Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: latex

55 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations for Studying Flow Behaviors in Dipping Tank in Continuous Latex Gloves Production Lines

Authors: Worrapol Koranuntachai, Tonkid Chantrasmi, Udomkiat Nontakaew


Medical latex gloves are made from the latex compound in production lines. Latex dipping is considered one of the most important processes that directly affect the final product quality. In a continuous production line, a chain conveyor carries the formers through the process and partially submerges them into an open channel flow in a latex dipping tank. In general, the conveyor speed is determined by the desired production capacity, and the latex-dipping tank can then be designed accordingly. It is important to understand the flow behavior in the dipping tank in order to achieve high quality in the process. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the flow past an array of formers in a simplified latex dipping process. The computational results showed both the flow structure and the vortex generation between two formers. The maximum shear stress over the surface of the formers was used as the quality metric of the latex-dipping process when adjusting operation parameters.

Keywords: medical latex gloves, latex dipping, dipping tank, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
54 Cationic Surfactants Influence on the Fouling Phenomenon Control in Ultrafiltration of Latex Contaminated Water and Wastewater

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi


The goal of the present study was to minimize the ultrafiltration fouling of latex effluent using Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Hydrophilic Polysulfone and Ultrafilic flat heterogeneous membranes, with MWCO of 60,000 and 100,000, respectively, as well as hydrophobic Polyvinylidene Difluoride with MWCO of 100,000, were used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of latex solution. In addition, a Polycarbonate flat membrane with uniform pore size of 0.05 µm was also used. The effect of CTAB on the latex particle size distribution was investigated at different concentrations, various treatment times, and diverse agitation duration. The effects of CTAB on the zeta potential of latex particles and membrane surfaces were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the particle size distribution of treated latex effluent showed noticeable shifts in the peaks toward a larger size range due to the aggregation of particles. As a consequence, the mass of fouling contributing to pore blocking and the irreversible fouling were significantly reduced. The optimum results occurred with the addition of CTAB at the critical micelle concentration of 0.36 g/L for 10 minutes with minimal agitation. Higher stirring rate had a negative effect on membrane fouling minimization.

Keywords: cationic surfactant, latex particles, membrane fouling, ultrafiltration, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
53 Thermal Analysis of a Composite of Coco Fiber and Látex

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation, the natural fibers have been seen as a salutary alternative for production of composites in substitution to the synthetic fibers, vitreous and metallic. In this work, the behavior of a composite was analyzed done with fiber of the peel of the coconut as reinforcement and latex as head office, when submitted the source of heat. The temperature profiles were verified in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. It was also analyzed the behavior of this composite when submitted to a cold source. As consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: natural fiber, composite, temperature, latex, gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
52 Cytotoxic Activity against Hepatocarcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Cells of Four Cathartic Herbal Medicines

Authors: Pranporn Kuropakornpong, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat


Liver cancer has the highest prevalence rate in the North and Northeast of Thailand. Four Thai medicinal plants such as resin of Ferula asafoetida Regel, latex of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves, roots of Baliospermum manotanum, and latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook are used in Thai traditional medicine as cathartic drug and detoxification in liver cancer patients. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of these plants against hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M156) cells by SRB assay. These plants were macerated in 95% ethanol. The results showed that roots of Baliospermum manotanum and latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook showed the strongest cytotoxicity against HepG2 (IC50 = 3.03+0.91 and 0.62+0.01µg/ml, respectively) and KKU-M156 (IC50 = 0.978+0.663 and 0.006+0.005 µg/ml, respectively). Latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook also showed high cytotoxicity against normal cell line (IC50=8.86+0.31 µg/ml), and even though its selective values are high, dose of this herb should be limited.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, cytotoxic activity, Garcinia hanburyi Hook, hepatocarcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
51 Polymer Modification of Fine Grained Concretes Used in Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran, Mustafa Gencoglu


Textile reinforced cementitious composite (TRCC) is a development of a composite material where textile and fine-grained concrete (matrix) materials are used in combination. These matrices offer high performance properties in many aspects. To achieve high performance, polymer modified fine-grained concretes were used as matrix material which have high flexural strength. In this study, ten latex polymers and ten powder polymers were added to fine-grained concrete mixtures. These latex and powder polymers were added to the mixtures at different rates related to binder weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength were studied. Results showed that latex polymer and redispersible polymer modified fine-grained concretes showed different mechanical performance. A wide range of both latex and redispersible powder polymers were studied. As the addition rate increased compressive strength decreased for all mixtures. Flexural strength increased as the addition rate increased but significant enhancement was not observed through all mixtures.

