Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3609

Search results for: membrane layer thickness

3609 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3608 Multi-Layer Silica Alumina Membrane Performance for Flue Gas Separation

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Mohammed Kajama, Emmanuel Anyanwu, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

With the objective to create technologically advanced materials to be scientifically applicable, multi-layer silica alumina membranes were molecularly fabricated by continuous surface coating silica layers containing hybrid material onto a ceramic porous substrate for flue gas separation applications. The multi-layer silica alumina membrane was prepared by dip coating technique before further drying in an oven at elevated temperature. The effects of substrate physical appearance, coating quantity, the cross-linking agent, a number of coatings and testing conditions on the gas separation performance of the membrane have been investigated. Scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the development of coating thickness. The membrane shows impressive perm selectivity especially for CO2 and N2 binary mixture representing a stimulated flue gas stream

Keywords: gas separation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
3607 Effects of SRT and HRT on Treatment Performance of MBR and Membrane Fouling

Authors: M. I. Aida Isma, Azni Idris, Rozita Omar, A. R. Putri Razreena

Abstract:

40L of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor with solids retention times (SRT) of 30, 15 and 4 days were setup for treating synthetic wastewater at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 12, 8 and 4 hours. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of SRT and HRT on membrane fouling. A comparative analysis was carried out for physiochemical quality parameters (turbidity, suspended solids, COD, NH3-N and PO43-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and particle size distribution (PSD) were used to characterize the membrane fouling properties. The influence of SRT on the quality of effluent, activated sludge quality, and membrane fouling were also correlated. Lower membrane fouling and slower rise in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) were noticed at the longest SRT and HRT of 30d and 12h, respectively. Increasing SRT results in noticeable reduction of dissolved organic matters. The best removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO43- were 93%, 98%, 80% and 30% respectively. The high HRT with shorter SRT induced faster fouling rate. The main fouling resistance was cake layer. The most severe membrane fouling was observed at SRT and HRT of 4 and 12, respectively with thickness cake layer of 17 μm as reflected by higher TMP, lower effluent removal and thick sludge cake layer.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, SRT, HRT, fouling

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
3606 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: dewetting, themal annealing, metal, melting point, porous

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
3605 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya

Abstract:

The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
3604 Modeling by Application of the Nernst-Planck Equation and Film Theory for Predicting of Chromium Salts through Nanofiltration Membrane

Authors: Aimad Oulebsir, Toufik Chaabane, Sivasankar Venkatramann, Andre Darchen, Rachida Maachi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to propose a model for the prediction of the mechanism transfer of the trivalent ions through a nanofiltration membrane (NF) by introduction of the polarization concentration phenomenon and to study its influence on the retention of salts. This model is the combination of the Nernst-Planck equation and the equations of the film theory. This model is characterized by two transfer parameters: Reflection coefficient s and solute permeability Ps which are estimated numerically. The thickness of the boundary layer, δ, solute concentration at the membrane surface, Cm, and concentration profile in the polarization layer have also been estimated. The mathematical formulation suggested was established. The retentions of trivalent salts are estimated and compared with the experimental results. A comparison between the results with and without phenomena of polarization of concentration is made and the thickness of boundary layer alimentation side was given. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in good agreement. The model is then success fully extended to experimental data reported in the literature.

Keywords: nanofiltration, concentration polarisation, chromium salts, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3603 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae

Abstract:

Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
3602 AC Electro-Kinetics, Bipolar Current and Concentration-Polarization in a Microchannel-Nafion Membrane System

Authors: Sinwook Park, Gilad Yossifon

Abstract:

The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration-polarization (CP) across a microchannel-membrane device, produces not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) vortex and but also a bipolar current resulting from faradaic reactions. It has been shown that there exists an optimal SiO2 layer thickness of ~50nm which is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents (at least up to 5V applied voltage) but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting its I-V response. This effect is pronounced beyond the limiting current where the existence of the depletion layer results in increased local electric field due to decreased solution conductivity. This comprehensive study of the interaction of embedded electrodes with the induced CP in microchannel-perm selective medium systems, allows one to choose the thickness of the thin dielectric coating to either enhance the mixing as a means to control the diffuse layer, or suppress it, for example, in the case where electrodes are intended for local measurements of the solution conductivity with minimal invasion. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the CP length. In addition, the use of embedded heaters within the depletion layer generates electro-thermal vortices that in turn also control the CP length.

