Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Seeram Ramakrishna

26 An Analysis of Curricular and Other Curricular Activities of Ramakrishna Mission School

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav


India is a democratic country requires creative dynamic citizen for its development. And it will be possible only when school produce creative prosperous students. In this aspect, researcher find out that curricular and other curricular activities of Ramkrishna Mission School is unique up to some extent because it gives emphasis on value education and holistic development of students. It giving the emphasis on self-realization, standing on their own feet and community work. Most of the teacher of this school are competent to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their students so, outcome of this school is very effective and impressive to other school.

Keywords: Ramakrishna Mission School, analysis of curricular, other curricular activities of R. M. School, teachers

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25 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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24 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

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23 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

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22 Exploring Bio-Inspired Catecholamine Chemistry to Design Durable Anti-Fungal Wound Dressings

Authors: Chetna Dhand, Venkatesh Mayandi, Silvia Marrero Diaz, Roger W. Beuerman, Seeram Ramakrishna, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan


Sturdy Insect Cuticle Sclerotization, Incredible Substrate independent Mussel’s bioadhesion, Tanning of Leather are some of catechol(amine)s mediated natural processes. Chemical contemplation spots toward a mechanism instigated with the formation of the quinone moieties from the respective catechol(amine)s, via oxidation, followed by the nucleophilic addition of the amino acids/proteins/peptides to this quinone leads to the development of highly strong, cross-linked and water-resistant proteinacious structures. Inspired with this remarkable catechol(amine)s chemistry towards amino acids/proteins/peptides, we attempted to design highly stable and water-resistant antifungal wound dressing mats with exceptional durability using collagen (protein), dopamine (catecholamine) and antifungal drugs (Amphotericin B and Caspofungin) as the key materials. Electrospinning technique has been used to fabricate desired nanofibrous mat including Collagen (COLL), COLL/Dopamine (COLL/DP) and calcium incorporated COLL/DP (COLL-DP-Ca2+). The prepared protein-based scaffolds have been studied for their microscopic investigations (SEM, TEM, and AFM), structural analysis (FT-IR), mechanical properties, water wettability characteristics and aqueous stability. Biocompatibility of these scaffolds has been analyzed for dermal fibroblast cells using MTS assay, Cell TrackerTM Green CMFDA and confocal imaging. Being the winner sample, COLL-DP-Ca2+ scaffold has been selected for incorporating two antifungal drugs namely Caspofungin (Peptide based) and Amphotericin B (Non-Peptide based). Antifungal efficiency of the designed mats has been evaluated for eight diverse fungal strains employing different microbial assays including disc diffusion, cell-viability assay, time kill kinetics etc. To confirm the durability of these mats, in term of their antifungal activity, drug leaching studies has been performed and monitored using disc diffusion assay each day. Ex-vivo fungal infection model has also been developed and utilized to validate the antifungal efficacy of the designed wound dressings. Results clearly reveal dopamine mediated crosslinking within COLL-antifungal scaffolds that leads to the generation of highly stable, mechanical tough, biocompatible wound dressings having the zone of inhabitation of ≥ 2 cm for almost all the investigated fungal strains. Leaching studies and Ex-vivo model has confirmed the durability of these wound dressing for more than 3 weeks and certified their suitability for commercialization. A model has also been proposed to enlighten the chemical mechanism involved for the development of these antifungal wound dressings with exceptional robustness.

Keywords: catecholamine chemistry, electrospinning technique, antifungals, wound dressings, collagen

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21 Bundle Block Detection Using Spectral Coherence and Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network

Authors: K. Padmavathi, K. Sri Ramakrishna


This study describes a procedure for the detection of Left and Right Bundle Branch Block (LBBB and RBBB) ECG patterns using spectral Coherence(SC) technique and LM Neural Network. The Coherence function finds common frequencies between two signals and evaluate the similarity of the two signals. The QT variations of Bundle Blocks are observed in lead V1 of ECG. Spectral Coherence technique uses Welch method for calculating PSD. For the detection of normal and Bundle block beats, SC output values are given as the input features for the LMNN classifier. Overall accuracy of LMNN classifier is 99.5 percent. The data was collected from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

