Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2151

Search results for: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)

2151 PBI Based Composite Membrane for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Kwangwon Seo, Haksoo Han


Al-Si was synthesized and introduced in poly 2,2’-m-(phenylene)-5,5’-bibenzimidazole (PBI). As a result, a series of five Al-Si/PBI composite (ASPBI) membranes (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 wt.%) were developed and characterized for application in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The chemical and morphological structure of ASPBI membranes were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. According to the doping level test and thermogravimetric analysis, as the concentration of Al-Si increased, the doping level increased up to 475%. Moreover, the proton conductivity, current density at 0.6V, and maximum power density of ASPBI membranes increased up to 0.31 Scm-1, 0.320 Acm-2, and 0.370 Wcm-2, respectively, because the increased concentration of Al-Si allows the membranes to hold more PA. Alternatively, as the amount of Al-Si increased, the tensile strength of PA-doped and -undoped membranes decreased. This was resulted by both excess PA and aggregation, which can cause serious degradation of the membrane and induce cracks. Moreover, the PA-doped and -undoped ASPBI12 had the lowest tensile strength. The improved performances of ASPBI membranes imply that ASPBI membranes are possible candidates for HT-PEMFC applications. However, further studies searching to improve the compatibility between PBI matrix and inorganic and optimize the loading of Al-Si should be performed.

Keywords: composite membrane, high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, membrane electrode assembly, polybenzimidazole, polymer electrolyte membrane, proton conductivity

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2150 Investigation of Water Transport Dynamics in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Based on a Gas Diffusion Media Layers

Authors: Saad S. Alrwashdeh, Henning Markötter, Handri Ammari, Jan Haußmann, Tobias Arlt, Joachim Scholta, Ingo Manke


In this investigation, synchrotron X-ray imaging is used to study water transport inside polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Two measurement techniques are used, namely in-situ radiography and quasi-in-situ tomography combining together in order to reveal the relationship between the structures of the microporous layers (MPLs) and the gas diffusion layers (GDLs), the operation temperature and the water flow. The developed cell is equipped with a thick GDL and a high back pressure MPL. It is found that these modifications strongly influence the overall water transport in the whole adjacent GDM.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, microporous layer, water transport, radiography, tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2149 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak


The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2148 Numerical Analysis of Real-Scale Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells with Cathode Metal Foam Design

Authors: Jaeseung Lee, Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Hyunchul Ju


In this paper, we numerically investigated the effect of metal foams on a real scale 242.57cm2 (19.1 cm × 12.7 cm) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFCs) using a three-dimensional two-phase PEFC model to substantiate design approach for PEFCs using metal foam as the flow distributor. The simulations were conducted under the practical low humidity hydrogen, and air gases conditions in order to observe the detailed operation result in the PEFCs using the serpentine flow channel in the anode and metal foam design in the cathode. The three-dimensional contours of flow distribution in the channel, current density distribution in the membrane and hydrogen and oxygen concentration distribution are provided. The simulation results revealed that the use of highly porous and permeable metal foam can be beneficial to achieve a more uniform current density distribution and better hydration in the membrane under low inlet humidity conditions. This study offers basic directions to design channel for optimal water management of PEFCs.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte fuel cells, metal foam, real-scale, numerical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2147 Optimal Feedback Linearization Control of PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: E. Shahsavari, R. Ghasemi, A. Akramizadeh


This paper presents a new method to design nonlinear feedback linearization controller for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A nonlinear controller is designed based on nonlinear model to prolong the stack life of PEM fuel cells. Since it is known that large deviations between hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures can cause severe membrane damage in the fuel cell, feedback linearization is applied to the PEM fuel cell system so that the deviation can be kept as small as possible during disturbances or load variations. To obtain an accurate feedback linearization controller, tuning the linear parameters are always important. So in proposed study NSGA_II method was used to tune the designed controller in aim to decrease the controller tracking error. The simulation result showed that the proposed method tuned the controller efficiently.

