Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: lamination

26 Numerical Prediction of Effects of Location of Across-the-Width Laminations on Tensile Properties of Rectangular Wires

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole


This paper presents the finite element analysis numerical investigation of the effects of the location of across-the-width lamination on the tensile properties of rectangular wires for civil engineering applications. FE analysis revealed that the presence of the mid-thickness across-the-width lamination changes the cup and cone fracture shape exhibited by the lamination-free wire to a V-shaped fracture shape with an opening at the bottom/pointed end of the V-shape at the location of the mid-thickness across-the-width lamination. FE analysis also revealed that the presence of the mid-width across-the-thickness lamination changes the cup and cone fracture shape of the lamination-free wire without an opening to a cup and cone fracture shape with an opening at the location of the mid-width across-the-thickness lamination. The FE fracture behaviour prediction approach presented in this work serves as a tool for failure analysis of wires with lamination at different orientations which cannot be conducted experimentally.

Keywords: across-the-width lamination, tensile properties, lamination location, wire

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25 Experimental Research of Corrosion Resistance Desalination Plant Pipe According to Weld Overlay Layers

Authors: Ryu Wonjin, Choi Hyeok, Park Joonhong


Overlay welding for improving surface properties is a method of the surface treatments which improve surface properties of material by welding materials of alloy having corrosion resistance on the basic material surface. Overlay welding affects contents of chemical components and weld hardness from different parts by dilution of the lamination layer thickness, and it determines surface properties. Therefore, overlay welding has to take into account thickness of the lamination layers with the process. As a result in this study examined contents of Fe, weldability of the base metal and monel materials, hardness and surface flatness from different parts according to each the lamination layer parameters by overlay welding monel materials with corrosion resources to the base material of carbon steel. Through this, evaluated effect by the lamination layer parameters of welding and presented decision methods of the lamination layer parameters of the overlay welding by the purpose of use.

Keywords: clad pipe, lamination layer parameters, monel, overlay welding

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24 A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Sun Ho Ko, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac


The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated. the reality is, however, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between the layers when a great weight is loaded from outside. to supplement such demerit, three lamination methods among the prepreg lamination methods of CFRP were designed to minimize the delamination between the layers due to external impacts. Further, the newly designed methods and the existing lamination methods were analyzed through a mechanical characteristic test, Interlaminar Shear Strength test. The Interlaminar Shear Strength test result confirmed that the newly proposed three lamination methods, i.e. the Roll, Half and Zigzag laminations, presented more excellent strengths compared to the conventional Ply lamination. The interlaminar shear strength in the roll method with relatively dense fiber distribution was approximately 1.75% higher than that in the existing ply lamination method, and in the half method, it was approximately 0.78% higher.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP), pre-impregnation, laminating method, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS)

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23 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova


For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

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22 The Effect of Rheological Properties and Spun/Meltblown Fiber Characteristics on “Hotmelt Bleed through” Behavior in High Speed Textile Backsheet Lamination Process

Authors: Kinyas Aydin, Fatih Erguney, Tolga Ceper, Serap Ozay, Ipar N. Uzun, Sebnem Kemaloglu Dogan, Deniz Tunc


In order to meet high growth rates in baby diaper industry worldwide, the high-speed textile backsheet lamination lines have recently been introduced to the market for non-woven/film lamination applications. It is a process where two substrates are bonded to each other via hotmelt adhesive (HMA). Nonwoven (NW) lamination system basically consists of 4 components; polypropylene (PP) nonwoven, polyethylene (PE) film, HMA and applicator system. Each component has a substantial effect on the process efficiency of continuous line and final product properties. However, for a precise subject cover, we will be addressing only the main challenges and possible solutions in this paper. The NW is often produced by spunbond method (SSS or SMS configuration) and has a 10-12 gsm (g/m²) basis weight. The NW rolls can have a width and length up to 2.060 mm and 30.000 linear meters, respectively. The PE film is the 2ⁿᵈ component in TBS lamination, which is usually a 12-14 gsm blown or cast breathable film. HMA is a thermoplastic glue (mostly rubber based) that can be applied in a large range of viscosity ranges. The main HMA application technology in TBS lamination is the slot die application in which HMA is spread on the top of the NW along the whole width at high temperatures in the melt form. Then, the NW is passed over chiller rolls with a certain open time depending on the line speed. HMAs are applied at certain levels in order to provide a proper de-lamination strength in cross and machine directions to the entire structure. Current TBS lamination line speed and width can be as high as 800 m/min and 2100 mm, respectively. They also feature an automated web control tension system for winders and unwinders. In order to run a continuous trouble-free mass production campaign on the fast industrial TBS lines, rheological properties of HMAs and micro-properties of NWs can have adverse effects on the line efficiency and continuity. NW fiber orientation and fineness, as well as spun/melt blown composition fabric micro-level properties, are the significant factors to affect the degree of “HMA bleed through.” As a result of this problem, frequent line stops are observed to clean the glue that is being accumulated on the chiller rolls, which significantly reduces the line efficiency. HMA rheology is also important and to eliminate any bleed through the problem; one should have a good understanding of rheology driven potential complications. So, the applied viscosity/temperature should be optimized in accordance with the line speed, line width, NW characteristics and the required open time for a given HMA formulation. In this study, we will show practical aspects of potential preventative actions to minimize the HMA bleed through the problem, which may stem from both HMA rheological properties and NW spun melt/melt blown fiber characteristics.