Keywords: bundle block, SC, LMNN classifier, welch method, PSD, MIT-BIH, arrhythmia database

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20 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar


This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel Sinusoidal-Modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), Phase Shifted Carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation

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19 Rupture Probability of Type of Coarse Aggregate on Fracture Surface of Concrete

Authors: B. Ramakrishna, S. Sivamurthy Reddy


The various types of aggregates such as granite, dolerite, Quartzite, dolomitic limestone, limestone and river gravel were used to produce the concrete with 28-day target compressive strength of 35, 60, and 80 Mpa. The compressive strength of concrete, as well as aggregates, was measured to study the effect of rupture probability of aggregate on the fracture surface of the concrete. Also, the petrographic studies were carried out to study the texture, type of minerals present and their relative proportions in various types of aggregates. The concrete of various grades produced with the same aggregate has shown a rise in RPCA with strength. However, the above relationship has ceased to exist in the concretes of the same grade, made of different types of aggregates. The carbonate aggregates namely Limestone and Dolomitic limestone have produced concrete with higher RPCA irrespective of the strength of concrete. The mode of origin, texture and mineralogical composition of aggregates have a significant impact on their pulse velocity and thereby the pulse velocity of concrete.

Keywords: RPCA, DL, G, LS, RG

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18 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna


In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

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17 Assessing the Perception of Indian Youths towards Poverty

Authors: Antarjeeta Nayak, Jalandhar Pradhan, Ramakrishna Biswal


Poverty is a complex phenomenon influenced by a large number of factors and which can be studied from many different perspectives. Most of the poverty assessments can be divided into three broad categories- construction of poverty profile (who the poor are), causes of poverty (why people are poor) and poverty alleviation strategies (what to do about poverty). In this regard, we need to know more about poverty, the factors that drive it and those that maintain it. Specifically, how people perceive and experience poverty will generate a body of knowledge that would enable government and poverty alleviation agencies to better target their interventions and understand the stigma associated with poverty. In the Indian context, the perceptions of the causes of poverty are particularly relevant because of the persistent higher percent of people below poverty line and wider economic-social inequalities despite the continuing decline of poverty in the present times. In this study we investigated the perceived attributions for poverty among youths (University students) in India. A questionnaire having 35 questions was administered to a sample of 200 University students (n=200). Findings showed that Indian youth were more inclined to attribute poverty to Structural factors; supporting system-blame hypothesis.

Keywords: poverty, perception of the causes of poverty, Indian youth, social sciences and humanities

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16 Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves

Authors: Srinivasulu Dasaiah, Kalyan Yakkala, Gangadhar Battala, Pavan Kumar Pindi, Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala


Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.

Keywords: biosorption, contact time, fluoride, isotherms

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15 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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14 Mechanistic Structural Insights into the UV Induced Apoptosis via Bcl-2 proteins

Authors: Akash Bera, Suraj Singh, Jacinta Dsouza, Ramakrishna V. Hosur, Pushpa Mishra


Ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation induces apoptosis in mammalian cells and it is suggested that the mechanism by which this occurs is the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The Bcl-2 family of proteins pro-and anti-apoptotic is the regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Upon UVC irradiation, the proliferation of apoptosis is enhanced through the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax. Although the participation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in apoptosis appears responsive to UVC radiation, to the author's best knowledge, it is unknown how the structure and, effectively, the function of these proteins are directly impacted by UVC exposure. In this background, we present here a structural rationale for the effect of UVC irradiation in restoring apoptosis using two of the relevant proteins, namely, Bid-FL and Bcl-xl ΔC, whose solution structures have been reported previously. Using a variety of biophysical tools such as circular dichroism, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, we show that following UVC irradiation, the structures of Bcl-xlΔC and Bid-FL are irreversibly altered. Bcl-xLΔC is found to be more sensitive to UV exposure than Bid-FL. From the NMR data, dramatic structural perturbations (α-helix to β-sheet) are seen to occur in the BH3 binding region, a crucial segment of Bcl-xlΔC which impacts the efficacy of its interactions with pro-apoptotic tBid. These results explain the regulation of apoptosis by UVC irradiation. Our results on irradiation dosage dependence of the structural changes have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer.

