Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: camel

65 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary

Abstract:

The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: camel calves, chromium, haematological, immune response

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
64 Analysis of Commercial Cow and Camel Milk by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Lucia Pappalardo, Sara Abdul Majid Azzam

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Camel milk is widely consumed by people living in arid areas of the world, where it is also known for its potential therapeutic and medical properties. Indeed it has been used as a treatment for several diseases such as tuberculosis, dropsy, asthma, jaundice and leishmaniasis in India, Sudan and some parts of Russia. A wealth of references is available in literature for the composition of milk from different diary animals such as cows, goats and sheep. Camel milk instead has not been extensively studied, despite its nutritional value. In this study commercial cow and camel milk samples, bought from the local market, were analyzed by 1D 1H-NMR and multivariate statistics in order to identify the different composition of the low-molecular-weight compounds in the milk mixtures. The samples were analyzed in their native conditions without any pre-treatment. Our preliminary study shows that the two different types of milk samples differ in the content of metabolites such as orotate, fats and more.

Keywords: camel, cow, milk, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

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63 Quality Characteristics of Cured Dried Camel Meat Formulated with Different Medicinal Plants as Natural Preservatives

Authors: H. S. Aljabeili, E. A. Abd El-Hady, M. M. Abd El-Razik, M. Abd Elgadir

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The aim of the study is determining the quality characteristics of produced curing and dried camel meat contained some medicinal plants of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger as natural preservatives. Camel meat samples were sliced and divided into five batches, one batch recorded as control sample was treated by the curing mixture (2.5%) contained the following ingredients: black pepper 1 gm, cumin 0.4 gm, spices mixture 0.5 gm, dried onion 3 gm, dried garlic 0.5 gm and salt 2 gm. To evaluate the effect of different natural preservatives sources of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger, 3.0% of the aforementioned natural preservatives was mixed with the aforementioned curing mixture and used for curing the four batches of sliced camel meat. After curing process, cured sliced camel meat (control and treated with the natural preservatives) were conducting to drying process at 35 ± 3 °C for 36 h in a drying cabinet. The quality characteristics of prepared dried camel meat were evaluated such as chemical composition, microbiological characteristics and sensory characteristics. Based on the microbiological and sensory characteristics, it could be suggested that the selected medicinal plants specially thyme and rosemary could be used as natural preservatives for preparing semi dry camel meat without negative effects.

Keywords: curing, dried camel meat, medicinal plants, natural preservatives, quality characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
62 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: Maha Mohamed Hady Ali, M. A. El-Sayed

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Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: camel, copper, egypt, feed stuff, iron, selenium, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
61 Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

Authors: Awad G. Abdellatif, Huda M. Gargoum, Abdelkader A. Debani, Mudafara Bengleil, Salmin Alshalmani, N. El Zuki, Omran El Fitouri

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In this study, the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhgigraecorum (camel thorn) to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. The histopathological investigation also confirmed that camel thorn extract protects the liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand, the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycin was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with an unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity–induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Keywords: ethanolic, alhgigraecorum, tetrachloride, acetaminophen

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60 Detection of MspI Polymorphism and SNP of GH Gene in Some Camel Breeds Reared in Egypt

Authors: Sekena H. Abd El-Aziem, Heba A. M. Abd El-Kader, Sally S. Alam, Othman E. Othman

