Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1393

Search results for: membrane module

1393 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak

Abstract:

Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
1392 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1391 Combination of Electrodialysis and Electrodeionization for Treatment of Condensate from Ammonium Nitrate Production

Authors: Lubomir Machuca, Vit Fara

Abstract:

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is produced by the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid, and a waste condensate is obtained. The condensate contains pure AN in concentration up to 10g/L. The salt content in the condensate is too high to discharge immediately into the river thus it must be treated. This study is concerned with the treatment of condensates from an industrial AN production by combination of electrodialysis (ED) and electrodeionization (EDI). The condensate concentration was in range 1.9–2.5g/L of AN. A pilot ED module with 25 membrane pairs following by a laboratory EDI module with 10 membrane pairs operated continuously during 800 hours. Results confirmed that the combination of ED and EDI is suitable for the condensate treatment.

Keywords: desalination, electrodialysis, electrodeionization, fertilizer industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1390 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan

Abstract:

The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1389 Module Valuations and Quasi-Valuations

Authors: Shai Sarussi

Abstract:

Suppose F is a field with valuation v and valuation domain Oᵥ, and R is an Oᵥ-algebra. It is known that there exists a filter quasi-valuation on R; the existence of a quasi-valuation yields several important connections between Oᵥ and R, in particular with respect to their prime spectra. In this paper, the notion of a module valuation is introduced. It is shown that any torsion-free module over Oᵥ has an induced module valuation. Moreover, several results connecting the filter quasi-valuation and module valuations are presented.

Keywords: valuations, quasi-valuations, prime spectrum, algebras over valuation domains

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1388 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi

Abstract:

Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1387 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1386 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fibre Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on a alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm, cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, CO2, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, ion-exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
1385 Experimental Study of Semitransparent and Opaque Photovoltaic Modules with and without Air Duct

Authors: Sanjay Agrawal, Trapti Varshney, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, thermal modeling has been developed for photovoltaic PV modules, namely; Case A: semitransparent PV module without duct, Case B: semitransparent PV module with duct, Case C: opaque PV module without duct, Case D: opaque PV module with duct for Delhi, India climatic condition. MATLAB 7.0 software has been used to solve mathematical models of the proposed system. For validation of proposed system, the experimental study has also been carried out for all above four cases, and then comparative analysis of all different type of PV module has been presented. The hybrid PVT module air collectors presented in this study are self sustaining the system and can be used for the electricity generation in remote areas where access of electricity is not economical due to high transmission and distribution losses. It has been found that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of semitransparent PV module is higher by 11.6% and7.32% in summer condition and 16.39% and 18% in winter condition respectively as compared to opaque PV module considering same area (0.61 m2) of PV module.

Keywords: semitransparent PV module, overall exergy, overall thermal energy, opaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1384 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha

Abstract:

Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1383 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1382 Development of an Integrated Methodology for Fouling Control in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Manasis Mitrakas, Dimitrios Zamboulis, E. Peleka

Abstract:

The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is membrane fouling which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This work is part of a research project that aims to develop an integrated methodology for membrane fouling control, using specific chemicals which will enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate acting as a pre-treatment step. For this purpose, a pilot-scale plant with fully automatic operation achieved by means of programmable logic controller (PLC) has been constructed and tested. The experimental set-up consists of four units: wastewater feed unit, bioreactor, membrane (side-stream) filtration unit and permeate collection unit. Synthetic wastewater was fed as the substrate for the activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the aerobic tank was maintained in the range of 2-3 mg/L during the entire operation by using an aerator below the membrane module. The membranes were operated at a flux of 18 LMH while membrane relaxation steps of 1 min were performed every 10 min. Both commercial and composite coagulants are added in different concentrations in the pilot-scale plant and their effect on the overall performance of the ΜΒR system is presented. Membrane fouling was assessed in terms of TMP, membrane permeability, sludge filterability tests, total resistance and the unified modified fouling index (UMFI). Preliminary tests showed that particular attention should be paid to the addition of the coagulant solution, indicating that pipe flocculation effectively increases hydraulic retention time and leads to voluminous sludge flocs. The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using MBRs is membrane fouling, which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This results in increased treatment cost, due to high energy consumption and the need for frequent membrane cleaning and replacement. Due to the widespread application of MBR technology over the past few years, it becomes clear that the development of a methodology to mitigate membrane fouling is of paramount importance. The present work aims to develop an integrated technique for membrane fouling control in MBR systems and, thus, contribute to sustainable wastewater treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, membrane bioreactor, membrane fouling, pilot plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1381 Alternating Current Photovoltaic Module Model