Keywords: textile reinforced composite, cement, fine grained concrete, latex, redispersible powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
50 Analysis of the Reaction to the Fire of a Composite Material the Base of Scrapes of Tires and Latex for Thermal Isolation in Vehicles

Authors: Elmo Thiao Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, R. M. Nascimento, J. U. L. Mendes


Now the great majority of the applications of thermal isolation in the strip of drops and averages temperatures (up to 200ºC), it is made being used from aggressive materials to the nature such an as: glass wool, rock wool, polystyrene, EPS among others. Such materials, in spite of the effectiveness in the retention of the flow of heat, possess considerable cost and when discarded they are long years to be to decompose. In that context, trying to adapt the world politics the about of the preservation of the environment, a study began with intention of developing a material composite, with properties of thermal, originating from insulating industrial residues. In this research, the behavior of the composite was analyzed, as submitted the fire. For this, the reaction rehearsals were accomplished to the fire for the composites 2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and for the latex, based in the "con" experiment in agreement with the norm ASTM–E 1334-90. As consequence, in function of the answers of the system, was possible to observe to the acting of each mixture proportion.

Keywords: composite, Latex, reacion to the fire, thermal isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
49 Isolation of Three Bioactive Phenantroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Fruit Latex of Ficus botryocarpa Miq.

Authors: Jayson Wau, David Timi, Anthony Harakuwe, Bruce Bowden, Cherie Motti, Harry Sakulas, Rag Gubag-Sipou


The latex of F. botryocarpa fruit is applied on sores, wounds and other skin infections in Papua New Guinea ethnotherapeutic practices. Systematic bioassay guided separation and isolation of subsequent fractions of latex extracts resulted in three bioactive fractions active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This study reports structural elucidation of the three isolates. Structures were determined by physical ( and Rf values) and spectroscopic (1D-1H NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, 2D-HMBC NMR) and MS ESI-POS. The two methylene protons (2H-1) and (2H-3) resonate as triplets at δ 3.59 and δ 4.99 respectively. Electron dense δ 4.99 (2H-3) on (C-3) depicts the strong electron-withdrawing component, quaternary nitrogen (=N= +). Protons resonating at δ 3.88 and 3.89 are singlets depicting two methoxy groups. Both δ 3.88 and δ 3.89 are para-aryls substituents. The methines δ 9.13 and 8.60 are singlets depicting two lone protons on the indolizidinium aryl component. All isolates, (1), (2) and (3) were identified to be ficuseptine by comparing 1D-NMR assignments. 2D-NMR and MS of (2) found it to be ficuseptine chloride '2, 3-dihydro-6, 8-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-, 1H-indolizinium chloride'. Their counter ions of the ficuseptines were not established and provide promising lead for the further investigation.

Keywords: Ficus botryocarpa, antimicrobial activity, ficuseptine, sores

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
48 Mathematical Modeling of the Fouling Phenomenon in Ultrafiltration of Latex Effluent

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi


An efficient and well-planned ultrafiltration process is becoming a necessity for monetary returns in the industrial settings. The aim of the present study was to develop a mathematical model for an accurate prediction of ultrafiltration membrane fouling of latex effluent applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes with uniform and non-uniform pore sizes, respectively. The models were also developed for an accurate prediction of power consumption that can handle the large-scale purposes. The model incorporated the fouling attachments as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling for accurate prediction and scale-up application. Both Polycarbonate and Polysulfone flat membranes, with pore sizes of 0.05 µm and a molecular weight cut-off of 60,000, respectively, were used under a constant feed flow rate and a cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of the simulated paint effluent. Furthermore, hydrophilic ultrafilic and hydrophobic PVDF membranes with MWCO of 100,000 were used to test the reliability of the models. Monodisperse particles of 50 nm and 100 nm in diameter, and a latex effluent with a wide range of particle size distributions were utilized to validate the models. The aggregation and the sphericity of the particles indicated a significant effect on membrane fouling.