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Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone synthesized and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in a circadian and pulsatile manner, the pattern of which plays an important role in postnatal longitudinal growth and development, tissue growth, lactation, reproduction as well as protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to detect the genetic polymorphism of GH gene in five camel breeds reared in Egypt; Sudany, Somali, Mowaled, Maghrabi and Falahy, using PCR-RFLP technique. Also this work aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism between different genotypes detected in these camel breeds. The amplified fragment of camel GH at 613-bp was digested with the restriction enzyme MspI and the result revealed the presence of three different genotypes; CC, CT and TT in tested breeds and significant differences were recorded in the genotype frequencies between these camel breeds. The result showed that the Maghrabi breed that is classified as a dual purpose camels had higher frequency for allele C (0.75) than those in the other tested four breeds. The sequence analysis declared the presence of a SNP (C→T) at position 264 in the amplified fragment which is responsible for the destruction of the restriction site C^CGG and consequently the appearance of two different alleles C and T. The nucleotide sequences of camel GH alleles T and C were submitted to nucleotide sequences database NCBI/Bankit/GenBank and have accession numbers: KP143517 and KP143518, respectively. It is concluded that only one SNP C→T was detected in GH gene among the five tested camel breeds reared in Egypt and this nucleotide substitution can be used as a marker for the genetic biodiversity between camel breeds reared in Egypt. Also, due to the possible association between allele C and higher growth rate, we can used it in MAS for camels and enter the camels possess this allele in breeding program as a way for enhancement of growth trait in camel breeds reared in Egypt.

Keywords: camel breeds in Egypt, GH, PCR-RFLP, SNPs

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59 Analysis of Genetic Variations in Camel Breeds (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Amr A. El Hanafy, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

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Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, security and capital in many countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Inter simple sequence repeat technique was used to detect the genetic variations among some camel breeds (Majaheim, Safra, Wadah, and Hamara). Actual number of alleles, effective number of alleles, gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and polymorphic bands were calculated for each evaluated camel breed. Neighbor-joining tree that re-constructed for evaluated these camel breeds showed that, Hamara breed is distantly related from the other evaluated camels. In addition, the polymorphic sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity were identified for some camelidae cox1 gene sequences (obtained from NCBI). The distance value between C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius (0.072) was relatively low. Analysis of genetic diversity is an important way for conserving Camelus dromedarius genetic resources.

Keywords: camel, genetics, ISSR, neighbor-joining

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58 The Lamination and Arterial Blood Supply of the Masseter Muscle of Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Elsyed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash

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The present study was carried out to investigate the structure of the masseter muscle of camel and its attachments to the skull as well as the relationships with its arterial blood supply. Fourteen heads of clinically healthy camels of different ages and sexes were used in the present investigation. The both common carotid arteries of six specimens were cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with red colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the pattern of the blood supply to the masseter muscle. Two heads were injected with an eventually mixture of 75gm red lead oxide in 150cc latex and preserved in a cold room for 3-4 days then divided sagittaly along the median plane to avoid super imposition of the arteries. The arteries of the masseter muscle of each half were radiographed. Four heads were used in manual dissection to describe the laminar arrangement of the masseter muscle. The masseter muscle of the camel was very tendinous and was situated far caudally, which enable the camel to open its jaw very wide. In the camel, the masseter muscle was recognized into proper and improper masseter groups. The proper group included the first, second superficial, intermediate and deep masseter layers. The improper group consisted of maxillo-mandibularis and zygomatico-mandibularis. The remaining two heads were used for clearance.

Keywords: anatomy, camel, masseter, lamination, blood supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
57 Aptitude of a Lactococcus Strain to Grow on Whey Medium

Authors: Souid Wafa, Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Khacef Linda

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In this work, we focused on the valuation of discharges from the dairy industry. Whey is by-product of dairy industry, which is a formidable pollution factor and contains components (lactose, minerals and proteins) with high nutritional value. Whey is an excellent culture medium for microorganisms. The objective of our work is to investigate the ability of a lactic strain (of the genus Lactococcus) to grow in culture media based on whey of cattle and camels and comparing it with that recorded on M17 as indicator medium. In this study we isolated from a local sample of camel milk a lactic strain (S1).the strain had positive Gram shaped, cocci form and catalase (-). The strain has been purified by the method of streaks on M17 medium. Phenotypic identification allows us to classify this strain in the species: Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris. We subsequently tested the ability of this strain to grow in cattle whey medium and camel whey, both media were deproteinized and unsupplemented. The obtained results revealed that: The cattle and camel whey are appropriate media for the growth of the strain Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris but is more adapted to grow on a medium rich in lactose as the camel whey. In fact, after 48h and at initial pH 6.8 this strain acidified more camel whey (pH 3.99) than cattle whey (pH 4.8). And biomass produced in the camel whey is 1.50g /1 by contributing to the cattle whey which is 1g / l.