Keywords: breathable, hotmelt, nonwoven, textile backsheet lamination, spun/melt blown

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21 Study of Lamination Quality of Semi-Flexible Solar Modules with Special Textile Materials

Authors: K. Drabczyk, Z. Starowicz, S. Maleczek, P. Zieba


The army, police and fire brigade commonly use dedicated equipment based on special textile materials. The properties of these textiles should ensure human life and health protection. Equally important is the ability to use electronic equipment and this requires access to the source of electricity. Photovoltaic cells integrated with such textiles can be solution for this problem in the most of outdoor circumstances. One idea may be to laminate the cells to textile without changing their properties. The main goal of this work was analyzed lamination quality of special designed semi-flexible solar module with special textile materials as a backsheet. In the first step of investigation, the quality of lamination was determined using device equipped with dynamometer. In this work, the crystalline silicon solar cells 50 x 50 mm and thin chemical tempered glass - 62 x 62 mm and 0.8 mm thick - were used. The obtained results showed the correlation between breaking force and type of textile weave and fiber. The breaking force was in the ranges: 4.5-5.5 N, 15-20 N and 30-33 N depending on the type of wave and fiber type. To verify these observations the microscopic and FTIR analysis of fibers was performed. The studies showed the special textile can be used as a backsheet of semi-flexible solar modules. This work presents a new composition of solar module with special textile layer which, to our best knowledge, has not been published so far. Moreover, the work presents original investigations on adhesion of EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate) polymer to textile with respect to fiber structure of laminated substrate. This work is realized for the GEKON project (No. GEKON2/O4/268473/23/2016) sponsored by The National Centre for Research and Development and The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management.

Keywords: flexible solar modules, lamination process, solar cells, textile for photovoltaics

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20 Study of Mechanical Properties of Large Scale Flexible Silicon Solar Modules on the Various Substrates

Authors: M. Maleczek, Leszek Bogdan, Kazimierz Drabczyk, Agnieszka Iwan


Crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells are the main product in the market among the various photovoltaic technologies concerning such advantages as: material richness, high carrier mobilities, broad spectral absorption range and established technology. However, photovoltaic technology on the stiff substrates are heavier, more fragile and less cost-effective than devices on the flexible substrates to be applied in special applications. The main goal of our work was to incorporate silicon solar cells into various fabric, without any change of the electrical and mechanical parameters of devices. This work is realized for the GEKON project (No. GEKON2/O4/268473/23/2016) sponsored by The National Centre for Research and Development and The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management. In our work, the polyamide or polyester fabrics were used as a flexible substrate in the created devices. Applied fabrics differ in tensile and tear strength. All investigated polyamide fabrics are resistant to weathering and UV, while polyester ones is resistant to ozone, water and ageing. The examined fabrics are tight at 100 cm water per 2 hours. In our work, commercial silicon solar cells with the size 156 × 156 mm were cut into nine parts (called single solar cells) by diamond saw and laser. Gap and edge after cutting of solar cells were checked by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to study morphology and quality of the prepared single solar cells. Modules with the size of 160 × 70 cm (containing about 80 single solar cells) were created and investigated by electrical and mechanical methods. Weight of constructed module is about 1.9 kg. Three types of solar cell architectures such as: -fabric/EVA/Si solar cell/EVA/film for lamination, -backsheet PET/EVA/Si solar cell/EVA/film for lamination, -fabric/EVA/Si solar cell/EVA/tempered glass, were investigated taking into consideration type of fabric and lamination process together with the size of solar cells. In investigated devices EVA, it is ethylene-vinyl acetate, while PET - polyethylene terephthalate. Depend on the lamination process and compatibility of textile with solar cell an efficiency of investigated flexible silicon solar cells was in the range of 9.44-16.64 %. Multi folding and unfolding of flexible module has no impact on its efficiency as was detected by Instron equipment. Power (P) of constructed solar module is 30 W, while voltage about 36 V. Finally, solar panel contains five modules with the polyamide fabric and tempered glass will be produced commercially for different applications (dual use).