Keywords: Bid, Bcl-xl, UVC, apoptosis

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13 Lab Bench for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System

Authors: Karthiyayini Nagarajan, P. V. Ramakrishna


Radar Imaging techniques provides extensive applications in the field of remote sensing, majorly Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that provide high resolution target images. This paper work puts forward the effective and realizable signal generation and processing for SAR images. The major units in the system include camera, signal generation unit, signal processing unit and display screen. The real radio channel is replaced by its mathematical model based on optical image to calculate a reflected signal model in real time. Signal generation realizes the algorithm and forms the radar reflection model. Signal processing unit provides range and azimuth resolution through matched filtering and spectrum analysis procedure to form radar image on the display screen. The restored image has the same quality as that of the optical image. This SAR imaging system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and Quartus II tools on Stratix III device as a System (Lab Bench) that works in real time to study/investigate on radar imaging rudiments and signal processing scheme for educational and research purposes.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, radio reflection model, lab bench, imaging engineering

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12 Design and Implementation of a Lab Bench for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System

Authors: Karthiyayini Nagarajan, P. V. RamaKrishna


Radar Imaging techniques provides extensive applications in the field of remote sensing, majorly Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) that provide high resolution target images. This paper work puts forward the effective and realizable signal generation and processing for SAR images. The major units in the system include camera, signal generation unit, signal processing unit and display screen. The real radio channel is replaced by its mathematical model based on optical image to calculate a reflected signal model in real time. Signal generation realizes the algorithm and forms the radar reflection model. Signal processing unit provides range and azimuth resolution through matched filtering and spectrum analysis procedure to form radar image on the display screen. The restored image has the same quality as that of the optical image. This SAR imaging system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and Quartus II tools on Stratix III device as a System(lab bench) that works in real time to study/investigate on radar imaging rudiments and signal processing scheme for educational and research purposes.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, radio reflection model, lab bench

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11 Carvedilol Ameliorates Potassium Dichromate-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats: Plausible Role of Inflammation and Apoptosis

Authors: Bidya Dhar Sahu, Meghana Koneru, R. Shyam Sunder, Ramakrishna Sistla


Environmental and occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via textile manufacture, metallurgy, spray paints, stainless steel industries, drinking water containing chromium are often known to cause acute renal injury in humans and animals. Nephrotoxicity is the major effect of chromium poisoning. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of carvedilol using rat model of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of carvedilol revealed that carvedilol attenuated nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB (p65), restored antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and attenuated apoptosis related protein expressions in kidney tissues. The serum levels of TNF-α, the renal iNOS and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly decreased in carvedilol pre-treated K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxic rats. These results were further supported and confirmed by histological findings. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that carvedilol is an effective chemoprotectant against K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: apoptosis, carvedilol, inflammation, potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity, applied pharmacology

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10 Controlled Shock Response Spectrum Test on Spacecraft Subsystem Using Electrodynamic Shaker

Authors: M. Madheswaran, A. R. Prashant, S. Ramakrishna, V. Ramesh Naidu, P. Govindan, P. Aravindakshan


Shock Response spectrum (SRS) tests are one of the tests that are conducted on some critical systems of spacecraft as part of environmental testing. The SRS tests are conducted to simulate the pyro shocks that occur during launch phases as well as during deployment of spacecraft appendages. Some of the methods to carryout SRS tests are pyro technique method, impact hammer method, drop shock method and using electro dynamic shakers. The pyro technique, impact hammer and drop shock methods are open loop tests, whereas SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker is a controlled closed loop test. SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker offers various advantages such as simple test set up, better controllability and repeatability. However, it is important to devise a a proper test methodology so that safety of the electro dynamic shaker and that of test specimen are not compromised. This paper discusses the challenges that are involved in conducting SRS tests, shaker validation and the necessary precautions to be considered. Approach involved in choosing various test parameters like synthesis waveform, spectrum convergence level, etc., are discussed. A case study of SRS test conducted on an optical payload of Indian Geo stationary spacecraft is presented.