Keywords: cremoris, dairy industry, Lactococcus lactis subsp, medium, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
56 Effect of Phenolic Compounds on Off-Odor Development and Oxidative Stability of Camel Meat during Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Sajid Maqsood, Aysha Al Rashedi, Aisha Abushelaibi, Kusaimah Manheem

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Impact of different natural antioxidants on lipid oxidation, microbial load and sensorial quality in ground camel meat (leg region) during 9 days of refrigerated storage were investigated. Control camel meat showed higher lipid oxidation products (Peroxide value and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) during the storage period. Upon addition of different natural antioxidants PV and TBARS were retarded, especially in samples added with tannic acid (TA), catechin (CT) and gallic acid (GA) (p<0.05). Haem iron content decreased with increasing storage period and was found to be lower in samples added with caffeic acid (CA) and gallic acid (GA) at the end of storage period (p<0.05). Furthermore, lower mesophilic bacterial count (MBC) and psychrophilic bacterial counts (PBC) were observed in TA and CT treated samples compared to control and other samples (p<0.05). Camel meat treated with TA and CT also received higher likeness scores for colour, odor and overall appearance compared to control samples (p<0.05). Therefore, adding different natural antioxidants especially TA and CT showed retarding effect on lipid oxidation and microbial growth and were also effective in maintaining sensory attributes (color and odor) of ground camel meat during storage at 4°C. Hence, TA and CT could be considered as the potential natural antioxidant for preserving the quality of the camel meat displayed at refrigerated shelves.

Keywords: natural antioxidants, lipid oxidation, quality, camel meat

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55 Functional Significance of Qatari Camels Milk: Antioxidant Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Protein Fractions

Authors: Tahra ElObeid, Omnya Ahmed, Reem Al-Sharshani, Doaa Dalloul, Jannat Alnattei

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Background: Camelus dormedarius camels are also called ‘the Arabian camels’ and are present in the desert area of North Africa and the Middle East. Recently, camel’s milk has a great attention globally because of their proteins and peptides that have been reported to be beneficial for the health and in the management of many diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the total phenolic content of camel’s milk proteins in Qatar. Methods: Fresh two camel’s milk samples from Omani breed and called Muhajer (camel’s milk A and B) were collected on the 1st of the December. Both samples were from the same location Al- Shahaniyah, Doha, Qatar, but from different local private farms and feeding system. Camel’s milk A and B were defatted by centrifugation and their proteins were extracted by acid and thermal precipitation. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic compound (TPC) was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR). On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity against eight different type of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by disc diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: The of the total phenolic content of whole milk in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. The % of the DPPH radical inhibition of casein protein in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. In this study, there were marked changes in the antibacterial activity in the different camel milk protein extracts. All extracts showed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the camel milk protein extracts correlated to their unique phenolic compounds and bioactive protein peptides. The antimicrobial activity was not detected perhaps due to the technique, the quality, or the extraction method. Overall, camel's milk exhibits a high antioxidant activity, which is responsible for many health benefits besides the nutritional values.

Keywords: camels milk, antioxidant content, antimicrobial activity, proteins, Qatar

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
54 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

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Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, camel meat, inhibition, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
53 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

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52 Types of Neurons in the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus of the Camel Brain: Golgi Study

Authors: Qasim A. El Dwairi, Saleh M. Banihani, Ayat S. Banihani, Ziad M. Bataineh

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Neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the camel were studied by Golgi impregnation. Neurons were classified based on differences in size and shape of their cell bodies, density of their dendritic trees, morphology and distribution of their appendages. In the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the camel, at least twelve types of neurons were identified. These neurons include, stalked, islets, octubus-like, lobulated, boat-like, pyramidal, multipolar, round, oval and elongated neurons. They have large number of different forms of appendages not only for their dendrites but also for their cell bodies. Neurons with unique large dilatations especially at their dendritic branching points were found. The morphological features of these neurons were described and compared with their counterparts in other species. Finding of large number of neuronal types with different size and shapes and large number of different forms of appendages for cell bodies and dendrites together with the presence of cells with unique features such as large dilated parts for dendrites may indicate to a very complex information processing for pain and temperature at the level of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in the camel that traditionally live in a very hard environment (the desert).