Keywords: membrane fouling, mathematical modeling, power consumption, attachments, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
47 Analysis Thermal of Composite Material in Cold Systems

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes


Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation of discarded industrial residues, The scrape of tires have been seen as a salutary alternative for addictive in concrete, asphalt production and of other composites materials. In this work, grew a composite the base of scrape of tire as reinforcement and latex as matrix, to be used as insulating thermal in "cold" systems (0º). Analyzed the acting of the material was what plays the thermal conservation when submitted the flow of heat. Verified the temperature profiles in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. As a consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: cold system, latex, flow of heat, asphalt production

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
46 Investigation of Optical, Film Formation and Magnetic Properties of PS Lates/MNPs Composites

Authors: Saziye Ugur


In this study, optical, film formation, morphological and the magnetic properties of a nanocomposite system, composed of polystyrene (PS) latex polymer and core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is presented. Nine different mixtures were prepared by mixing of PS latex dispersion with different amount of MNPs in the range of (0- 100 wt%). PS/MNPs films were prepared from these mixtures on glass substrates by drop casting method. After drying at room temperature, each film sample was separately annealed at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C for 10 min. In order to monitor film formation process, the transmittance of these composites was measured after each annealing step as a function of MNPs content. Below a critical MNPs content (30 wt%), it was found that PS percolates into the MNPs hard phase and forms an interconnected network upon annealing. The transmission results showed above this critical value, PS latexes were no longer film forming at all temperatures. Besides, the PS/MNPs composite films also showed excellent magnetic properties. All composite films showed superparamagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetisation (Ms) first increased up to 0.014 emu in the range of (0-50) wt% MNPs content and then decreased to 0.010 emu with increasing MNPs content. The highest value of Ms was approximately 0.020 emu and was obtained for the film filled with 85 wt% MNPs content. These results indicated that the optical, film formation and magnetic properties of PS/MNPs composite films can be readily tuned by varying loading content of MNPs nanoparticles.

Keywords: composite film, film formation, magnetic nanoparticles, ps latex, transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
45 Development of Composite Material for Thermal and Electrical Insulation

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes


Recycling has been greatly stimulated by the market. There are already several products that are produced with recycled materials and various wastes have been studied in various forms of applications. The vast majority of insulation applications in domestic, commercial and industrial systems in the range of low and medium temperatures (up to 180 ° C), using the aggressive nature materials such as glass wool, rock wool, polyurethane, polystyrene. Such materials, while retaining the effectiveness of the heat flux, are disposed as expensive and take years too absorbed by nature. Thus, trying to adapt to a global policy on the preservation of the environment, a study in order to develop an insulating compound of natural / industrial waste and biodegradable materials conducted. Thus, this research presents the development of a composite material based zest tire and latex for thermal and electrical insulation.

Keywords: composite, latex, scrapes tire, insulation, electrical

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
44 The Effect of Enzymatic Keratin Hydrolysate on the Susceptibility of Cellulosic-Elastomeric Material to Biodecomposition

Authors: Y. H. Tshela Ntumba, A. Przepiórkowska, M. Prochoń


Polymeric materials have become an integral part of every aspect of today's industry. They have wide applications, inter alia, in areas such as medicine, food industry and agriculture. In agriculture, for example, they are used for the production of pots, irrigation systems and for soil mulching. The aim of this study was the attempt to produce a biodecomposable agricultural mat, by coating cotton fabric with a blend of carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex (LBSK) containing the enzymatic hydrolyzate of keratin from cattle hair, which would serve as a material for mulching. The production of such material allows the beneficial management of burdensome tannery waste constituted by keratin from cattle hair and at the same time, the production of agricultural mats that much faster undergo decomposition than commonly used polyethylene mats.

Keywords: agricultural mat, biodecomposition, biodegradation, carboxylated butadiene-styrene latex, cellulosic-elastomeric material, keratin hydrolyzate, mulching, protein hydrolyzate

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
43 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne


The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: pesticide, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods, steady state, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
42 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Three Different Orthodontic Latex Elastic Bands Leached with NaOH Solution

Authors: Thipsupar Pureprasert, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Surapich Loykulanant, Chaveewan Kongkaew, Wassana Wichai