Keywords: maxi-max spectrum, SRS (shock response spectrum), SDOf (single degree of freedom), wavelet synthesis

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9 Design Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Performance by Differential Evolution

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao


Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages like speed variation and four-quadrant operation, find its application in wind turbines. DFIG besides supplying power to the grid has to support reactive power (kvar) under grid voltage variations, should contribute minimum fault current during faults, have high efficiency, minimum weight, adequate rotor protection during crow-bar-operation from +20% to -20% of rated speed.  To achieve the optimum performance, a good electromagnetic design of DFIG is required. In this paper, a simple and heuristic global optimization – Differential Evolution has been used. Variables considered are lamination details such as slot dimensions, stack diameters, air gap length, and generator stator and rotor stack length. Two operating conditions have been considered - voltage and speed variations. Constraints included were reactive power supplied to the grid and limiting fault current and torque. The optimization has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum efficiency, weight reduction, and grid fault stator currents. Subsequent calculations led to the conclusion that designs determined through differential evolution help in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function.

Keywords: design optimization, performance, DFIG, differential evolution

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8 Design-Analysis and Optimization of 10 MW Permanent Magnet Surface Mounted Off-Shore Wind Generator

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao, Jagdish Mamidi


With advancing technology, the market environment for wind power generation systems has become highly competitive. The industry has been moving towards higher wind generator power ratings, in particular, off-shore generator ratings. Current off-shore wind turbine generators are in the power range of 10 to 12 MW. Unlike traditional induction motors, slow-speed permanent magnet surface mounted (PMSM) high-power generators are relatively challenging and designed differently. In this paper, PMSM generator design features have been discussed and analysed. The focus attention is on armature windings, harmonics, and permanent magnet. For the power ratings under consideration, the generator air-gap diameters are in the range of 8 to 10 meters, and active material weigh ~60 tons and above. Therefore, material weight becomes one of the critical parameters. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used for weight reduction and performance improvement. Four independent variables have been considered, which are air gap diameter, stack length, magnet thickness, and winding current density. To account for core and teeth saturation, preventing demagnetization effects due to short circuit armature currents, and maintaining minimum efficiency, suitable penalty functions have been applied. To check for performance satisfaction, a detailed analysis and 2D flux plotting are done for the optimized design.

Keywords: offshore wind generator, PMSM, PSO optimization, design optimization

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7 Beyond the Water Seal: On-Field Observations of Occupational Hazards of Faecal Sludge Management in Southern Karnataka

Authors: Anissa Mary Thomas Thattil, Nancy Angeline Gnanaselvam, B. Ramakrishna Goud


Faecal sludge management (FSM) is an unorganized sector, and in India, there is an absence of regulations regarding the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal of faecal sludge. FSM has a high degree of occupational hazards that need to be thoroughly understood in order to shape effective solutions. On-field observations of five FSM operations were conducted in Anekal Taluk of southern Karnataka. All five of the FSM operations were privately owned and snowball method of sampling was employed. Two types of FS operations observed were: mechanical emptying involving direct human contact with faecal sludge and mechanical emptying without direct human contact with faecal sludge. Each operation was manned by 3-4 faecal sludge operators (FSOs). None of the observed FSOs used personal protective equipment. According to the WHO semi-quantitative risk assessment, the very high risk occupational hazards identified were dermal contact with faecal sludge, inhalation of toxic gases, and social stigma. The high risk hazards identified were trips and falls, injuries, ergonomic hazards, substance abuse, and mental health problems. In all five FSM operations, the collected faecal sludge was discharged untreated onto abandoned land. FSM in India is fraught with occupational and environmental hazards which need to be urgently addressed. This includes formalizing the institution of FSM, contextualized behaviour change communication, capacity building of local bodies, awareness programmes among agriculturists and FSOs, and designation of sites for the safe harnessing of faecal sludge as soil nutrient.