Keywords: camel, golgi, neurons , spinal trigeminal nucleus

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
51 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

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Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
50 Seasonal and Species Variations in Incidence of Foetal Loss at the Maiduguri Abattoir in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq O. Raji, Abba Mohammed, Ibrahim D. Mohammed

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This study was conducted to investigate foetal loss among slaughtered livestock species at the Maiduguri abattoir from 2009 to 2013. Record of animals slaughtered monthly and fetuses recovered were collected from the management of the Maiduguri abattoir. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using the General Linear Model of SPSS 13.0 with Season, Species and their interaction as fixed factors. Average yearly slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir was 63,225 animals with cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounting for 19737, 7374, 19281 and 17540 of the total. The corresponding number of those pregnant were 3117, 839, 2281 and 2432 out of a total of 8522 animals. Thus, cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounted for 30.87, 11.53, 30.16 and 27.44%, respectively of the animals slaughtered at the Abattoir and 35.96, 9.68, 26.31 and 28.05% of the foetal loss. The effect of season and species on foetal loss was significant (P < 0.05). The number of pregnant animals slaughtered and foetal loss were higher during wet than dry season. Similarly, foetal loss at the abattoir was higher in the month of May in respect of camel, goat and sheep, and August for cattle. Camel was the least slaughtered animal and had the least number of pregnant females. Foetal loss (%) was higher (P < 0.05) for cattle compared to other species. The interaction showed that camel was the least slaughtered species in both seasons and cattle in the wet season had the highest foetal loss.

Keywords: abattoir, foetal loss, season, species

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49 Effects of Camel Casein Hydrolysate Addition on Rheological Properties of Yoghurt

Authors: A. A. Al-Saleh, E. A. Ismail, A. A. Metwalli

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Effects of camel and cow casein hydrolysates by trypsin enzyme on rheological and sensory properties and growth of starter culture of the yoghurts made from cow milk have been investigated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yoghurts. The rate of pH decrease was higher with camel casein hydrolysate in comparison with cow casein hydrolysate at all concentrations used (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). Viscosities of the yoghurt made with hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control samples. The addition of the hydrolysates significantly (p <0.05) increased the hardness and adhesiveness of the yoghurts. No significant differences in water holding capacity of control and treated samples were obsereved at 0.5 and 1.0% casein hydrolysate addition. However, increasing casein hydrolysate addition to 1.5% decreased water holding capacity of yoghurt samples. The sensory evaluation scores of the yoghurts were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the addition of casein hydrolysates.

Keywords: yoghurt, camel casein hydrolysates, cow casein hydrolysate, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
48 Assessment of Potential Spontaneous Plants Seed Dispersal in Camels and Small Ruminants Faeces

Authors: H. Trabelsi, A. Chehma, I. Benseddik

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Animals can play an important role in the seed dispersal cycle through the active or passive uptake of seeds and the subsequent external (epizoochory) or internal transport (endozoochory) of seeds. In Algeria, small ruminants and camels are generally conducted in extensive livestock exploiting the Saharan and steppe rangelands. To get an idea on the ecological potential role of these animals in the spontaneous plants proliferation, we propose to make a study of seeds dispersal and germination possibilities by camel faeces compared to those of small ruminants. Manual faeces decortication of the two animals categories has allowed to inventory 72 seed which 71% are in good condition, while 29% of the seeds that are encountered are partially altered and could not be identified. The species that have been identified, from small ruminants dung are weeds of cultures, while those identified from camel dung are spontaneous plants of Saharan rangeland. Concerning germination in the laboratory, only 3 species seeds were germinated from camel feces, whose germination rate varies from 25% to 100%. Contrary to Sheep-Goat feces, a single species germinated with 71%. The three months seed germination in greenhouse allowed to identify 10 species belonging to 4 botanical families (5 species from small ruminants dung and 3 species from Camel dung). In general, the results show the positive effect played by two animals categories for plants seed dispersal with the camel particularity for spontaneous plants due to its capacity to cover long distances in different rangeland types.