Objective: Orthodontic elastic bands made from natural rubber continue to be commonly used due to their favorable characteristics. However, there are concerns associated cytotoxicity due to harmful components released during conventional vulcanization (sulfur-based method). With the co-operation of The National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) and Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University, a method was introduced to reduce toxic components by leaching the orthodontic elastic bands with NaOH solution. Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical properties of Thai and commercial orthodontic elastic brands (Ormco and W&H) leached with NaOH solution. Material and methods: Three elastic brands (N =30, size ¼ inch, 4.5 oz.) were tested for mechanical properties in terms of initial extension force, residual force, force loss, breaking strength and maximum displacement using a Universal Testing Machine. Results : Force loss significantly decreased in Thai-LEACH and W&H-LEACH, whereas the values increased in Ormco-LEACH (P < 0.05). The data exhibited a significantly decrease in breaking strength with Thai-LEACH and Ormco-LEACH, whereas all 3 brands revealed a significantly decrease in maximum displacement with the leaching process (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Leaching with NaOH solution is a new method, which can remove toxic components from orthodontic latex elastic bands. However, this process can affect their mechanical properties. Leached elastic bands from Thai had comparable properties with Ormco and have potential to be developed as a promising product.

Keywords: leaching, orthodontic elastics, natural rubber latex, orthodontic

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
41 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based- Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm, Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: diagnosis, iatex agglutination, nanomagnetic beads, sandwich ELISA

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40 Land Use Influence on the 2014 Catastrophic Flood in the Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Zulkifli Yusop


The severity of December 2014 flood on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia has raised concern over the adequacy of existing land use practices and policies. This article assesses flood responses to selective logging, plantation establishment (oil palm and rubber) and their subsequent management regimes. The hydrological impacts were evaluated on two levels: on-site (mostly in the upstream) and off-site to reflect the cumulative impact at downstream. Results of experimental catchment studies suggest that on-site impact of flood could be kept to a minimum when selecting logging strictly adhere to the existing guidelines. However, increases in flood potential and sedimentation rate were observed with logging intensity and slope steepness. Forest conversion to plantation show the highest impacts. Except on the heavily compacted surfaces, the ground revegetation is usually rapid within two years upon the cessation of the logging operation. The hydrological impacts of plantation opening and replanting could be significantly reduced once the cover crop has fully established which normally takes between three to six months after sowing. However, as oil palms become taller and the canopy gets closer, the cover crop tends to die off due to light competition, and its protecting function gradually diminishes. The exposed soil is further compacted by harvesting machinery which subsequently leads to greater overland flow and erosion rates. As such, the hydrological properties of matured oil palm plantations are generally poorer than in young plantation. In hilly area, the undergrowth in rubber plantation is usually denser compared to under oil palm. The soil under rubber trees is also less compacted as latex collection is done manually. By considering the cumulative effects of land-use over space and time, selective logging seems to pose the least impact on flood potential, followed by planting rubber for latex, oil palm and Latex Timber Clone (LTC). The cumulative hydrological impact of LTC plantation is the most severe because of its shortest replanting rotation (12 to 15 years) compared to oil palm (25 years) and rubber for latex (35 years). Furthermore, the areas gazetted for LTC are mostly located on steeper slopes which are more susceptible to landslide and erosion. Forest has limited capability to store excess rainfall and is only effective in attenuating regular floods. Once the hydrologic storage is exceeded, the excess rainfall will appear as flood water. Therefore, for big floods, rainfall regime has a much bigger influence than land use.

Keywords: selective logging, plantation, extreme rainfall, debris flow

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39 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew


In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
38 The Lamination and Arterial Blood Supply of the Masseter Muscle of Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Elsyed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash


The present study was carried out to investigate the structure of the masseter muscle of camel and its attachments to the skull as well as the relationships with its arterial blood supply. Fourteen heads of clinically healthy camels of different ages and sexes were used in the present investigation. The both common carotid arteries of six specimens were cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with red colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the pattern of the blood supply to the masseter muscle. Two heads were injected with an eventually mixture of 75gm red lead oxide in 150cc latex and preserved in a cold room for 3-4 days then divided sagittaly along the median plane to avoid super imposition of the arteries. The arteries of the masseter muscle of each half were radiographed. Four heads were used in manual dissection to describe the laminar arrangement of the masseter muscle. The masseter muscle of the camel was very tendinous and was situated far caudally, which enable the camel to open its jaw very wide. In the camel, the masseter muscle was recognized into proper and improper masseter groups. The proper group included the first, second superficial, intermediate and deep masseter layers. The improper group consisted of maxillo-mandibularis and zygomatico-mandibularis. The remaining two heads were used for clearance.