Keywords: AC electrokinetics, microchannel, concentration-polarization, bipolar current

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
3601 Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
3600 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi

Abstract:

Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
3599 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3598 Study on Properties of Carbon-based Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Pei-Jung Wu, Ching-Ying Huang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li, Chien-Yuan Wang

Abstract:

The fuel cell market has considerable development potential, but the cost is still less competitive. Replacing the traditional graphite plate with a stainless steel plate as a bipolar plate can greatly reduce the weight and volume of the stack, and has more cost advantages. However, the passivation layer on the surface of stainless steel makes the contact resistance reach the ohmic level and reduces the performance of the fuel cell. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interfacial contact resistance through the surface treatment. In this research, the thickness, uniformity, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), and adhesion of the carbon-based layer was analyzed. On the other hand, the effect of coating properties on the performance of the fuel cell was verified through I-V tests. The results show that after coating the contact resistance is greatly reduced by three stages to the microohm level, and as the film thickness is reduced, the contact resistance is reduced from 229~118 mΩ-cm² to 135~73 mΩ-cm² at a general assembly pressure of 1 to 2 MPa., and the current density at 0.6 V increased from 485.7 mA/cm² to 575.7 mA/cm². This study verifies the importance of the uniformity and ICR of the coating on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and the surface coating technology is the key to affecting the characteristics of the coating.

Keywords: contact resistance, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, SS bipolar plate, spray coating process

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3597 Approach to Study the Workability of Concrete with the Fractal Model

Authors: Achouri Fatima, Chouicha Kaddour

Abstract:

The main parameters affecting the workability are the water content, particle size, and the total surface of the grains, as long as the mixing water begins by wetting the surface of the grains and then fills the voids between the grains to form entrapped water, the quantity of water remaining is called free water. The aim is to undertake a fractal approach through the relationship between the concrete formulation parameters and workability, to develop this approach a series of concrete taken from the literature was investigated by varying formulation parameters such as G / S, the quantity of cement C and the quantity of mixing water E. We also call on other model as the model for the thickness of the water layer and model of the thickness of the paste layer to judge their relevance, hence the following results : the relevance of the model of the thickness of the water layer is considered relevant when there is a variation in the water quantity, the model of the thickness of the layer of the paste is only applicable if we consider that the paste is made with the grain value Dmax = 2.85: value from which we see a stable model.

Keywords: concrete, fractal method, paste thickness, water thickness, workability

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3596 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: phase formation, binary systems, interfacial reaction, diffusion, compound layers, growth kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
3595 Gas Separation by Water-Swollen Membrane

Authors: Lenka Morávková, Zuzana Sedláková, Jiří Vejražka, Věra Jandová, Pavel Izák

Abstract:

The need to minimize the costs of biogas upgrading leads to a continuous search for new and more effective membrane materials. The improvement of biogas combustion efficiency is connected with polar gases removal from a feed stream. One of the possibilities is the use of water–swollen polyamide layer of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane for simultaneous carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide removal. Transport properties and basic characteristics of a thin film composite membrane were compared in the term of appropriate water-swollen membrane choice for biogas upgrading. SEM analysis showed that the surface of the best performing composites changed significantly upon swelling by water. The surface changes were found to be a proof that the selective skin polyamide layer was swollen well. Further, the presence of a sufficient number of associative centers, namely amido groups, inside the upper layer of the hydrophilic thin composite membrane can play an important role in the polar gas separation from a non-polar gas. The next key factor is a high porosity of the membrane support.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, carbon dioxide separation, hydrogen sulphide separation, water-swollen membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
3594 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), tungsten oxide, WO₃, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
3593 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi

Abstract:

By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
3592 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3591 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3590 Layer-by-Layer Modified Ceramic Membranes for Micropollutant Removal

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese

Abstract:

Ceramic membranes for water purification combine excellent stability with long-life characteristics and high chemical resistance. Layer-by-Layer coating is a well-known technique for customization and optimization of filtration properties of membranes but is mostly used on polymeric membranes. Ceramic membranes comprising a metal oxide filtration layer of Al2O3 or TiO2 are charged and therefore highly suitable for polyelectrolyte adsorption. The high stability of the membrane support allows efficient backwash and chemical cleaning of the membrane. The presented study reports metal oxide/organic composite membrane with an increased rejection of bivalent salts like MgSO4 and the organic micropollutant Diclofenac. A self-build apparatus was used for applying the polyelectrolyte multilayers on the ceramic membrane. The device controls the flow and timing of the polyelectrolytes and washing solutions. As support for the Layer-by-Layer coat, ceramic mono-channel membranes were used with an inner capillary of 8 mm diameter, which is connected to the coating device. The inner wall of the capillary is coated subsequently with polycat- and anions. The filtration experiments were performed with a feed solution of MgSO4 and Diclofenac. The salt content of the permeate was detected conductometrically and Diclofenac was measured with UV-Adsorption. The concluded results show retention values of magnesium sulfate of 70% and diclofenac retention of 60%. Further experimental research studied various parameters of the composite membrane-like Molecular Weight Cut Off and pore size, Zeta potential and its mechanical and chemical robustness.

Keywords: water purification, polyelectrolytes, membrane modification, layer-by-layer coating, ceramic membranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3589 Fire Safety Engineering of Wood Dust Layer or Cloud

Authors: Marzena Półka, Bożena Kukfisz

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of dust explosion hazards in the process industries. It includes selected testing method of dust explosibility and presentation two of them according to experimental standards used by Department of Combustion and Fire Theory in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the article are presented values of maximum acceptable surface temperature (MAST) of machines operating in the presence of dust cloud and chosen dust layer with thickness of 5 and 12,5mm. The comparative analysis, points to the conclusion that the value of the minimum ignition temperature of the layer (MITL) and the minimum ignition temperature of dust cloud (MTCD) depends on the granularity of the substance. Increasing the thickness of the dust layer reduces minimum ignition temperature of dust layer. Increasing the thickness of dust at the same time extends the flameless combustion and delays the ignition.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, industrial hazards, minimum ignition temperature, wood dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3588 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A

Abstract:

Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
3587 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: Janusz Kwaśniewski, Ireneusz Dominik, Krzysztof Lalik

Abstract:

The knowledge about rock layers thickness, especially above drilled mining pavements are crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-Excited Acoustical System is presented in the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rock layer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system, which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: auto-oscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement, geotechnic

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
3586 Removal of Na₂SO₄ by Electro-Confinement on Nanoporous Carbon Membrane

Authors: Jing Ma, Guotong Qin

Abstract:

We reported electro-confinement desalination (ECMD), a desalination method combining electric field effects and confinement effects using nanoporous carbon membranes as electrode. A carbon membrane with average pore size of 8.3 nm was prepared by organic sol-gel method. The precursor of support was prepared by curing porous phenol resin tube. Resorcinol-formaldehyde sol was coated on porous tubular resin support. The membrane was obtained by carbonisation of coated support. A well-combined top layer with the thickness of 35 μm was supported by macroporous support. Measurements of molecular weight cut-off using polyethylene glycol showed the average pore size of 8.3 nm. High salt rejection can be achieved because the water molecules need not overcome high energy barriers in confined space, while huge inherent dehydration energy was required for hydrated ions to enter the nanochannels. Additionally, carbon membrane with additional electric field can be used as an integrated membrane electrode combining the effects of confinement and electric potential gradient. Such membrane electrode can repel co-ions and attract counter-ions using pressure as the driving force for mass transport. When the carbon membrane was set as cathode, the rejection of SO₄²⁻ was 94.89%, while the removal of Na⁺ was less than 20%. We set carbon membrane as anode chamber to treat the effluent water from the cathode chamber. The rejection of SO₄²⁻ and Na⁺ reached to 100% and 88.86%, respectively. ECMD will be a promising energy efficient method for salt rejection.