Keywords: Algeria, camel, endozoochory, seeds, sheep-goat, rangeland

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47 Gross Anatomical and Ultra Structural Microscopic Studies on the Nose of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus Dromederius)

Authors: Mahmoud S Gewaily, Atif Hasan, Mohamed Kassab, Ali A. Mansour

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The current study was carried out on the nose of seventeenth healthy adult camels. Specimens were collected from slaughter houses then fixed, dissected and photographed. For ultra structural studies, fresh samples were fixed in different fixatives and prepared for examination by light, scanning and electron microscopes. Grossly, nose of the camel had narrow nostrils, slit like in outline. In the nasal cavity, the nasal vestibule was narrow and has scanty dorsal and lateral cartilaginous support. The Nasal conchae (dorsal, middle and ventral) enclosed the dorsal, middle conchal sinuses and no ventral conchal sinus; instead there was recess and bull a. The ethmoidal conchae (8 in number) were noticeably fewer than in the other domestic animals like ox and horse. The olfactory mucosa was restricted to a small area covering the caudal parts of the ethmoidal conchae. The lining epithelium of the nasal cavity changes gradually from stratified squamous epithelium in the nasal vestibule to pseudo stratified columnar ciliated in the respiratory region and finally, olfactory epithelium covering the caudal parts of the ethmoidal conchae. In the dromedary camel, a special feature was the presence of dense and relatively long hair covering the nostrils and the rostral part of the nasal vestibule. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the nose of the dromedary camel, especially in its rostral parts enable this animal to breathe properly in the sandy dry weather.

Keywords: camel nose, anatomy, dromedary camel, nasal vestibule

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46 Performance of Heifer Camels (Camelus dromedarius) on Native Range Supplemented with Different Energy Levels

Authors: Shehu, B., Muhammad, B. F., Madigawa, I. L., H. A. Alkali

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The study was conducted to assess heifer camel behavior and live weight changes on native range supplemented with different energy levels. A total of nine camels aged between 2 and 3 years were randomly allotted into three groups and supplemented with 3400, 3600 and 3800 Kcal and designated A, B and C, respectively. The data obtained was analyzed for variance in a Completely Randomized Design. The heifers utilized average of 371.70 min/day (64% of daylight time) browsing on native pasture and 2.30 min/day (6%) sand bathing. A significantly higher mean time was spent by heifers on browsing Leptadenia hastata (P<0.001), Dichrostachys cinerea (P<0.01), Acacia nilotica (P<0.001) and Ziziphus spina-christi (P<0.05) in early dry season (January). No significant difference was recorded on browsing time on Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Piliostigma reticulatum, Parkia biglobosaand Azadirachta indica. No significant (P<0.05) liveweight change was recorded on she-camels due to the three energy levels. It was concluded that nutritive browse species in the study area could meet camel nutrient requirements including energy. Further research on effect of period on camel nutrients requirement in different physiological conditions is recommended.

Keywords: heifer, camel, grazing, pasture

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45 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatoryactivities of Camel Thorn in Experimental Animals