Keywords: faecal sludge, faecal sludge management, FSM, occupational hazards, sanitation

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6 Indoleamines (Serotonin & Melatonin) in Edible Plants: Its Influence on Human Health

Authors: G. A. Ravishankar, A. Ramakrishna


Melatonin (MEL) and Serotonin (SER), also known as [5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] are reported to be in a range of plant types which are edible. Their occurrence in plants species appears to be ubiquitous. Their presence in high quantities in plants assumes significance owing to their physiological effects upon consumption by human beings. MEL is a well known animal hormone mainly released by the pineal gland known to influence circadian rhythm, sleep, apart from immune enhancement. Similarly, SER is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, sleep and anxiety in mammals. It is implicated in memory, behavioral changes, scavenging reactive oxygen species, antipsychotic, etc. Similarly Role of SER and MEL in plant morphogenesis, and various physiological processes through intense research is beginning to unfold. These molecules are in common foods viz banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, grape wine. N- Feruloyl serotonin and p-coumaroyl serotonin found in certain seeds are found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and anti-stress potential apart from reducing depression and anxiety. MEL is found in Mediterranean diets, nuts, cherries, tomato berries, and olive products. Consumption of foods rich in MEL is known to increase blood MEL levels which have been implicated in protective effect against cardiovascular damage, cancer initiation and growth. MEL is also found in wines, green tea, beer, olive oil etc. Moreover, presence of SER and MEL in Coffee beans (green and roasted beans) and decoction has been reported us. In this communication we report the occurrence of indole amines in edible plants and their implications in human health.

Keywords: serotonin, melatonin, edible plants, neurotransmitters, physiological effects

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5 Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Equivalent Circuit Parameters by Direct Search Method

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao


Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is currently the choice for many wind turbines. These generators, when connected to the grid through a converter, is subjected to varied power system conditions like voltage variation, frequency variation, short circuit fault conditions, etc. Further, many countries like Canada, Germany, UK, Scotland, etc. have distinct grid codes relating to wind turbines. Accordingly, following the network faults, wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive current. To satisfy the requirements including reactive current capability, an optimum electrical design becomes a mandate for DFIG to function. This paper intends to optimize the equivalent circuit parameters of an electrical design for satisfactory DFIG performance. Direct search method has been used for optimization of the parameters. The variables selected include electromagnetic core dimensions (diameters and stack length), slot dimensions, radial air gap between stator and rotor and winding copper cross section area. Optimization for 2 MW DFIG has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum reactive power capability (Case I), maximum efficiency (Case II) and minimum weight (Case III). In the optimization analysis program, voltage variations (10%), power factor- leading and lagging (0.95), speeds for corresponding to slips (-0.3 to +0.3) have been considered. The optimum designs obtained for objective functions were compared. It can be concluded that direct search method of optimization helps in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function like efficiency or reactive power capability or weight minimization.

Keywords: direct search, DFIG, equivalent circuit parameters, optimization

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4 Synergistic Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Enhance Wheat Grain Yield, Biofortification and Soil Health: A Field Study