Keywords: nanoporous carbon membrane, confined effect, electric field, desalination, membrane reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
3585 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga

Abstract:

The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: layer by layer assembly, electropolymerization, carbazole, optical thin film, electronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3584 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
3583 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fibre Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on a alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm, cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, CO2, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, ion-exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
3582 Effect of Wetting Layer on the Energy Spectrum of One-Electron Non-Uniform Quantum Ring

Authors: F. A. Rodríguez-Prada, W Gutierrez, I. D. Mikhailov

Abstract:

We study the spectral properties of one-electron non-uniform crater-shaped quantum dot whose thickness is increased linearly with different slopes in different radial directions between the central hole and the outer border and which is deposited over thin wetting layer in the presence of the external vertically directed magnetic field. We show that in the adiabatic limit, when the crater thickness is much smaller than its lateral dimension, the one-particle wave functions of the electron confined in such structure in the zero magnetic field case can be found exactly in an analytical form and they can be used subsequently as the base functions in framework of the exact diagonalization method to study the effect of the wetting layer and an external magnetic field applied along of the grown axis on energy levels of one-electron non-uniform quantum dot. It is shown that both the structural non-uniformity and the increase of the thickness of the wetting layer provide a quenching of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the lower energy levels.

Keywords: electronic properties, quantum rings, volcano shaped, wetting layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
3581 Nano-Structured Hydrophobic Silica Membrane for Gas Separation

Authors: Sajid Shah, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Katsuki Kusakabe

Abstract:

Sol-gel derived hydrophobic silica membranes with pore sizes less than 1 nm are quite attractive for gas separation in a wide range of temperatures. A nano-structured hydrophobic membrane was prepared by sol-gel technique on a porous α–Al₂O₃ tubular support with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an intermediate layer. Bistriethoxysilylethane (BTESE) derived sol was modified by adding phenyltriethoxysilylethane (PhTES) as an organic template. Six times dip coated modified silica membrane having a thickness of about 782 nm was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis, together along contact angle and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, showed that hydrophobic properties were improved by increasing the PhTES content. The contact angle of water droplet increased from 37° for pure to 111.5° for the modified membrane. The permeance of single gas H₂ was higher than H₂:CO₂ ratio of 75:25 binary feed mixtures. However, the permeance of H₂ for 60:40 H₂:CO₂ was found lower than single and binary mixture 75:25 H₂:CO₂. The binary selectivity values for 75:25 H₂:CO₂ were 24.75, 44, and 57, respectively. Selectivity had an inverse relation with PhTES content. Hydrophobicity properties were improved by increasing PhTES content in the silica matrix. The system exhibits proper three layers adhesion or integration, and smoothness. Membrane system suitable in steam environment and high-temperature separation. It was concluded that the hydrophobic silica membrane is highly promising for the separation of H₂/CO₂ mixture from various H₂-containing process streams.

Keywords: gas separation, hydrophobic properties, silica membrane, sol–gel method

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
3580 Ordinary and Triplet Superconducting Spin Valve Effect in Fe/Pb Based Heterostructures

Authors: P. V. Leksin, A. A. Kamashev, N. N. Garifyanov, I. A. Garifullin, Ya. V. Fominov, J. Schumann, Y. Krupskaya, V. Kataev, O. G. Schmidt, B. Büchner

Abstract:

We report on experimental evidence for the occurrence of the long range triplet correlations (LRTC) of the superconducting (SC) condensate in the spin-valve heterostructures CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Pb. The LRTC generation in this layer sequence is accompanied by a Tc suppression near the orthogonal mutual orientation of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers’ magnetization. This Tc drop reaches its maximum of 60mK at the Fe2 layer thickness dFe2 = 0.6 nm and falls down when dFe2 is increased. The modification of the Fe/Pb interface by using a thin Cu intermediate layer between Fe and Pb layers reduces the SC transition width without preventing the interaction between Pb and Fe2 layers. The dependence of the SSVE magnitude on Fe1 layer thickness dFe1 reveals maximum of the effect when dFe1 and dFe2 are equal and the dFe2 value is minimal. Using the optimal Fe layers thicknesses and the intermediate Cu layer between Pb and Fe2 layer we realized almost full switching from normal to superconducting state due to SSVE.

Keywords: superconductivity, ferromagnetism, heterostructures, proximity effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 314