Authors: Abdelkader H. El Debani, Huda Gargoum, Awad G. Abdellatif

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The aim of this study is to investigate analgesic and the anti-inflammatory effects Camel Thorn Extract (CTE) in rodents. Male albino mice weighing 20-25 gm. were divided into different groups each of 8 mice. The control was given normal saline i. p., the first group was given normal saline i. p. the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, groups received different doses of CTE (330, 660, and 1300 mg/kg) respectively and the 6th group received 5mg/kg of morphine i. p. All groups (except the control group) were given acetic acid 40 min after receiving the different treatment. The number of writhes was recorded 5 min after acetic acid injection for 15 min and the % of inhibition of writhing were calculated. Different groups of rats weighing 180- 220 gm., were divided into three groups each of 5 rats. At the beginning, the volumes of the right and left paw in animals were measured by using of the plethysmometer. The 1st group was given 660 mg /kg i. p. of CTE, the 2nd group received indomethacin (5 mg/kg i. p.). One hour later, edema was induced by sub planter injection of 0.1 ml of 1 % freshly prepared suspension of carrageenan into the right hind paws of the rats. The volume of the injected paws and contra-lateral paws were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours using plethysmometer. The volume of the left paw of the rat was subtracted from the volume of the right paw of the same animal. Our results showed that 330,660 and 1300 mg/kg produced 14, 49 and 84%of inhibition of writhes, indicating that CTE has a strong analgesic activity. Our data also showed that the % of inhibition of edema at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min was 14,51,71,61, and 56% in the animals given camel thorn extract whereas these figures in animals given endomethacin were 14, 24, 54, 52, and 54%. These results indicate that camel thorn has anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities needs further investigations.

Keywords: camel thorn, imdomethacin, morphine, pharmaceutical medicine

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44 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

Abstract:

112 lactic isolates were obtained from 15 samples of camel raw milk produced in Laayoune Boujdour Sakia-El Hamra region (South of Morocco). The main objective was the identification of species of lactic flora belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. Data obtained showed predominance of cocci among lactic isolates (86.6%) while lactic rods represented only 13.4%. With regard to genera identified, Enterococcus was the mostly found out (53.57%), followed by Lactococcus (28.57%), Lactobacillus (13.4%) and Leuconostoc (4.4 %). Identification of the lactic isolates according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics led to differentiating 11 species with Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis biovar diacetylactis being the mostly encountered (24.1%) followed by Lactobacillus brevis (3.57%), Lactobacillus plantarum (3.57%), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis (3.57%) and Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (2.67%).

Keywords: raw camel milk, south of morocco, lactic acid bacteria, identification

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43 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method in Camels Milk

Authors: Fahad Aljasass, Hamza Abu-Tarboush, Salah Aleid, Siddig Hamad

Abstract:

The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the shelf life of camel’s milk were studied. Treatments at 300 to 350 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination to levels that prolonged the shelf life of refrigerated (3° C) milk up to 28 days. The treatment resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the milk. The content of proteolytic enzymes in the untreated milk sample was 4.23 µM/ml. This content decreased significantly to 3.61 µM/ml when the sample was treated at 250 MPa. Treatment at 300 MPa decreased the content to 3.90 which was not significantly different from the content of the untreated sample. The content of the sample treated at 350 MPa dropped to 2.98 µM/ml which was significantly lower than the contents of all other treated and untreated samples. High pressure treatment caused a slight but statistically significant increase in the pH of camel’s milk. The pH of the untreated sample was 6.63, which increased significantly to 6.70, in the samples treated at 250 and 350 MPa, but insignificantly in the sample treated at 300 MPa. High pressure treatment resulted in some degree of milk fat oxidation. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of the untreated sample was 0.86 mg malonaldehyde/kg milk. This value remained unchanged in the sample treated at 250 MPa, but then it increased significantly to 1.25 and 1.33 mg/kg in the samples treated at 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. High pressure treatment caused a small increase in the greenness (a* value) of camel’s milk. The value of a* was reduced from -1.17 for the untreated sample to -1.26, -1.21 and -1.30 for the samples treated at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. Δa* at the 250 MPa treatment was -0.09, which then decreased to -0.04 at the 300 MPa treatment to increase again to -0.13 at the 350 MPa treatment. The yellowness (b* value) of camel’s milk increased significantly as a result of high pressure treatment. The b* value of the untreated sample was 1.40, this value increased to 2.73, 2.31 and 2.18 after treatments at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. The Δb* value was +1.33 at the treatment 250 MPa, decreased to +0.91 at 300 MPa and further to +0.78 at 350 MPa. The pressure treatment caused slight effect on color, slight decrease in protease activity and a slight increase in the oxidation products of lipids.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, camel’s milk, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, clotting, protease

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42 Genomic Diversity and Relationship among Arabian Peninsula Dromedary Camels Using Full Genome Sequencing Approach