Keywords: anatomy, camel, masseter, lamination, blood supply

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37 Sustainable Manufacturing of Concentrated Latex and Ribbed Smoked Sheets in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pasan Dunuwila, V. H. L. Rodrigo, Naohiro Goto


Sri Lanka is one the largest natural rubber (NR) producers of the world, where the NR industry is a major foreign exchange earner. Among the locally manufactured NR products, concentrated latex (CL) and ribbed smoked sheets (RSS) hold a significant position. Furthermore, these products become the foundation for many products utilized by the people all over the world (e.g. gloves, condoms, tires, etc.). Processing of CL and RSS costs a significant amount of material, energy, and workforce. With this background, both manufacturing lines have immensely challenged by waste, low productivity, lack of cost efficiency, rising cost of production, and many environmental issues. To face the above challenges, the adaptation of sustainable manufacturing measures that use less energy, water, materials, and produce less waste is imperative. However, these sectors lack comprehensive studies that shed light on such measures and thoroughly discuss their improvement potentials from both environmental and economic points of view. Therefore, based on a study of three CL and three RSS mills in Sri Lanka, this study deploys sustainable manufacturing techniques and tools to uncover the underlying potentials to improve performances in CL and RSS processing sectors. This study is comprised of three steps: 1. quantification of average material waste, economic losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions via material flow analysis (MFA), material flow cost accounting (MFCA), and life cycle assessment (LCA) in each manufacturing process, 2. identification of improvement options with the help of Pareto and What-if analyses, field interviews, and the existing literature; and 3. validation of the identified improvement options via the re-execution of MFA, MFCA, and LCA. With the help of this methodology, the economic and environmental hotspots, and the degrees of improvement in both systems could be identified. Results highlighted that each process could be improved to have less waste, monetary losses, manufacturing costs, and GHG emissions. Conclusively, study`s methodology and findings are believed to be beneficial for assuring the sustainable growth not only in Sri Lankan NR processing sector itself but also in NR or any other industry rooted in other developing countries.

Keywords: concentrated latex, natural rubber, ribbed smoked sheets, Sri Lanka

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36 Study of Irritant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Snuhi/Zaqqum (Euphorbia nerifolia) with Special Reference to Holy Quran and Ayurveda

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Pradnya Chigle, Bushra Farhen


Indian mythology believes that Vedas are eternal treatises. Vedas are categorized into four divisions viz., Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharveda. All these spiritual classics not only deal with rituals and customs but also consist of inclusion of many references related to health. Out of these four, Atharveda deals with maximum principles pertaining to health sciences. Therefore, it is said that the science and the art of Ayurveda has developed from Atharveda. Ayurveda deals with many medicinal plants either as a single therapeutic use or in combination. One such medicinal plant is Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) which finds its extensive importance along with Haridra and Apamargakshar, in the preparation of Ksharsutra which in turn is used for the treatment of Fistula in Ano. It is interesting to note that this plant Snuhi is also referred in Holy Quran as the Tree of Zaqqum advocated as the food for the sinners as a part of torment. The reference in Surat Ad-Dukhan is as follows: - 44:43-46. “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners, Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.” The above verse implies that plant Snuhi/Zaqqum due to irritant property acts as a drastic purgative but at the same time it also possesses anti inflammatory properties in order to relieve the irritation. These properties of Zaqqum has been unfolded in the modern research which states that, Diterpene polycyclic esters are responsible for its toxic and irritant nature whereas; triterpenes are responsible for its anti inflammatory property. Present work will be an effort to review the concept of Quran about latex of the Tree of Zaqqum in terms of its phytochemistry and its therapeutic use in Ksharsutra pertaining to irritant and anti inflammatory property.

Keywords: ayurveda, Quran, zaqqum, ksharsutra, latex piles, inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
35 X-Ray Diffraction and Crosslink Density Analysis of Starch/Natural Rubber Polymer Composites Prepared by Latex Compounding Method

Authors: Raymond Dominic Uzoh


Starch fillers were extracted from three plant sources namely amora tuber (a wild variety of Irish potato), sweet potato and yam starch and their particle size, pH, amylose, and amylopectin percentage decomposition determined accordingly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The starch was introduced into natural rubber in liquid phase (through gelatinization) by the latex compounding method and compounded according to standard method. The prepared starch/natural rubber composites was characterized by Instron Universal testing machine (UTM) for tensile mechanical properties. The composites was further characterized by x-ray diffraction and crosslink density analysis. The particle size determination showed that amora starch granules have the highest particle size (156 × 47 μm) followed by yam starch (155× 40 μm) and then the sweet potato starch (153 × 46 μm). The pH test also revealed that amora starch has a near neutral pH of 6.9, yam 6.8, and sweet potato 5.2 respectively. Amylose and amylopectin determination showed that yam starch has a higher percentage of amylose (29.68), followed by potato (22.34) and then amora starch with the lowest value (14.86) respectively. The tensile mechanical properties testing revealed that yam starch produced the best tensile mechanical properties followed by amora starch and then sweet potato starch. The structure, crystallinity/amorphous nature of the product composite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, while the nature of crosslinking was confirmed by swelling test in toluene solvent using the Flory-Rehner approach. This research study has rendered a workable strategy for enhancing interfacial interaction between a hydrophilic filler (starch) and hydrophobic polymeric matrix (natural rubber) yielding moderately good tensile mechanical properties for further exploitation development and application in the rubber processing industry.