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling of a Alternating Current (AC) Photovoltaic (PV) module using Matlab/Simulink. The proposed AC-PV module model is simple, realistic, and application oriented. The model is derived on module level as compared to cell level directly from the information provided by the manufacturer data sheet. DC-PV module, MPPT control, BC, VSI and LC filter, all were treated as a single unit. The model accounts for changes in variations of both irradiance and temperature. The AC-PV module proposed model is simulated and the results are compared with the datasheet projected numbers to validate model’s accuracy and effectiveness. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: PV modeling, AC PV Module, datasheet, VI curves irradiance, temperature, MPPT, Matlab/Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
1380 Power and Efficiency of Photovoltaic Module: Effect of Cell Temperature

Authors: R. Nasrin, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

Among the renewable energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) is a high potential, effective, and sustainable system. Irradiation intensity from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 has been considered to observe the performance of PV module. Generally, this module converts only about 15% - 20% of incident irradiation into electrical energy and the rest part is converted into heat energy. Finite element method has been used to solve the problem numerically. Simulation has been performed by considering the ambient temperature 30°C. Higher irradiation increase solar cell temperature and electrical power. The electrical efficiency of PV module decreases with the variation of solar radiation. The efficiency of PV module can be increased if cell temperature is reduced. Thus the effect of irradiation is significant to enhance the efficiency of PV module if the solar cell temperature is kept at a certain level.

Keywords: PV module, solar radiation, efficiency, cell temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
1379 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew

Abstract:

The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1378 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
1377 Portable Water Treatment for Flood Resilience

Authors: Alireza Abbassi Monjezi, Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

Abstract:

Flood, caused by excessive rainfall, monsoon, cyclone and tsunami is a common disaster in many countries of the world especially sea connected low-lying countries. A stand-alone self-powered water filtration module for decontamination of floodwater has been designed and modeled. A combination forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system powered by solar photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) energy is investigated which could overcome the main barriers to water supply for remote areas and ensure off-grid filtration. The proposed system is designed to be small scale and portable to provide on-site potable water to communities that are no longer themselves mobile nor can be reached quickly by the aid agencies. FO is an osmotically driven process that uses osmotic pressure gradients to drive water across a controlled pore membrane from a feed solution (low osmotic pressure) to a draw solution (high osmotic pressure). This drops the demand for high hydraulic pressures and therefore the energy demand. There is also a tendency for lower fouling, easier fouling layer removal and higher water recovery. In addition, the efficiency of the PVT unit will be maximized through freshwater cooling which is integrated into the system. A filtration module with the capacity of 5 m3/day is modeled to treat floodwater and provide drinking water. The module can be used as a tool for disaster relief, particularly in the aftermath of flood and tsunami events.

Keywords: flood resilience, membrane desalination, portable water treatment, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1376 A PHREEQC Reactive Transport Simulation for Simply Determining Scaling during Desalination

Authors: Andrew Freiburger, Sergi Molins

Abstract:

Freshwater is a vital resource; yet, the supply of clean freshwater is diminishing as the consequence of melting snow and ice from global warming, pollution from industry, and an increasing demand from human population growth. The unsustainable trajectory of diminishing water resources is projected to jeopardize water security for billions of people in the 21st century. Membrane desalination technologies may resolve the growing discrepancy between supply and demand by filtering arbitrary feed water into a fraction of renewable, clean water and a fraction of highly concentrated brine. The leading hindrance of membrane desalination is fouling, whereby the highly concentrated brine solution encourages micro-organismal colonization and/or the precipitation of occlusive minerals (i.e. scale) upon the membrane surface. Thus, an understanding of brine formation is necessary to mitigate membrane fouling and to develop efficacious desalination technologies that can bolster the supply of available freshwater. This study presents a reactive transport simulation of brine formation and scale deposition during reverse osmosis (RO) desalination. The simulation conceptually represents the RO module as a one-dimensional domain, where feed water directionally enters the domain with a prescribed fluid velocity and is iteratively concentrated in the immobile layer of a dual porosity model. Geochemical PHREEQC code numerically evaluated the conceptual model with parameters for the BW30-400 RO module and for real water feed sources – e.g. the Red and Mediterranean seas, and produced waters from American oil-wells, based upon peer-review data. The presented simulation is computationally simpler, and hence less resource intensive, than the existent and more rigorous simulations of desalination phenomena, like TOUGHREACT. The end-user may readily prepare input files and execute simulations on a personal computer with open source software. The graphical results of fouling-potential and brine characteristics may therefore be particularly useful as the initial tool for screening candidate feed water sources and/or informing the selection of an RO module.

Keywords: desalination, PHREEQC, reactive transport, scaling

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
1375 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A

Abstract:

Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1374 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi

Abstract:

By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
1373 Experimental Study of Sahara Climat Effect in Photovoltaic Solar Module

Authors: A. Benatiallah, A. Hadjadj, D. Benatiallah, F. Abaidi, A. Harrouz

Abstract:

Photovoltaic system is established as a reliable and economical source of electricity in rural and Sahara areas, especially in developing countries where the population is dispersed, has low consumption of energy and the grid power is not extended to these areas due to viability and financial problems. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system is very fluctuates and depend of meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows; in the present work we have studies the behavior of multi-crystal solar module according to the density of dust, and the principals electric feature of the solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions.

Keywords: photovoltaic, multi-crystal module, experimental, effect of dust, performances

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1372 Effect of Dust on Performances of Single Crystal Photovoltaic Solar Module

Authors: A. Benatiallah, D. Benatiallah, A. Harrouz, F. Abaidi, S. Mansouri

Abstract:

Photovoltaic system is established as a reliable and economical source of electricity in rural and Sahara areas, especially in developing countries where the population is dispersed, has low consumption of energy and the grid power is not extended to these areas due to viability and financial problems. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system fluctuates and depend on meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows; in the present work, we have studied the behavior of multi-crystal solar module according to the density of dust, and the principals electric feature of the solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions.

Keywords: solar modulen pv, dust effect, experimental, performances

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1371 Effects of SRT and HRT on Treatment Performance of MBR and Membrane Fouling

Authors: M. I. Aida Isma, Azni Idris, Rozita Omar, A. R. Putri Razreena

Abstract:

40L of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor with solids retention times (SRT) of 30, 15 and 4 days were setup for treating synthetic wastewater at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 12, 8 and 4 hours. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of SRT and HRT on membrane fouling. A comparative analysis was carried out for physiochemical quality parameters (turbidity, suspended solids, COD, NH3-N and PO43-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and particle size distribution (PSD) were used to characterize the membrane fouling properties. The influence of SRT on the quality of effluent, activated sludge quality, and membrane fouling were also correlated. Lower membrane fouling and slower rise in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) were noticed at the longest SRT and HRT of 30d and 12h, respectively. Increasing SRT results in noticeable reduction of dissolved organic matters. The best removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO43- were 93%, 98%, 80% and 30% respectively. The high HRT with shorter SRT induced faster fouling rate. The main fouling resistance was cake layer. The most severe membrane fouling was observed at SRT and HRT of 4 and 12, respectively with thickness cake layer of 17 μm as reflected by higher TMP, lower effluent removal and thick sludge cake layer.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, SRT, HRT, fouling

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1370 Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rizwan Ahmad, Soomin Chang, Daeun Kwon, Jeonghwan Kim

Abstract:

Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.