Keywords: nonlinear dynamic model, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, feedback linearization, optimal control, NSGA_II

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
2146 A Comparative Study: Influences of Polymerization Temperature on Phosphoric Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

Authors: Cagla Gul Guldiken, Levent Akyalcin, Hasan Ferdi Gercel


Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert the chemical energy of hydrogen into the electricity. Among the types of fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are attracting considerable attention as non-polluting power generators with high energy conversion efficiencies in mobile applications. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is one of the essential components of PEMFCs. Perfluorosulfonic acid based membranes known as Nafion® is widely used as PEMs. Nafion® membranes water dependent proton conductivity which limits the operating temperature below 100ᵒC. At higher temperatures, proton conductivity and mechanical stability of these membranes decrease because of dehydration. Polybenzimidazole (PBI), which has good anhydrous proton conductivity after doped with acids, as well as excellent thermal stability, shows great potential in the application of high temperature PEMFCs. In the present study, PBI polymers were synthesized by solution polycondensation at 190 and 210ᵒC. The synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and TGA. Phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes were prepared and tested in a PEMFC. The influences of reaction temperature on structural properties of synthesized polymers were investigated. Mechanical properties, acid-doping level, proton conductivity, and fuel cell performances of prepared phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes were evaluated. The maximum power density was found as 32.5 mW/cm² at 120ᵒC.

Keywords: fuel cell, high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane, polybenzimidazole, proton exchange membrane fuel cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2145 Modification of Polyolefin Membrane Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Vadim V. Zefirov, Victor E. Sizov, Marina A. Pigaleva, Igor V. Elmanovich, Mikhail S. Kondratenko, Marat O. Gallyamov


This work presents a novel method for treating porous hydrophobic polyolefin membranes using supercritical carbon dioxide that allows usage of the modified membrane in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte. Polyolefin membranes are well known and widely used, however, they cannot be used as separators in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte since they have insufficient wettability, and therefore do not provide sufficient proton conductivity. The main aim of the presented work was the development of hydrophilic composites based on cheap membranes and precursors. Supercritical fluid was used as a medium for the deposition of the hydrophilic phase on the hydrophobic surface of the membrane. Due to the absence of negative capillary effects in a supercritical medium, a homogeneous composite is obtained as a result of synthesis. The in-situ synthesized silicon oxide nanoparticles and the chitosan polymer layer act as the hydrophilic phase and not only increase the affinity of the membrane towards the electrolyte, but also reduce the pore size of the polymer matrix, which positively affects the ion selectivity of the membrane. The composite material obtained as a result of synthesis has enhanced hydrophilic properties and is capable of providing proton conductivity in redox flow batteries. The morphology of the obtained composites was characterized by electron microscopy. To analyze the phase composition, infrared spectroscopy was used. The hydrophilic properties were studied by water contact angle measurements. In addition, the proton conductivity and ion selectivity of the obtained samples were studied, and tests in real redox flow batteries were performed. As a result, modified membrane was characterised in detail and moreover it was shown that modified cheap polyolefin membranes have pronounced proton conductivity and high ion selectivity, so their performance in a real redox flow battery approaches expensive commercial analogues, reaching 70% of energy efficiency.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, chitosan, polymer membrane, redox flow batteries, silica nanoparticles, supercritical fluid

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2144 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar


The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
2143 Study of Structural Behavior and Proton Conductivity of Inorganic Gel Paste Electrolyte at Various Phosphorous to Silicon Ratio by Multiscale Modelling

Authors: P. Haldar, P. Ghosh, S. Ghoshdastidar, K. Kargupta


In polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is consisting of two platinum coated carbon electrodes, sandwiched with one proton conducting phosphoric acid doped polymeric membrane. Due to low mechanical stability, flooding and fuel cell crossover, application of phosphoric acid in polymeric membrane is very critical. Phosphorous and silica based 3D inorganic gel gains the attention in the field of supercapacitors, fuel cells and metal hydrate batteries due to its thermally stable highly proton conductive behavior. Also as a large amount of water molecule and phosphoric acid can easily get trapped in Si-O-Si network cavities, it causes a prevention in the leaching out. In this study, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and first principle calculations to understand the structural, electronics and electrochemical and morphological behavior of this inorganic gel at various P to Si ratios. We have used dipole-dipole interactions, H bonding, and van der Waals forces to study the main interactions between the molecules. A 'structure property-performance' mapping is initiated to determine optimum P to Si ratio for best proton conductivity. We have performed the MD simulations at various temperature to understand the temperature dependency on proton conductivity. The observed results will propose a model which fits well with experimental data and other literature values. We have also studied the mechanism behind proton conductivity. And finally we have proposed a structure for the gel paste with optimum P to Si ratio.

