their different sizes and morphologies, are employed in various fields such as the medical field, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, textile industry as well as in paints, adhesives, and electronics. Metal nanoparticles exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity, dye degradation and can be used as anti-cancerous drug loading agents. In this study, sZilver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized employing doxycycline (antibiotic) as a reducing and capping agent (biological/green synthesis). Produced Ag-NPS were characterized using UV/VIS spectrophotometry, XRD, SEM, and FTIR. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles was observed at 411nm with 90nm size with homogenized spherical shape. These particles revealed good inhibition zones for Fungi such as Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. In this study, toxic properties of Ag-NPs were monitored by allowing them to penetrate in the cell, causing an abrupt increase in oxidative stress, which resulted ultimately in cell death. Histopathological analysis of mice organs was performed by administering definite concentrations of silver nanoparticles orally to mice for 14 days. Toxic properties were determined, and it was revealed that the toxicity of silver nanoparticles mainly depends on the size. Silver nanoparticles of this work presented mild toxicity for different organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and stomach) of mice.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, green/biological methods, toxicity, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis

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1376 Assessment of Acute Oral Toxicity Studies and Anti Diabetic Activity of Herbal Mediated Nanomedicine

Authors: Shanker Kalakotla, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, carbohydrates, altered lipids and proteins metabolism. In recent research nanotechnology is a blazing field for the researchers; latterly there has been prodigious excitement in the nanomedicine and nano pharmacological area for the study of silver nanoparticles synthesis using natural products. Biological methods have been used to synthesize silver nanoparticles in presence of medicinally active antidiabetic plants, and this intention made us assess the biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from the seed extract of Psoralea corylfolia using 1 mM silver nitrate solution. The synthesized herbal mediated silver nanoparticles (HMSNP’s) then subjected to various characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, DLS, UV and FT-IR respectively. In current study, the silver nanoparticles tested for in-vitro anti-diabetic activity and possible toxic effects in healthy female albino mice by following OECD guidelines-425. Herbal mediated silver nanoparticles were successfully obtained from bioreduction of silver nitrate using Psoralea corylifolia plant extract. Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized and confirmed using different types of equipment viz., UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, DLS, SEM and EDX analysis. From the behavioral observations of the study, the female albino mice did not show sedation, respiratory arrest, and convulsions. Test compounds did not cause any mortality at the dose level tested (i.e., 2000 mg/kg body weight) doses till the end of 14 days of observation and were considered safe. It may be concluded that LD50 of the HMSNPs was 2000mg/kg body weight. Since LD50 of the HMSNPs was 2000mg/kg body weight, so the preferred dose range for HMSNPs falls between the levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Further In-vivo pharmacological models and biochemical investigations will clearly elucidate the mechanism of action and will be helpful in projecting the currently synthesized silver nanoparticles as a therapeutic target in treating chronic ailments.

Keywords: herbal mediated silver nanoparticles, HMSNPs, toxicity of silver nanoparticles, PTP1B in-vitro anti-diabetic assay female albino mice, 425 OECD guidelines

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1375 Synthesis of Green Silver Nanoparticles with Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Characterization

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ankita Thakur


Glycyrrhiza glabra grows in the sub- tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, in Mediterranean countries and China, America, Europe, Asia and Australia. It grows in areas with sunny, dry and hot climates. It has numerous medicinal properties like it is used to cure Peptic Ulcers, Canker sores, Eczema, Indigestion and Upper Respiratory Infections. Biosynthetic methods such as plant extract have emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nanomaterials. Extract from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in silver nanoparticles synthesis. In the present work, Green Silver nanoparticles were successfully formulated from bioreduction of silver nitrate solutions using Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. These Green Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized using Visible spectroscopy, colour change. The Antimicrobial activity was done by Agar disc diffusion assay. AgNPs were developed by using aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The green synthetic method is a fast, low cost and eco-friendly process in the field of nanotechnology. The study revealed that the green-synthesized silver nanoparticle provides a promising approach for antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract

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1374 Rapid Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Solanum Nigrum Leaves Extract with Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Anushaa A.


In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were manufactured directly without harmful chemicals utilising methanol extract (SNLME) Solanum nigrume leaves. We are using nigrum leaf extract from Solanum, which converts silver nitrate to silver ions, for synthesization purposes. An examination of the AgNP produced was performed using ultraviolet (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) transformed from Fourier and scanning electrons (SEM). Biological activity was also tested. UV-VIS has proven that biosynthesized AgNP exists (420-450 nm). The FTIR spectrum has been utilised to confirm the presence of different functional groups within the biomolecules, which are a nanoparticular capping agent and the spectroscopic and crystal nature of AgNP. The viability of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated using zeta potential calculations. Negative zeta potential of -33.4 mV demonstrated the stability of silver-nanoparticles. The morphology of AgNP was examined using a scanning electron microscope. Greenly generated AgNP showed significant anti-Staphylococcus aureus, Candida, and Escherichia coli action. The green AgNP demonstration indicated that the IC50 for the human teratocarcinoma cell line was 29.24 μg/ml during 24 hours of therapy (PA1 Ovarian cell line). The dose-dependent effects were reported in both antibacterial and cytotoxicity assays and as an effective agent. Finally, the findings of this research showed that silver nanoparticles generated might serve as a viable therapeutic agent to combat microorganisms killing and curing cancer.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PA1 ovarian cancer cell line, silver nanoparticles, Solanum nigrum

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