Keywords: flexible devices, mechanical properties, silicon solar cells, textiles

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19 A Study on the Comparatison of Mechanical and Thermal Properties According to Laminated Orientation of CFRP through Bending Test

Authors: Hee Jae Shin, Lee Ku Kwac, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim


In rapid industrial development has increased the demand for high-strength and lightweight materials. Thus, various CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) with composite materials are being used. The design variables of CFRP are its lamination direction, order, and thickness. Thus, the hardness and strength of CFRP depend much on their design variables. In this paper, the lamination direction of CFRP was used to produce a symmetrical ply [0°/0°, -15°/+15°, -30°/+30°, -45°/+45°, -60°/+60°, -75°/+75°, and 90°/90°] and an asymmetrical ply [0°/15°, 0°/30°, 0°/45°, 0°/60° 0°/75°, and 0°/90°]. The bending flexure stress of the CFRP specimen was evaluated through a bending test. Its thermal property was measured using an infrared camera. The symmetrical specimen and the asymmetrical specimen were analyzed. The results showed that the asymmetrical specimen increased the bending loads according to the increase in the orientation angle; and from 0°, the symmetrical specimen showed a tendency opposite the asymmetrical tendency because the tensile force of fiber differs at the vertical direction of its load. Also, the infrared camera showed that the thermal property had a trend similar to that of the mechanical properties.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), bending test, infrared camera, composite

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18 The Lamination and Arterial Blood Supply of the Masseter Muscle of Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Elsyed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash


The present study was carried out to investigate the structure of the masseter muscle of camel and its attachments to the skull as well as the relationships with its arterial blood supply. Fourteen heads of clinically healthy camels of different ages and sexes were used in the present investigation. The both common carotid arteries of six specimens were cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with red colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the pattern of the blood supply to the masseter muscle. Two heads were injected with an eventually mixture of 75gm red lead oxide in 150cc latex and preserved in a cold room for 3-4 days then divided sagittaly along the median plane to avoid super imposition of the arteries. The arteries of the masseter muscle of each half were radiographed. Four heads were used in manual dissection to describe the laminar arrangement of the masseter muscle. The masseter muscle of the camel was very tendinous and was situated far caudally, which enable the camel to open its jaw very wide. In the camel, the masseter muscle was recognized into proper and improper masseter groups. The proper group included the first, second superficial, intermediate and deep masseter layers. The improper group consisted of maxillo-mandibularis and zygomatico-mandibularis. The remaining two heads were used for clearance.

Keywords: anatomy, camel, masseter, lamination, blood supply

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17 Direct Compression Formulation of Poorly Compressible Drugs to Minimize the Tablet Defects

Authors: Abhishek Pandey


Capping and lamination are the most common tablet defects with poorly compressible drugs the common example of that Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen. Generally both these drugs are compressed by wet granulation method which is very time consuming process Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis Acetaminophen used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression technique and their evaluation. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimize formulation nine different formulations were generated among them batch F5, F6, F7 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of evaluation parameters.

Keywords: capping, lamination, tablet defects, direct compression

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16 Effect of Repellent Coatings, Aerosol Protective Liners, and Lamination on the Properties of Chemical/Biological Protective Textiles

Authors: Natalie Pomerantz, Nicholas Dugan, Molly Richards, Walter Zukas


The primary research question to be answered for Chemical/Biological (CB) protective clothing, is how to protect wearers from a range of chemical and biological threats in liquid, vapor, and aerosol form, while reducing the thermal burden. Currently, CB protective garments are hot, heavy, and wearers are limited by short work times in order to prevent heat injury. This study demonstrates how to incorporate different levels of protection on a material level and modify fabric composites such that the thermal burden is reduced to such an extent it approaches that of a standard duty uniform with no CB protection. CB protective materials are usually comprised of several fabric layers: a cover fabric with a liquid repellent coating, a protective layer which is comprised of a carbon-based sorptive material or semi-permeable membrane, and a comfort next-to-skin liner. In order to reduce thermal burden, all of these layers were laminated together to form one fabric composite which had no insulative air gap in between layers. However, the elimination of the air gap also reduced the CB protection of the fabric composite. In order to increase protection in the laminated composite, different nonwoven aerosol protective liners were added, and a super repellent coating was applied to the cover fabric, prior to lamination. Different adhesive patterns were investigated to determine the durability of the laminate with the super repellent coating, and the effect on air permeation. After evaluating the thermal properties, textile properties and protective properties of the iterations of these fabric composites, it was found that the thermal burden of these materials was greatly reduced by decreasing the thermal resistance with the elimination of the air gap between layers. While the level of protection was reduced in laminate composites, the addition of a super repellent coating increased protection towards low volatility agents without impacting thermal burden. Similarly, the addition of aerosol protective liner increased protection without reducing water vapor transport, depending on the nonwoven used, however, the air permeability was significantly decreased. The balance of all these properties and exploration of the trade space between thermal burden and protection will be discussed.