Keywords: first principle calculation, molecular dynamics simulation, phosphorous and silica based 3D inorganic gel, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, proton conductivity

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2142 An Investigation of a Three-Dimensional Constitutive Model of Gas Diffusion Layers in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Yanqin Chen, Chao Jiang, Chongdu Cho


This research presents the three-dimensional mechanical characteristics of a commercial gas diffusion layer by experiment and simulation results. Although the mechanical performance of gas diffusion layers has attracted much attention, its reliability and accuracy are still a major challenge. With the help of simulation analysis methods, it is beneficial to the gas diffusion layer’s extensive commercial development and the overall stress analysis of proton electrolyte membrane fuel cells during its pre-production design period. Therefore, in this paper, a three-dimensional constitutive model of a commercial gas diffusion layer, including its material stiffness matrix parameters, is developed and coded, in the user-defined material model of a commercial finite element method software for simulation. Then, the model is validated by comparing experimental results as well as simulation outcomes. As a result, both the experimental data and simulation results show a good agreement with each other, with high accuracy.

Keywords: gas diffusion layer, proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell, stiffness matrix, three-dimensional mechanical characteristics, user-defined material model

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2141 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Prepared From Nostoc Commune Cyanobacteria Exopolysaccharides

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Omar P. Troncoso


A wide range of bacteria synthesizes and secretes polymeric substances composed of a mixture of high-molecular-mass heteropolysaccharides. Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in colonial spherules of 10-20 mm in diameter. These spherules are filled with an internal gel made from a variety of polysaccharides known as Nostoc commune exopolysaccharides (NCE). In this paper, we report the use of these exopolysaccharides as a raw material for the preparation of a solid polymer electrolyte. Ammonium iodide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) salts were used to provide NCE films with ionic conductivity. In addition, a carboxymethylation treatment was used to further increase the conductivity of NCE films. The structural characterization of the NCE films was assessed by FTIR, XRD, and DSC tests. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and dielectric thermal analysis (DETA) were used to evaluate the ionic conductivity of the samples. The results showed that NCE can be used to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films and that carboxymethylation improves their ionic conductivity. These NCE films can be used in the development of novel energy storage devices such as flat batteries or supercapacitors.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, Nostoc commune, cyanobacteria, exopolysaccharides

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2140 Modeling and Analysis the Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Gas-Crossover in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Abdul Hadi Bin Abdol Rahim, Alhassan Salami Tijani


Hydrogen produced by means of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEME) is one of the most promising methods due to clean and renewable energy source. In the process, some energy loss due to mass transfer through a PEM is caused by diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and the pressure difference between the cathode channel and anode channel. In PEME water molecules and ionic particles transferred between the electrodes from anode to cathode, Extensive mixing of the hydrogen and oxygen at anode channel due to gases cross-over must be avoided. In recent times the consciousness of safety issue in high pressure PEME where the oxygen mix with hydrogen at anode channel could create, explosive conditions have generated a lot of concern. In this paper, the steady state and simulation analysis of gases crossover in PEME on the temperature and pressure effect are presented. The simulations have been analysis in MATLAB based on the well-known Fick’s Law of molecular diffusion. The simulation results indicated that as temperature increases, there is a significant decrease in operating voltage.

Keywords: diffusion, gases crosover, steady state, Fick’s law

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2139 Development of Solid Electrolytes Based on Networked Cellulose