Authors: Radheshyam Yadav, Ramakrishna Wusirika


Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi are ubiquitous in soil and often very critical for crop yield and agriculture sustainability, and this has motivated the agricultural practices to support and promote PGPB and AM Fungi in agriculture. PGPB can be involved in a range of processes that affect Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) transformations in soil and thus influence nutrient availability and uptake to the plants. A field study with two wheat cultivars, HD-3086, and HD-2967 was performed in Malwa region, Bathinda of Punjab, India, to evaluate the effect of native and non-native PGPB alone and in combination with AM fungi as an inoculant on wheat grain yield, nutrient uptake and soil health parameters (dehydrogenase, urease, β‐glucosidase). Our results showed that despite an early insignificant increase in shoot length, plants treated with PGPB (Bacillus sp.) and AM Fungi led to a significant increase in shoot growth at maturity, aboveground biomass, nitrogen (45% - 40%) and phosphorus (40% - 34%) content in wheat grains relative to untreated control plants. Similarly, enhanced grain yield and nutrients uptake i.e. copper (27.15% - 36.25%) iron (43% - 53%) and zinc (44% - 47%) was recorded in PGPB and AM Fungi treated plants relative to untreated control. Overall, inoculation with native PGPB alone and in combination with AM Fungi provided benefits to enhance grain yield, wheat biofortification, and improved soil fertility, despite this effect varied depending on different PGPB isolates and wheat cultivars. These field study results provide evidence of the benefits of agricultural practices involving native PGPB and AM Fungi to the plants. These native strains and AM Fungi increased accumulations of copper, iron, and zinc in wheat grains, enhanced grain yield, and soil fertility.

Keywords: AM Fungi, biofortification, PGPB, soil microbial enzymes

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3 Ground Improvement Using Deep Vibro Techniques at Madhepura E-Loco Project

Authors: A. Sekhar, N. Ramakrishna Raju


This paper is a result of ground improvement using deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns performed on a highly liquefaction susceptible site (70 to 80% sand strata and balance silt) with low bearing capacities due to high settlements located (earth quake zone V as per IS code) at Madhepura, Bihar state in northern part of India. Initially, it was envisaged with bored cast in-situ/precast piles, stone/sand columns. However, after detail analysis to address both liquefaction and improve bearing capacities simultaneously, it was analyzed the deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns is excellent solution for given site condition which may be first time in India. First after detail soil investigation, pre eCPT test was conducted to evaluate the potential depth of liquefaction to densify silty sandy soils to improve factor of safety against liquefaction. Then trail test were being carried out at site by deep vibro compaction technique with sand and stone columns combination with different spacings of columns in triangular shape with different timings during each lift of vibro up to ground level. Different spacings and timing was done to obtain the most effective spacing and timing with vibro compaction technique to achieve maximum densification of saturated loose silty sandy soils uniformly for complete treated area. Then again, post eCPT test and plate load tests were conducted at all trail locations of different spacings and timing of sand and stone columns to evaluate the best results for obtaining the required factor of safety against liquefaction and the desired bearing capacities with reduced settlements for construction of industrial structures. After reviewing these results, it was noticed that the ground layers are densified more than the expected with improved factor of safety against liquefaction and achieved good bearing capacities for a given settlements as per IS codal provisions. It was also worked out for cost-effectiveness of lightly loaded single storied structures by using deep vibro technique with sand column avoiding stone. The results were observed satisfactory for resting the lightly loaded foundations. In this technique, the most important is to mitigating liquefaction with improved bearing capacities and reduced settlements to acceptable limits as per IS: 1904-1986 simultaneously up to a depth of 19M. To our best knowledge it was executed first time in India.

Keywords: ground improvement, deep vibro techniques, liquefaction, bearing capacity, settlement

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2 Induction Machine Design Method for Aerospace Starter/Generator Applications and Parametric FE Analysis