Keywords: natural rubber, fillers, starch, amylose, amylopectin, crosslink density

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34 Polymer-Layered Gold Nanoparticles: Preparation, Properties and Uses of a New Class of Materials

Authors: S. M. Chabane sari S. Zargou, A.R. Senoudi, F. Benmouna


Immobilization of nano particles (NPs) is the subject of numerous studies pertaining to the design of polymer nano composites, supported catalysts, bioactive colloidal crystals, inverse opals for novel optical materials, latex templated-hollow inorganic capsules, immunodiagnostic assays; “Pickering” emulsion polymerization for making latex particles and film-forming composites or Janus particles; chemo- and biosensors, tunable plasmonic nano structures, hybrid porous monoliths for separation science and technology, biocidal polymer/metal nano particle composite coatings, and so on. Particularly, in the recent years, the literature has witnessed an impressive progress of investigations on polymer coatings, grafts and particles as supports for anchoring nano particles. This is actually due to several factors: polymer chains are flexible and may contain a variety of functional groups that are able to efficiently immobilize nano particles and their precursors by dispersive or van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen or covalent bonds. We review methods to prepare polymer-immobilized nano particles through a plethora of strategies in view of developing systems for separation, sensing, extraction and catalysis. The emphasis is on methods to provide (i) polymer brushes and grafts; (ii) monoliths and porous polymer systems; (iii) natural polymers and (iv) conjugated polymers as platforms for anchoring nano particles. The latter range from soft bio macromolecular species (proteins, DNA) to metallic, C60, semiconductor and oxide nano particles; they can be attached through electrostatic interactions or covalent bonding. It is very clear that physicochemical properties of polymers (e.g. sensing and separation) are enhanced by anchored nano particles, while polymers provide excellent platforms for dispersing nano particles for e.g. high catalytic performances. We thus anticipate that the synergetic role of polymeric supports and anchored particles will increasingly be exploited in view of designing unique hybrid systems with unprecedented properties.

Keywords: gold, layer, polymer, macromolecular

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33 Work-Related Risk Factors and Preventive Measures among Nurses and Dentists at Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine

Authors: Marwa Mamdouh Shaban, Nagat Saied Habib, Shireen Ezz El-Din Taha, Eman Mahmoud Seif El-Naser


Background: Dental nurses and dentists were constantly exposed to a number of specific work related health risk factors which develop and intensify with years. Awareness regarding these work-related health risk factors and implementation of preventive health care measures could provide a safe work environment for all dental nurses and dentists. Aim of the study: to assess the work-related health risk factors among dental nurses and dentists and preventive health care measures applied among dental nurses and dentists. Research design: A descriptive design was utilized. Sample: Convenience sample of 50 dental nurses and 150 dentists were included in the current study. Setting: This study was conducted at the dental clinics at faculty of oral and dental medicine, Al-Kasr Al Ainy Hospital. Tools of data collection: Three tools were developed, tested for clarity, and feasibility: a-Socio-demographic data sheet, b-Work-related health risk factors questionnaire, and c-structured observational checklist. Results: The most common work risk factors prevailing among dental nurses were emotional exhaustion (82%), low back pain (76%) and latex allergy (62%) and the most common work risk factors prevailing among dentists were percutaneous exposure incident (100%), emotional exhaustion (100%) and low back pain (93.3%). Also, statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.274, at p = 0.045) between the incidence of chemical health risk factors and application of chemical preventive measures among dental nurses. A statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.177, at p = 0.030) between the incidences of mechanical health risk factors among dentists and application of mechanical preventive measures. Conclusion: The studied dental nurses and dentists exposed to many work related health risk factors as latex allergy, percutaneous exposure incidents, low back pain and emotional exhaustion related to inappropriate application of preventive health care measures. Recommendation: Raise awareness of dental nurses and dentists about work-related health risk factors, design and implement health education program for preventive health care measures.