Authors: Boor Singh Lalia, Yarjan Abdul Samad, Raed Hashaikeh


Three different kinds of solid polymer electrolytes were prepared using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a base polymer, networked cellulose (NC) as a physical support and LiClO4 as a conductive salt for the electrolytes. Networked cellulose, a modified form of cellulose, is a biodegradable and environmentally friendly additive which provides a strong fibrous networked support for structural stability of the electrolytes. Although the PEO/NC/LiClO4 electrolyte retains its structural integrity and mechanical properties at 100oC as compared to pristine PEO-based polymer electrolytes, it suffers from poor ionic conductivity. To improve the room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte, PEO is replaced by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) which is a liquid phase that provides high mobility for Li+ ions transport in the electrolyte. PEG/NC/LiClO4 shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to PEO/NC/LiClO4 at room temperature, but it is brittle and tends to form cracks during processing. An advanced solid polymer electrolyte with optimum ionic conductivity and mechanical properties is developed by using a ternary system: TEGDME/PEO/NC+LiClO4. At room temperature, this electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity to the order of 10-5 S/cm, which is very high compared to that of the PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte. Pristine PEO electrolytes start melting at 65 °C and completely lose its mechanical strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis of TEGDME: PEO: NC (70:20:10 wt%) showed an improvement of storage modulus as compared to the pristine PEO in the 60–120 °C temperature range. Also, with an addition of NC, the electrolyte retains its mechanical integrity at 100 oC which is beneficial for Li-ion battery operation at high temperatures. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) studies revealed that the ternary polymer electrolyte is thermally stable in the lithium ion battery operational temperature range. As-prepared polymer electrolyte was used to assemble LiFePO4/ TEGDME/PEO/NC+LiClO4/Li half cells and their electrochemical performance was studied via cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling.

Keywords: solid polymer electrolyte, ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, lithium ion batteries, cyclic voltammetry

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2138 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray


Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

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2137 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray


The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 µm and 200-600 nm, respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, CNFs, ionic conductivity, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2136 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla


In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
2135 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Tinatin Kuchukhidze


Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: synthesis, PMHS, membrane, electrolyte

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2134 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani


A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

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2133 Synthesis of New Bio-Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte Polyurethane-Liclo4 via Prepolymerization Method: Effect of NCO/OH Ratio on Their Chemical, Thermal Properties and Ionic Conductivity

Authors: C. S. Wong, K. H. Badri, N. Ataollahi, K. P. Law, M. S. Su’ait, N. I. Hassan


Novel bio-based polymer electrolyte was synthesized with LiClO4 as the main source of charge carrier. Initially, polyurethane-LiClO4 polymer electrolytes were synthesized via polymerization method with different NCO/OH ratios and labelled as PU1, PU2, PU3, and PU4. Subsequently, the chemical, thermal properties and ionic conductivity of the films produced were determined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the co-ordination between Li+ ion and polyurethane in PU1 due to the greatest amount of hard segment of polyurethane in PU1 as proven by soxhlet analysis. The structures of polyurethanes were confirmed by 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) and FTIR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicates PU 1 has the highest glass transition temperature (Tg) corresponds to the most abundant urethane group which is the hard segment in PU1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PU-LiClO4 shows the good miscibility between lithium salt and the polymer. The study found that PU1 possessed the greatest ionic conductivity (1.19 × 10-7 at 298 K and 5.01 × 10-5 at 373 K) and the lowest activation energy, Ea (0.32 eV) due to the greatest amount of hard segment formed in PU 1 induces the coordination between lithium ion and oxygen atom of carbonyl group in polyurethane. All the polyurethanes exhibited linear Arrhenius variations indicating ion transport via simple lithium ion hopping in polyurethane. This research proves the NCO content in polyurethane plays an important role in affecting the ionic conductivity of this polymer electrolyte.

Keywords: ionic conductivity, palm kernel oil-based monoester-OH, polyurethane, solid polymer electrolyte

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2132 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: Sy-Wei Lo, Chi-Heng Yu


A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/µm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/µm at bearing elevation 9.5 µm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2131 Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: P. Chultheera, T. Rirksomboon, S. Kulprathipanja, C. Liu, W. Chinsirikul, N. Kerddonfag


Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, membrane, CO₂/CH₄ separation, activated carbon

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2130 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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2129 MnO₂-Carbon Nanotubes Catalyst for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Abidullah, Basharat Hussain, Jong Seok Kim


Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an electrochemical cell, which undergoes an oxygen reduction reaction to produce electrical energy. Platinum (Pt) metal has been used as a catalyst since its inception, but expensiveness is the major obstacle in the commercialization of fuel cells. Herein a non-precious group metal (NPGM) is employed instead of Pt to reduce the cost of PEMFCs. Manganese dioxide impregnated carbon nanotubes (MnO₂-CNTs composite) is a catalyst having excellent electrochemical properties and offers a better alternative to the Platinum-based PEMFC. The catalyst is synthesized by impregnating the transition metal on large surface carbonaceous CNTs by hydrothermal synthesis techniques. To enhance the catalytic activity and increase the volumetric current density, the sample was pyrolyzed at 800ᵒC under a nitrogen atmosphere. During pyrolysis, the nitrogen was doped in the framework of CNTs. Then the material was treated with acid for removing the unreacted metals and adding oxygen functional group to the CNT framework. This process ameliorates the catalytic activity of the manganese-based catalyst. The catalyst has been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the catalyst activity has been examined by rotating disc electrode (RDE) experiment. The catalyst was strong enough to withstand an austere alkaline environment in experimental conditions and had a high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) depicts an excellent current density of -4.0 mA/cm² and an overpotential of -0.3V vs. standard calomel electrode (SCE) in 0.1M KOH electrolyte. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) was conducted at 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 rpm. The catalyst exhibited a higher methanol tolerance and long term durability with respect to commercial Pt/C. The results for MnO₂-CNT show that the low-cost catalyst will supplant the expensive Pt/C catalyst in the fuel cell.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, methanol fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction, MnO₂-CNTs

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2128 Analysis of the Detachment of Water Droplets from a Porous Fibrous Surface

Authors: Ibrahim Rassoul, E-K. Si Ahmed


The growth, deformation, and detachment of fluid droplets adherent to solid substrates is a problem of fundamental interest with numerous practical applications. Specific interest in this proposal is the problem of a droplet on a fibrous, hydrophobic substrate subjected to body or external forces (gravity, convection). The past decade has seen tremendous advances in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. However, there remain many challenges to bring commercially viable stationary PEMFC products to the market. PEMFCs are increasingly emerging as a viable alternative clean power source for automobile and stationary applications. Before PEMFCs can be employed to power automobiles and homes, several key technical challenges must be properly addressed. One technical challenge is elucidating the mechanisms underlying water transport in and removal from PEMFCs. On the one hand, sufficient water is needed in the polymer electrolyte membrane or PEM to maintain sufficiently high proton conductivity. On the other hand, too much liquid water present in the cathode can cause 'flooding' (that is, pore space is filled with excessive liquid water) and hinder the transport of the oxygen reactant from the gas flow channel (GFC) to the three-phase reaction sites. The aim of this work is to investigate the stability of a liquid water droplet emerging form a GDL pore, to gain fundamental insight into the instability process leading to detachment. The approach will combine analytical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, water droplet, gas diffusion layer, contact angle, surface tension

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2127 Preparation and Removal Properties of Hollow Fiber Membranes for Drinking Water

Authors: Seung Moon Woo, Youn Suk Chung, Sang Yong Nam


In the present time, we need advanced water treatment technology for separation of virus and bacteria in effluent which occur epidemic and waterborne diseases. Water purification system is mainly divided into two categorizations like reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF). Membrane used in these systems requires higher durability because of operating in harsh condition. Of these, the membrane using in UF system has many advantages like higher efficiency and lower energy consume for water treatment compared with RO system. In many kinds of membrane, hollow fiber type membrane is possible to make easily and to get optimized property by control of various spinning conditions such as temperature of coagulation bath, concentration of polymer, addition of additive, air gap and internal coagulation. In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 1.5 LPM, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria and virus removal performance of prepared UF membranes were over 6 logs.

Keywords: hollow fiber membrane, drinking water, ultrafiltration, bacteria

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2126 Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid

Authors: S. Al-Enezi, J. Samuel, A. Al-Banna


Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.

Keywords: PVDF, polymer membrane, gas permeability, CO₂ separation, nanotubes

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2125 Air–Water Two-Phase Flow Patterns in PEMFC Microchannels