Keywords: aerosol protection, CBRNe protection, lamination, nonwovens, repellent coatings, thermal burden

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15 Experimental and Computational Analysis of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Beams with Piezoelectric Fibers

Authors: Selin Kunc, Srinivas Koushik Gundimeda, John A. Gallagher, Roselita Fragoudakis


This study investigates the behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) laminated beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers. The electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric materials coupled with high strength/low weight GFRP laminated beams can have significant application in a wide range of industries. Energy scavenging through mechanical vibrations is the focus of this study, and possible applications can be seen in the automotive industry. This study examines the behavior of such composite laminates using Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) under three-point bending conditions. Fiber orientation is optimized for the desired stiffness and deflection that yield maximum energy output. Finite element models using ABAQUS/CAE are verified through experimental testing. The optimum stacking sequences examined are [0o]s, [ 0/45o]s, and [45/-45o]s. Results show the superiority of the stacking sequence [0/45o]s, providing higher strength at a lower weight, and maximum energy output. Furthermore, laminated GFRP beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers can be used under bending to not only replace metallic component while providing similar strength at a lower weight but also provide an energy output.

Keywords: classical lamination theory (CLT), energy scavenging, glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), piezoelectric fibers

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14 Computationally Efficient Stacking Sequence Blending for Composite Structures with a Large Number of Design Regions Using Cellular Automata

Authors: Ellen Van Den Oord, Julien Marie Jan Ferdinand Van Campen


This article introduces a computationally efficient method for stacking sequence blending of composite structures. The computational efficiency makes the presented method especially interesting for composite structures with a large number of design regions. Optimization of composite structures with an unequal load distribution may lead to locally optimized thicknesses and ply orientations that are incompatible with one another. Blending constraints can be enforced to achieve structural continuity. In literature, many methods can be found to implement structural continuity by means of stacking sequence blending in one way or another. The complexity of the problem makes the blending of a structure with a large number of adjacent design regions, and thus stacking sequences, prohibitive. In this work the local stacking sequence optimization is preconditioned using a method found in the literature that couples the mechanical behavior of the laminate, in the form of lamination parameters, to blending constraints, yielding near-optimal easy-to-blend designs. The preconditioned design is then fed to the scheme using cellular automata that have been developed by the authors. The method is applied to the benchmark 18-panel horseshoe blending problem to demonstrate its performance. The computational efficiency of the proposed method makes it especially suited for composite structures with a large number of design regions.

Keywords: composite, blending, optimization, lamination parameters

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13 Analytical Determination of Electromechanical Coupling Effects on Interlaminar Stresses of Generally Laminated Piezoelectric Plates

Authors: Atieh Andakhshideh, S. Maleki, Sayed Sadegh Marashi


In this paper, the interlaminar stresses of generally laminated piezoelectric plates are presented. The electromechanical coupling effect of the piezoelectric plate is considered and the governing equations and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of minimum total potential energy. The solution procedure is a three-dimensional multi-term extended Kantorovich method (3DMTEKM). The objective of this paper is to accurately study coupling influence on the edge effects of piezolaminated plates with finite dimensions, arbitrary lamination lay-ups and under uniform axial strain. These results can provide a benchmark for checking the accuracy of the other numerical method or two-dimensional laminate theories. To verify the accuracy of the 3DMTEKM, first examples are simplified to special cases such as cross-ply or symmetric laminations and are compared with other analytical solutions available in the literature. Excellent agreement is achieved in validation test and other numerical results are presented for general cases. Numerical examples indicate the singular behavior of interlaminar normal/shear stresses and electric field strength components near the edges of the piezolaminated plates. The coupling influence on the free edge effect with respect to lamination lay-ups of piezoelectric plate is studied in several examples.

Keywords: electromechanical coupling, generally laminated piezoelectric plates, Kantorovich method, edge effect, interlaminar stresses

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12 The Development of a Nanofiber Membrane for Outdoor and Activity Related Purposes