Keywords: work-related risk factors, preventive measures, nurses, dentists

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32 Rapid and Culture-Independent Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus by PCR Based Protocols

Authors: V. Verma, Syed Riyaz-ul-Hassan


Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly found pathogenic bacteria and is hard to eliminate from the human environment. It is responsible for many nosocomial infections, besides being the main causative agent of food intoxication by virtue of its variety of enterotoxins. Routine detection of S. aureus in food is usually carried out by traditional methods based on morphological and biochemical characterization. These methods are time-consuming and tedious. In addition, misclassifications with automated susceptibility testing systems or commercially available latex agglutination kits have been reported by several workers. Consequently, there is a need for methods to specifically discriminate S. aureus from other staphylococci as quickly as possible. Data on protocols developed using molecular means like PCR technology will be presented for rapid and specific detection of this pathogen in food, clinical and environmental samples, especially milk.

Keywords: food Pathogens, PCR technology, rapid and specific detection, staphylococcus aureus

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31 Synthesis and Characterization of Amino-Functionalized Polystyrene Nanoparticles as Reactive Filler

Authors: Yaseen Elhebshi, Abdulkareem Hamid, Nureddin Bin Issa, Xiaonong Chen


A convenient method of preparing ultrafine polystyrene latex nano-particles with amino groups on the surface is developed. Polystyrene latexes in the size range 50–400 nm were prepared via emulsion polymerization, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Polystyrene with amino groups on the surface will be fine to use as organic filler to modify rubber. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silicon dioxide and functionalized polystyrene nano-particles. The nature of bonding between the polymer and the reactive groups on the filler surfaces was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the filler surface.

Keywords: reactive filler, emulsion polymerization, particle size, polystyrene nanoparticles

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30 Preparation of Biodegradable Methacrylic Nanoparticles by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization for Drugs Loading: The Case of Acetylsalicylic Acid

Authors: J. Roberto Lopez, Hened Saade, Graciela Morales, Javier Enriquez, Raul G. Lopez


Implementation of systems based on nanostructures for drug delivery applications have taken relevance in recent studies focused on biomedical applications. Although there are several nanostructures as drugs carriers, the use of polymeric nanoparticles (PNP) has been widely studied for this purpose, however, the main issue for these nanostructures is the size control below 50 nm with a narrow distribution size, due to they must go through different physiological barriers and avoid to be filtered by kidneys (< 10 nm) or the spleen (> 100 nm). Thus, considering these and other factors, it can be mentioned that drug-loaded nanostructures with sizes varying between 10 and 50 nm are preferred in the development and study of PNP/drugs systems. In this sense, the Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization (SHP) offers the possibility to obtain PNP in the desired size range. Considering the above explained, methacrylic copolymer nanoparticles were obtained under SHP. The reactions were carried out in a jacketed glass reactor with the required quantities of water, ammonium persulfate as initiator, sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate as surfactants, methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as monomers with molar ratio of 2/1, respectively. The monomer solution was dosed dropwise during reaction at 70 °C with a mechanical stirring of 650 rpm. Nanoparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) were loaded with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) by a chemical adsorption technique. The purified latex was put in contact with a solution of ASA in dichloromethane (DCM) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 wt-%, at 35°C during 12 hours. According to the boiling point of DCM, as well as DCM and water densities, the loading process is completed when the whole DCM is evaporated. The hydrodynamic diameter was measured after polymerization by quasi-elastic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, before and after loading procedures with ASA. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of PNP loaded with ASA were measured by infrared spectroscopy, differential scattering calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the molar mass distributions of polymers were determined in a gel permeation chromatograph apparatus. The load capacity and efficiency were determined by gravimetric analysis. The hydrodynamic diameter results for methacrylic PNP without ASA showed a narrow distribution with an average particle size around 10 nm and a composition methyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid molar ratio equal to 2/1, same composition of Eudragit S100, which is a commercial compound widely used as excipient. Moreover, the latex was stabilized in a relative high solids content (around 11 %), a monomer conversion almost 95 % and a number molecular weight around 400 Kg/mol. The average particle size in the PNP/aspirin systems fluctuated between 18 and 24 nm depending on the initial percentage of aspirin in the loading process, being the drug content as high as 24 % with an efficiency loading of 36 %. These average sizes results have not been reported in the literature, thus, the methacrylic nanoparticles here reported are capable to be loaded with a considerable amount of ASA and be used as a drug carrier.