Authors: Ibrahim Rassoul, A. Serir, E-K. Si Ahmed, J. Legrand


The acronym PEM refers to Proton Exchange Membrane or alternatively Polymer Electrolyte Membrane. Due to its high efficiency, low operating temperature (30–80 °C), and rapid evolution over the past decade, PEMFCs are increasingly emerging as a viable alternative clean power source for automobile and stationary applications. Before PEMFCs can be employed to power automobiles and homes, several key technical challenges must be properly addressed. One technical challenge is elucidating the mechanisms underlying water transport in and removal from PEMFCs. On one hand, sufficient water is needed in the polymer electrolyte membrane or PEM to maintain sufficiently high proton conductivity. On the other hand, too much liquid water present in the cathode can cause “flooding” (that is, pore space is filled with excessive liquid water) and hinder the transport of the oxygen reactant from the gas flow channel (GFC) to the three-phase reaction sites. The experimental transparent fuel cell used in this work was designed to represent actual full scale of fuel cell geometry. According to the operating conditions, a number of flow regimes may appear in the microchannel: droplet flow, blockage water liquid bridge /plug (concave and convex forms), slug/plug flow and film flow. Some of flow patterns are new, while others have been already observed in PEMFC microchannels. An algorithm in MATLAB was developed to automatically determine the flow structure (e.g. slug, droplet, plug, and film) of detected liquid water in the test microchannels and yield information pertaining to the distribution of water among the different flow structures. A video processing algorithm was developed to automatically detect dynamic and static liquid water present in the gas channels and generate relevant quantitative information. The potential benefit of this software allows the user to obtain a more precise and systematic way to obtain measurements from images of small objects. The void fractions are also determined based on images analysis. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of two-phase flow in an operating fuel cell which can be used towards the optimization of water management and informs design guidelines for gas delivery microchannels for fuel cells and its essential in the design and control of diverse applications. The approach will combine numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, air-water two phase flow, gas diffusion layer, microchannels, advancing contact angle, receding contact angle, void fraction, surface tension, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2124 Synthesis, Characterization and Electrical Studies of Solid Polymer Electrolyte (1-x) PANI-KAg₄I₅.xAl₂O₃

Authors: Rafiuddin


Solid polymer electrolytes have emerged as an area of interest in the field of solid state chemistry owing to their facile and cost-effective synthesis and number of applications in different areas of chemistry, extending over a wide range of temperatures. In the present work, polymer composite solid electrolyte comprising of Polyaniline (PANI) as polymer and potassium silver iodide (KAg4I5) using alumina (Al2O3) of different compositions having the formula (1-x) PANI- KAg4I5. x Al2O3 with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 was prepared by solid state reaction method. The structural elucidation and characterization was done by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric- Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and Impedance Spectroscopy. The thermal analysis shows a phase transition at 147°C attributed to β-α phase transition of AgI due to the disproportionation of KAg4I5 to AgI and KAg2I3 at temperatures higher than 36°C. The X Ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of both AgI and KAg2I3 in the samples. The conductivities recorded over a temperature range of 40-250° C lie in the range of 10-1 to 10-3 S cm-1. Maximum conductivity was seen in the compositon x = 0.4 i.e. 1.84 × 10-2 Scm-1 at 313 K and 1.38 × 10-1 Scm-1 at 513 K, with a minimum activation energy of 0.14 eV.

Keywords: polymer solid electrolytes, XRD, DTA, electrical conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2123 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: I. M. Sakr, Ali M. Abdelsalam, K. A. Ibrahim, W. A. El-Askary


This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water electrolysis, solar energy, concentration

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2122 Ionic Polymer Actuators with Fast Response and High Power Density Based on Sulfonated Phthalocyanine/Sulfonated Polysulfone Composite Membrane

Authors: Taehoon Kwon, Hyeongrae Cho, Dirk Henkensmeier, Youngjong Kang, Chong Min Koo


Ionic polymer actuators have been of interest in the bio-inspired artificial muscle devices. However, the relatively slow response and low power density were the obstacles for practical applications. In this study, ionic polymer actuators are fabricated with ionic polymer composite membranes based on sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) and copper(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPCSA). CuPCSA is an organic filler with very high ion exchange capacity (IEC, 4.5 mmol H+/g) that can be homogeneously dispersed on the molecular scale into the SPAES membrane. SPAES/CuPCSA actuators show larger ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, bending deformation, exceptional faster response to electrical stimuli, and larger mechanical power density (3028 W m–3) than Nafion actuators. This outstanding actuation performance of SPAES/CuPCSA composite membrane actuators makes them attractive for next generation transducers with high power density, which are currently developed biomimetic devices such as endoscopic surgery.

Keywords: actuation performance, composite membranes, ionic polymer actuators, organic filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 181