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova


This paper describes the development of a nanofiber membrane for sport and outdoor use at the Technical University of Liberec (TUL) and the following cooperation with a private Czech company which launched this product onto the market. For making this membrane, Polyurethan was electrospun on the Nanospider spinning machine, and a wire string electrode was used. The created nanofiber membrane with a nanofiber diameter of 150 nm was subsequently hydrophobisied using a low vacuum plasma and Fluorocarbon monomer C6 type. After this hydrophobic treatment, the nanofiber membrane contact angle was higher than 125o, and its oleophobicity was 6. The last step was a lamination of this nanofiber membrane with a woven or knitted fabric to create a 3-layer laminate. Gravure printing technology and polyurethane hot-melt adhesive were used. The gravure roller has a mesh of 17. The resulting 3-layer laminate has a water vapor permeability Ret of 1.6 [Pa.m2.W-1] (– measured in compliance with ISO 11092), it is 100% windproof (– measured in compliance with ISO 9237), and the water column is above 10 000 mm (– measured in compliance with ISO 20811). This nanofiber membrane which was developed in the laboratories of the Technical University of Liberec was then produced industrially by a private company. A low vacuum plasma line and a lamination line were needed for industrial production, and the process had to be fine-tuned to achieve the same parameters as those achieved in the TUL laboratories. The result of this work is a newly developed nanofiber membrane which offers much better properties, especially water vapor permeability, than other competitive membranes. It is an example of product development and the consequent fine-tuning for industrial production; it is also an example of the cooperation between a Czech state university and a private company.

Keywords: nanofiber membrane, start-up, state university, private company, product

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11 Recognition of a Thinly Bedded Distal Turbidite: A Case Study from a Proterozoic Delta System, Chaossa Formation, Simla Group, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Priyanka Mazumdar, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


A lot of progress has been achieved in the research of turbidites during the last decades. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further attention. This paper addresses example of fine grained turbidite from a pro-deltaic deposit of a Proterozoic mixed energy delta system exposed along Chaossa-Baliana river section of the Chaossa Formation of the Simla Basin. Lithostratigraphic analysis of the Chaossa Formation reveals three major facies associations (prodelta deposit-FA1, delta slope deposit-FA2 and delta front deposit-FA3) based on lithofacies types, petrography and sedimentary structures. Detailed process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analysis of the study area have led to identification of more than150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of fine grained turbidites overlain by delta slope deposits. Erosional features are locally common at the base of turbidite beds and still more widespread at the top. The complete sequence has eight sub-divisions that are here termed T1 to T8. The basal subdivision (T1) comprises a massive graded unit with a sharp, scoured base, internal parallel-lamination and cross-lamination. The overlying sequence shows textural and compositional grading through alternating silt and mud laminae (T2). T2 is overlying by T3 which is characterized by climbing ripple and cross lamination. Parallel laminae are the predominant facies attributes of T4 which caps the T3 unit. T5 has a loaded scour base and is mainly characterized laminated silt. The topmost three divisions, graded mud (T6), ungraded mud (T7) and laminated mud (T8). The proposed sequence is analogous to the Bouma (1962) structural scheme for sandy turbidites. Repetition of partial sequences represents deposition from different stages of evolution of a large, muddy, turbidity flow. Detailed facies analysis of the study area reveals that the sediments of the turbidites developed during normal regression at the stage of stable or marginally rising sea level. Thin-bedded turbidites were deposited predominantly by turbidity currents in the relatively shallower part of the Simla basin. The fine-grained turbidites are developed by resedimentation of delta-front sands and slumping of upper pro-delta muds.

Keywords: turbidites, prodelta, proterozoic, Simla Basin, Bouma sequence

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10 Ternary Organic Blend for Semitransparent Solar Cells with Enhanced Short Circuit Current Density

Authors: Mohammed Makha, Jakob Heier, Frank Nüesch, Roland Hany


Organic solar cells (OSCs) have made rapid progress and currently achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of over 10%. OSCs have several merits over other direct light-to-electricity generating cells and can be processed at low cost from solution on flexible substrates over large areas. Moreover, combining organic semiconductors with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of semitransparent OSCs (SM-OSCs). For SM-OSCs the challenge is to achieve a high average visible transmission (AVT) while maintaining a high short circuit current (Jsc). Typically, Jsc of SM-OSCs is smaller than when using an opaque metal top electrode. This is because the non-absorbed light during the first transit through the active layer and the transparent electrode is forward-transmitted out of the device. Recently, OSCs using a ternary blend of organic materials have received attention. This strategy was pursued to extend the light harvesting over the visible range. However, it is a general challenge to manipulate the performance of ternary OSCs in a predictable way, because many key factors affect the charge generation and extraction in ternary solar cells. Consequently, the device performance is affected by the compatibility between the blend components and the resulting film morphology, the energy levels and bandgaps, the concentration of the guest material and its location in the active layer. In this work, we report on a solvent-free lamination process for the fabrication of efficient and semitransparent ternary blend OSCs. The ternary blend was composed of PC70BM and the electron donors PBDTTT-C and an NIR cyanine absorbing dye (Cy7T). Using an opaque metal top electrode, a PCE of 6% was achieved for the optimized binary polymer: fullerene blend (AVT = 56%). However, the PCE dropped to ~2% when decreasing (to 30 nm) the active film thickness to increase the AVT value (75%). Therefore we resorted to the ternary blend and measured for non-transparent cells a PCE of 5.5% when using an active polymer: dye: fullerene (0.7: 0.3: 1.5 wt:wt:wt) film of 95 nm thickness (AVT = 65% when omitting the top electrode). In a second step, the optimized ternary blend was used of the fabrication of SM-OSCs. We used a plastic/metal substrate with a light transmission of over 90% as a transparent electrode that was applied via a lamination process. The interfacial layer between the active layer and the top electrode was optimized in order to improve the charge collection and the contact with the laminated top electrode. We demonstrated a PCE of 3% with AVT of 51%. The parameter space for ternary OSCs is large and it is difficult to find the best concentration ratios by trial and error. A rational approach for device optimization is the construction of a ternary blend phase diagram. We discuss our attempts to construct such a phase diagram for the PBDTTT-C: Cy7T: PC70BM system via a combination of using selective Cy7T selective solvents and atomic force microscopy. From the ternary diagram suitable morphologies for efficient light-to-current conversion can be identified. We compare experimental OSC data with these predictions.