Keywords: aspirin, biocompatibility, biodegradable, Eudragit S100, methacrylic nanoparticles

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29 Experimental Technique to Study Colloid Deposition in Porous Media

Authors: Abdelkader Djehiche, Mostefa Gafsi, Henri Bertin, Aziz Omari


The flows of colloidal suspensions in porous media find many applications in fields such as Petroleum, Hydraulic engineering, deep-bed filtration. For each application, the scientific problems can be summarized the flow in porous medium of a colloidal suspension whose particles having characteristic dimension is considerable in comparison with the pores dimension. In certain cases, one can observe a deposit of particles on the surface of the pores which results in a significant modification in the physical properties of the porous medium. The objective of our study is to use a non-destructive experimental method, the attenuation of g-rays, to study the influence of the number of Peclet on the deposit of latex particles in a consolidated porous medium. The first results obtained show a good agreement between local and global measurements of the deposit of the particles in porous medium. The deposit takes place in a progressive way along the porous medium and leads to a monolayer deposit of which the average thickness is of about the size diameter of the colloidal particles.

Keywords: colloid, gamma ray, Peclet number, permeability, porous medium

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28 Mechanical Properties of Organic Polymer and Exfoliated Graphite Reinforced Bacteria Cellulose Paper

Authors: T. Thompson, E. F. Zegeye


Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is a structural organic compound produced in the anaerobic process. This material can be a useful eco-friendly substitute for commercial textiles that are used in industries today. BC is easily and sustainably produced and has the capabilities to be used as a replacement in textiles. However, BC is extremely fragile when it completely dries. This research was conducted to improve the mechanical properties of the BC by reinforcing with an organic polymer and exfoliated graphite (EG). The BC films were grown over a period of weeks in a green tea and kombucha solution at 30 °C, then cleaned and added to an enhancing solution. The enhancing solutions were a mixture of 2.5 wt% polymer and 2.5 wt% latex solution, a 5 wt% polymer solution, a 0.20 wt% graphite solution and were each allowed to sit in a furnace for 48 h at 50 °C. Tensile test samples were prepared and tested until fracture at a strain rate of 8 mm/min. From the research with the addition of a 5 wt% polymer solution, the flexibility of the BC has significantly improved with the maximum strain significantly larger than that of the base sample. The addition of EG has also increased the modulus of elasticity of the BC by about 25%.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, exfoliated graphite, kombucha scoby, tensile test

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27 Implication of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Polymer/MXene Nanocomposites

Authors: Mathias Aakyiir, Qunhui Zheng, Sherif Araby, Jun Ma


MXene nanosheets stack in polymer matrices, while multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) entangle themselves when used to form composites. These challenges are addressed in this work by forming MXene/MWCNT hybrid nanofillers by electrostatic self-assembly and developing elastomer/MXene/MWCNTs nanocomposites using a latex compounding method. In a 3-phase nanocomposite, MWCNTs serve as bridges between MXene nanosheets, leading to nanocomposites with well-dispersed nanofillers. The high aspect ratio of MWCNTs and the interconnection role of MXene serve as a basis for forming nanocomposites of lower percolation threshold of electrical conductivity from the hybrid fillers compared with the 2-phase composites containing either MXene or MWCNTs only. This study focuses on discussing into detail the interfacial interaction of nanofillers and the elastomer matrix and the outstanding mechanical and functional properties of the resulting nanocomposites. The developed nanocomposites have potential applications in the automotive and aerospace industries.

Keywords: elastomers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MXenes, nanocomposites

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26 Synthesis of Cardanol Oil Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis

Authors: Sylvain Caillol


Uncertainty in terms of price and availability of petroleum, in addition to global political and institutional tendencies toward the principles of sustainable development, urge chemical industry to a sustainable chemistry and particularly the use of renewable resources in order to synthesize biobased chemicals and products. We propose a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol in one or two-steps syntheses. Cardanol, which is a natural phenol, is issued from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL), a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is particularly interesting to replace fossil aromatic groups in polymers and materials. Our team studied various routes for the synthesis of cardanol-derived biobased building blocks used after that in polymer syntheses. For example, we used phenolation to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (meth)acrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (meth)acrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

Keywords: cardanol, cashew nutshell liquid, epoxy, vinyl ester, latex, emulsion

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