Authors: Wang Shuai, Su Rong, K. J.Tseng, V. Viswanathan, S. Ramakrishna


The More-Electric-Aircraft concept in aircraft industry levies an increasing demand on the embedded starter/generators (ESG). The high-speed and high-temperature environment within an engine poses great challenges to the operation of such machines. In view of such challenges, squirrel cage induction machines (SCIM) have shown advantages due to its simple rotor structure, absence of temperature-sensitive components as well as low torque ripples etc. The tight operation constraints arising from typical ESG applications together with the detailed operation principles of SCIMs have been exploited to derive the mathematical interpretation of the ESG-SCIM design process. The resultant non-linear mathematical treatment yielded unique solution to the SCIM design problem for each configuration of pole pair number p, slots/pole/phase q and conductors/slot zq, easily implemented via loop patterns. It was also found that not all configurations led to feasible solutions and corresponding observations have been elaborated. The developed mathematical procedures also proved an effective framework for optimization among electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical aspects by allocating corresponding degree-of-freedom variables. Detailed 3D FEM analysis has been conducted to validate the resultant machine performance against design specifications. To obtain higher power ratings, electrical machines often have to increase the slot areas for accommodating more windings. Since the available space for embedding such machines inside an engine is usually short in length, axial air gap arrangement appears more appealing compared to its radial gap counterpart. The aforementioned approach has been adopted in case studies of designing series of AFIMs and RFIMs respectively with increasing power ratings. Following observations have been obtained. Under the strict rotor diameter limitation AFIM extended axially for the increased slot areas while RFIM expanded radially with the same axial length. Beyond certain power ratings AFIM led to long cylinder geometry while RFIM topology resulted in the desired short disk shape. Besides the different dimension growth patterns, AFIMs and RFIMs also exhibited dissimilar performance degradations regarding power factor, torque ripples as well as rated slip along with increased power ratings. Parametric response curves were plotted to better illustrate the above influences from increased power ratings. The case studies may provide a basic guideline that could assist potential users in making decisions between AFIM and RFIM for relevant applications.

Keywords: axial flux induction machine, electrical starter/generator, finite element analysis, squirrel cage induction machine

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1 Integration of Building Information Modeling Framework for 4D Constructability Review and Clash Detection Management of a Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: Malla Vijayeta, Y. Vijaya Kumar, N. Ramakrishna Raju, K. Satyanarayana


Global AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) industry has been coined as one of the most resistive domains in embracing technology. Although this digital era has been inundated with software tools like CAD, STADD, CANDY, Microsoft Project, Primavera etc. the key stakeholders have been working in siloes and processes remain fragmented. Unlike the yesteryears’ simpler project delivery methods, the current projects are of fast-track, complex, risky, multidisciplinary, stakeholder’s influential, statutorily regulative etc. pose extensive bottlenecks in preventing timely completion of projects. At this juncture, a paradigm shift surfaced in construction industry, and Building Information Modeling, aka BIM, has been a panacea to bolster the multidisciplinary teams’ cooperative and collaborative work leading to productive, sustainable and leaner project outcome. Building information modeling has been integrative, stakeholder engaging and centralized approach in providing a common platform of communication. A common misconception that BIM can be used for building/high rise projects in Indian Construction Industry, while this paper discusses of the implementation of BIM processes/methodologies in water and waste water industry. It elucidates about BIM 4D planning and constructability reviews of a Sewage Treatment Plant in India. Conventional construction planning and logistics management involves a blend of experience coupled with imagination. Even though the excerpts or judgments or lessons learnt gained from veterans might be predictive and helpful, but the uncertainty factor persists. This paper shall delve about the case study of real time implementation of BIM 4D planning protocols for one of the Sewage Treatment Plant of Dravyavati River Rejuvenation Project in India and develops a Time Liner to identify logistics planning and clash detection. With this BIM processes, we shall find that there will be significant reduction of duplication of tasks and reworks. Also another benefit achieved will be better visualization and workarounds during conception stage and enables for early involvement of the stakeholders in the Project Life cycle of Sewage Treatment Plant construction. Moreover, we have also taken an opinion poll of the benefits accrued utilizing BIM processes versus traditional paper based communication like 2D and 3D CAD tools. Thus this paper concludes with BIM framework for Sewage Treatment Plant construction which will achieve optimal construction co-ordination advantages like 4D construction sequencing, interference checking, clash detection checking and resolutions by primary engagement of all key stakeholders thereby identifying potential risks and subsequent creation of risk response strategies. However, certain hiccups like hesitancy in adoption of BIM technology by naïve users and availability of proficient BIM trainers in India poses a phenomenal impediment. Hence the nurture of BIM processes from conception, construction and till commissioning, operation and maintenance along with deconstruction of a project’s life cycle is highly essential for Indian Construction Industry in this digital era.

Keywords: integrated BIM workflow, 4D planning with BIM, building information modeling, clash detection and visualization, constructability reviews, project life cycle

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