Keywords: organic photovoltaics, ternary phase diagram, ternary organic solar cells, transparent solar cell, lamination

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9 Electrode Engineering for On-Chip Liquid Driving by Using Electrokinetic Effect

Authors: Reza Hadjiaghaie Vafaie, Aysan Madanpasandi, Behrooz Zare Desari, Seyedmohammad Mousavi


High lamination in microchannel is one of the main challenges in on-chip components like micro total analyzer systems and lab-on-a-chips. Electro-osmotic force is highly effective in chip-scale. This research proposes a microfluidic-based micropump for low ionic strength solutions. Narrow microchannels are designed to generate an efficient electroosmotic flow near the walls. Microelectrodes are embedded in the lateral sides and actuated by low electric potential to generate pumping effect inside the channel. Based on the simulation study, the fluid velocity increases by increasing the electric potential amplitude. We achieve a net flow velocity of 100 µm/s, by applying +/- 2 V to the electrode structures. Our proposed low voltage design is of interest in conventional lab-on-a-chip applications.

Keywords: integration, electrokinetic, on-chip, fluid pumping, microfluidic

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8 Impact of Butt Joints on Flexural Properties of Nail Laminated Timber

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Tianying Ma, Meng Gong


Nail laminated timber (NLT) is widely used for constructing timber bridge decks in North America. Butt joints usually exist due to the length limits of lumber, leading to concerns about the decrease of structural performance of NLT. This study aimed at investigating the provisions incorporated in Canadian highway bridge design code on the use of but joints in wooden bridge decks. Three and five layers NLT specimens with various configurations were tested under 3-point bending test. It was found that the standard equation is capable of predicting the bending stiffness reduction due to butt joints and 1-m band limit in which, one but joint in every three adjacent lamination is allowed, sounds reasonable. The strength reduction also followed a pattern similar to stiffness reduction. Also reinforcement of the butt joint through nails and steel side plates was attempted. It was found that nail reinforcement recovers the stiffness slightly. In contrast, reinforcing the butt joint through steel side plate improved the flexural performance significantly when compared to the nail reinforcement.

Keywords: nail laminated timber, butt joint, bending stiffness, reinforcement

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7 For Single to Multilayer Polyvinylidene Fluoride Based Polymer for Electro-Caloric Cooling

Authors: Nouh Zeggai, Lucas Debrux, Fabien Parrain, Brahim Dkhil, Martino Lobue, Morgan Almanza


Refrigeration and air conditioning are some of the most used energies in our daily life, especially vapor compression refrigeration. Electrocaloric material might appears as an alternative towards solid-state cooling. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based polymer has shown promising adiabatic temperature change (∆T) and entropy change (∆S). There is practically no limit to the electric field that can be applied, except the one that the material can withstand. However, when working with a large surface as required in a device, the chance to have a defect is larger and can drastically reduce the voltage breakdown, thus reducing the electrocaloric properties. In this work, we propose to study how the characteristic of a single film are transposed when going to multilayer. The laminator and the hot press appear as two interesting processes that have been investigating to achieve a multilayer film. The study is mainly focused on the breakdown field and the adiabatic temperature change, but the phase and crystallinity have also been measured. We process one layer-based PVDF and assemble them to obtain a multilayer. Pressing at hot temperature method and lamination were used for the production of the thin films. The multilayer film shows higher breakdown strength, temperature change, and crystallinity (beta phases) using the hot press technique.