Keywords: alumina membrane, fluidized membrane reactor, industrial wastewater, membrane fouling, rejection

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1369 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour

Abstract:

Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1368 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak

Abstract:

The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1367 Preparation of Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for CO2 Capture

Authors: Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to have chemical resistance, high heat resistance and mechanical strength of ceramic hollow fiber membrane into a membrane contactor, and the combustion process is applied (Post-combustion capture) of the carbon dioxide absorption device. In this paper, we would investigate the effect of the ceramic membrane hydrophobicity to the flux of the carbon dioxide adsorption. To improve the applicability of the ceramic film. We use the dry-wet spinning method with the high temperature sintering process for preparing a ceramic hollow fiber membranes to increase the filling density per unit volume of the membrane. The PESf/Al2O3 ratio of 1:5 was prepared ceramic hollow fibers membrane precursors and investigate the relationship of the different sintering temperature to the membrane pore size and porosity. It can be found that the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1400 °C prepared with the highest porosity of 70%, while the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1600 °C prepared although has a minimum porosity of about 54%, but also has the smallest average pore size of about 0.2 μm. The hydrophilic ceramic hollow fiber membranes which after high-temperature sintering were changed into hydrophobic successfully via the 0.02M FAS modifier. The hydrophobic ceramic hollow fiber membranes with different sintering temperature, the membrane which was prepared via 1400 °C sintering has the highest carbon dioxide adsorption about 4.2 × 10-4 (mole/m2s). The membrane prepared via 1500 °C sintering has the carbon dioxide adsorption about 3.8 × 10-3 (mole/m2s),and the membrane prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the lowest carbon dioxide adsorption about 2.68 × 10-3 (mole/m2s).All of them have reusability and in long time operation, the membrane which was prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the smallest pores and also could operate for three days. After the test, the 1600 °C sintering ceramic hollow fiber membrane was most suitable for the factory.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, membrane contactor, ceramic membrane, ceramic hollow fiber membrane

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1366 Project and Module Based Teaching and Learning

Authors: Jingyu Hou

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new teaching and learning approach-project and Module Based Teaching and Learning (PMBTL). The PMBTL approach incorporates the merits of project/problem based and module based learning methods, and overcomes the limitations of these methods. The correlation between teaching, learning, practice, and assessment is emphasized in this approach, and new methods have been proposed accordingly. The distinct features of these new methods differentiate the PMBTL approach from conventional teaching approaches. Evaluation of this approach on practical teaching and learning activities demonstrates the effectiveness and stability of the approach in improving the performance and quality of teaching and learning. The approach proposed in this paper is also intuitive to the design of other teaching units.

Keywords: computer science education, project and module based, software engineering, module based teaching and learning

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1365 PVMODREL© Development Based on Reliability Evaluation of a PV Module Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

Authors: Abderafi Charki, David Bigaud

Abstract:

The aim of this oral speach is to present the PVMODREL© (PhotoVoltaic MODule RELiability) new software developed in the University of Angers. This new tool permits us to evaluate the lifetime and reliability of a PV module whatever its geographical location and environmental conditions. The electrical power output of a PV module decreases with time mainly as a result of the effects of corrosion, encapsulation discoloration, and solder bond failure. The failure of a PV module is defined as the point where the electrical power degradation reaches a given threshold value. Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are commonly used to assess the reliability of a PV module. However, ALTs provide limited data on the failure of a module and these tests are expensive to carry out. One possible solution is to conduct accelerated degradation tests. The Wiener process in conjunction with the accelerated failure time model makes it possible to carry out numerous simulations and thus to determine the failure time distribution based on the aforementioned threshold value. By this means, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated. An example using the damp heat test is shown to demonstrate the usefulness PVMODREL.

Keywords: lifetime, reliability, PV Module, accelerated life testing, accelerated degradation testing

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1364 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae

Abstract:

Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

Procedia PDF Downloads 342