Keywords: PVDF-TrFE-CFE, multilayer, electrocaloric effect, hot press, cooling device

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6 Design Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Performance by Differential Evolution

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao


Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages like speed variation and four-quadrant operation, find its application in wind turbines. DFIG besides supplying power to the grid has to support reactive power (kvar) under grid voltage variations, should contribute minimum fault current during faults, have high efficiency, minimum weight, adequate rotor protection during crow-bar-operation from +20% to -20% of rated speed.  To achieve the optimum performance, a good electromagnetic design of DFIG is required. In this paper, a simple and heuristic global optimization – Differential Evolution has been used. Variables considered are lamination details such as slot dimensions, stack diameters, air gap length, and generator stator and rotor stack length. Two operating conditions have been considered - voltage and speed variations. Constraints included were reactive power supplied to the grid and limiting fault current and torque. The optimization has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum efficiency, weight reduction, and grid fault stator currents. Subsequent calculations led to the conclusion that designs determined through differential evolution help in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function.

Keywords: design optimization, performance, DFIG, differential evolution

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5 The Effect of Vitamin "E" on the Peripheral Neurotoxicity of Antimony in Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Pymaneh Bairami Rad


The present work was planned with the aim to study the histological changes that might occur in the sciatic nerve of adult male albino rat following antimony trioxide exposure and to throw more light on the protective role of vitamin "E" on the peripheral neurotoxicity induced by this environmental toxin Sixty adult male albino rats, weighing 183 - 235 grams, were utilized in this work. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received antimony trioxide daily for 12 successive weeks , animals of group III received antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" daily for the same duration. Antimony trioxide was given in a daily dose of 500 mg/ kg body weight which represents 1/40 of the known LD50 and vitamin "E" was administered in a daily dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. Both antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" were given to the animals by gastric intubation. This research revealed many histological changes in the sciatic nerve, following exposure to antimony trioxide, including Wallerian degeneration in most myelinated nerve fibers with pleomorphic destruction, fragmentation, loss of normal lamination and rupture of myelin sheaths. The axoplasms of these nerve fibers were irregular, degenerated and contained myelin fragments with loss of neurofibrils. Obvious increase in endoneurium was also observed. Concomitant administration of vitamin "E" with antimony trioxide resulted in marked improvement in the histological changes observed in the sciatic nerve.

Keywords: neurotoxicity, antimony, vitamin e, anatomy, histology

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4 Composite Laminate and Thin-Walled Beam Correlations for Aircraft Wing Box Design

Authors: S. J. M. Mohd Saleh, S. Guo


Composite materials have become an important option for the primary structure of aircraft due to their design flexibility and ability to improve the overall performance. At present, the option for composite usage in aircraft component is largely based on experience, knowledge, benchmarking and partly market driven. An inevitable iterative design during the design stage and validation process will increase the development time and cost. This paper aims at presenting the correlation between laminate and composite thin-wall beam structure, which contains the theoretical and numerical investigations on stiffness estimation of composite aerostructures with applications to aircraft wings. Classical laminate theory and thin-walled beam theory were applied to define the correlation between 1-dimensional composite laminate and 2-dimensional composite beam structure, respectively. Then FE model was created to represent the 3-dimensional structure. A detailed study on stiffness matrix of composite laminates has been carried out to understand the effects of stacking sequence on the coupling between extension, shear, bending and torsional deformation of wing box structures for 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional structures. Relationships amongst composite laminates and composite wing box structures of the same material have been developed in this study. These correlations will be guidelines for the design engineers to predict the stiffness of the wing box structure during the material selection process and laminate design stage.

Keywords: aircraft design, aircraft structures, classical lamination theory, composite structures, laminate theory, structural design, thin-walled beam theory, wing box design

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3 Reliability Analysis of Glass Epoxy Composite Plate under Low Velocity

Authors: Shivdayal Patel, Suhail Ahmad


Safety assurance and failure prediction of composite material component of an offshore structure due to low velocity impact is essential for associated risk assessment. It is important to incorporate uncertainties associated with material properties and load due to an impact. Likelihood of this hazard causing a chain of failure events plays an important role in risk assessment. The material properties of composites mostly exhibit a scatter due to their in-homogeneity and anisotropic characteristics, brittleness of the matrix and fiber and manufacturing defects. In fact, the probability of occurrence of such a scenario is due to large uncertainties arising in the system. Probabilistic finite element analysis of composite plates due to low-velocity impact is carried out considering uncertainties of material properties and initial impact velocity. Impact-induced damage of composite plate is a probabilistic phenomenon due to a wide range of uncertainties arising in material and loading behavior. A typical failure crack initiates and propagates further into the interface causing de-lamination between dissimilar plies. Since individual crack in the ply is difficult to track. The progressive damage model is implemented in the FE code by a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT) to overcome these problems. The limit state function is accordingly established while the stresses in the lamina are such that the limit state function (g(x)>0). The Gaussian process response surface method is presently adopted to determine the probability of failure. A comparative study is also carried out for different combination of impactor masses and velocities. The sensitivity based probabilistic design optimization procedure is investigated to achieve better strength and lighter weight of composite structures. Chain of failure events due to different modes of failure is considered to estimate the consequences of failure scenario. Frequencies of occurrence of specific impact hazards yield the expected risk due to economic loss.

Keywords: composites, damage propagation, low velocity impact, probability of failure, uncertainty modeling

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2 Analyses of Defects in Flexible Silicon Photovoltaic Modules via Thermal Imaging and Electroluminescence

Authors: S. Maleczek, K. Drabczyk, L. Bogdan, A. Iwan


It is known that for industrial applications using solar panel constructed from silicon solar cells require high-efficiency performance. One of the main problems in solar panels is different mechanical and structural defects, causing the decrease of generated power. To analyse defects in solar cells, various techniques are used. However, the thermal imaging is fast and simple method for locating defects. The main goal of this work was to analyze defects in constructed flexible silicon photovoltaic modules via thermal imaging and electroluminescence method. This work is realized for the GEKON project (No. GEKON2/O4/268473/23/2016) sponsored by The National Centre for Research and Development and The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management. Thermal behavior was observed using thermographic camera (VIGOcam v50, VIGO System S.A, Poland) using a DC conventional source. Electroluminescence was observed by Steinbeis Center Photovoltaics (Stuttgart, Germany) equipped with a camera, in which there is a Si-CCD, 16 Mpix detector Kodak KAF-16803type. The camera has a typical spectral response in the range 350 - 1100 nm with a maximum QE of 60 % at 550 nm. In our work commercial silicon solar cells with the size 156 × 156 mm were cut for nine parts (called single solar cells) and used to create photovoltaic modules with the size of 160 × 70 cm (containing about 80 single solar cells). Flexible silicon photovoltaic modules on polyamides or polyester fabric were constructed and investigated taking into consideration anomalies on the surface of modules. Thermal imaging provided evidence of visible voltage-activated conduction. In electro-luminescence images, two regions are noticeable: darker, where solar cell is inactive and brighter corresponding with correctly working photovoltaic cells. The electroluminescence method is non-destructive and gives greater resolution of images thereby allowing a more precise evaluation of microcracks of solar cell after lamination process. Our study showed good correlations between defects observed by thermal imaging and electroluminescence. Finally, we can conclude that the thermographic examination of large scale photovoltaic modules allows us the fast, simple and inexpensive localization of defects at the single solar cells and modules. Moreover, thermographic camera was also useful to detection electrical interconnection between single solar cells.

Keywords: electro-luminescence, flexible devices, silicon solar cells, thermal imaging

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1 Structural Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: C. Amer, M. Sahin


The design of an optimised horizontal axis 5-meter-long wind turbine rotor blade in according with IEC 61400-2 standard is a research and development project in order to fulfil the requirements of high efficiency of torque from wind production and to optimise the structural components to the lightest and strongest way possible. For this purpose, a research study is presented here by focusing on the structural characteristics of a composite wind turbine blade via finite element modelling and analysis tools. In this work, first, the required data regarding the general geometrical parts are gathered. Then, the airfoil geometries are created at various sections along the span of the blade by using CATIA software to obtain the two surfaces, namely; the suction and the pressure side of the blade in which there is a hat shaped fibre reinforced plastic spar beam, so-called chassis starting at 0.5m from the root of the blade and extends up to 4 m and filled with a foam core. The root part connecting the blade to the main rotor differential metallic hub having twelve hollow threaded studs is then modelled. The materials are assigned as two different types of glass fabrics, polymeric foam core material and the steel-balsa wood combination for the root connection parts. The glass fabrics are applied using hand wet lay-up lamination with epoxy resin as METYX L600E10C-0, is the unidirectional continuous fibres and METYX XL800E10F having a tri-axial architecture with fibres in the 0,+45,-45 degree orientations in a ratio of 2:1:1. Divinycell H45 is used as the polymeric foam. The finite element modelling of the blade is performed via MSC PATRAN software with various meshes created on each structural part considering shell type for all surface geometries, and lumped mass were added to simulate extra adhesive locations. For the static analysis, the boundary conditions are assigned as fixed at the root through aforementioned bolts, where for dynamic analysis both fixed-free and free-free boundary conditions are made. By also taking the mesh independency into account, MSC NASTRAN is used as a solver for both analyses. The static analysis aims the tip deflection of the blade under its own weight and the dynamic analysis comprises normal mode dynamic analysis performed in order to obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes focusing the first five in and out-of-plane bending and the torsional modes of the blade. The analyses results of this study are then used as a benchmark prior to modal testing, where the experiments over the produced wind turbine rotor blade has approved the analytical calculations.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, fiber reinforced composites, horizontal axis wind turbine blade, hand-wet layup, modal testing

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