Authors: H. Bahbahani, H. Musa, F. Al Mathen

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The dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are single-humped even-toed ungulates populating the African Sahara, Arabian Peninsula, and Southwest Asia. The genome of this desert-adapted species has been minimally investigated using autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. In this study, the genomes of 33 dromedary camel samples from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula were sequenced using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. These data were combined with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data from African (Sudanese) dromedaries to investigate the genomic relationship between African and Arabian Peninsula dromedary camels. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and average genome-wide admixture analysis were be conducted on these data to tackle the objectives of these studies. Both of the two analyses conducted revealed phylogeographic distinction between these two camel populations. However, no breed-wise genetic classification has been revealed among the African (Sudanese) camel breeds. The Arabian Peninsula camel populations also show higher heterozygosity than the Sudanese camels. The results of this study explain the evolutionary history and migration of African dromedary camels from their center of domestication in the southern Arabian Peninsula. These outputs help scientists to further understand the evolutionary history of dromedary camels, which might impact in conserving the favorable genetic of this species.

Keywords: dromedary, genotyping-by-sequencing, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan

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41 Volatile Composition of Sucuks: A Traditional Dry-Fermented Sausage Affected by Meat and Fat Types

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina, Antoni Szumny

Abstract:

The profiles of volatile compounds of differently formulated sausages including CH (camel meat-hump), CB (camel meat-beef fat), BH (beef-hump) and BB (beef-beef fat) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in order to investigate the role of meat and fat type in aroma compounds release. A total of 47 compounds identified, were consisted of 3 acids, 1 ester, 3 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 5 sulphur compounds, and 27 terpenes. The significant differences were observed in the aroma compounds among four batches. The CH sucuk samples containing the highest (p<0.05) fat amount among the others showed higher amounts of volatiles in consequence. The sausages prepared with hump showed higher amounts of aldehydes and lower amounts of terpenes compared to the sausages made with beef fat (p<0.05). It seemed that meat type had an inconsiderable effect on the volatile profile of the sausages.

Keywords: aromatic compounds, camel meat, hump, SPME

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40 Prevalence of Nasal Botfly Cephalopenia titillator in Camels in Tripoli-Libya

Authors: A. S. El Naas, K. S. Ganghish, A. O. Booker, O. Elwaer

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10 out of 40 camels examined at Tripoli slaughter places were infected with the camel nasal bot fly Cephalopenia titillator. The larvae occurred mainly in the nasopharynx and occasionally the larvae were found embedded between turbinated bones. The nasal cavity was congested and filled with mucus in which some larvae were entangled. This work is undertaken to determine the Prevalence of Cephalopenia titillator of camel slaughtered in Tripoli-Libya.

Keywords: Cephalopenia titillator, camels, Libya, larvae, nasopharynx

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39 Production of Camel Nanobodies against of Anti-Morphine-3-Glucuronide for the Development of a Biosensor for Detecting Illicit Drug

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Sadegh Hasannia, Hadi Shirzad, Afshin Khara

Abstract:

Morphine is one of the most medicinally important analgesics and narcotics. Structurally, it is classified as an alkaloid because of the presence of nitrogen. Its structure is similar to that of codeine, thebaine, and heroin. An immunoassay to accurately discriminate between these analogous alkaloids would be highly beneficial. A key factor for such an assay is specificity with high sensitivity, which is totally dependent on the antibody employed. However, most antibodies against haptens are polyclonal serum antibodies that exhibit significant cross-reactivities with closely related compounds. The camel-derived single-chain antibody fragments (VHH) are the smallest molecules with antigen-binding capacity, possessing unique properties compared to other conventional antibodies. In this study, a library containing the VHH genes of a camel immunized with with morphine conjugated BSA following phage display technology was generated. By screening the camel-derived variable region of the heavy chain cDNA phage display library with the ability to bind the desired hapten, we obtained some nanobodies that recognize this hapten. Phage display expression of the Nbs from this library and pannings against this hapten resulted in a clear enrichment of four distinct Nb-displaying phages with specificity for morphine that could be a potential target site for the development of new strategies for the development of a biosensor for detecting illicit drug.

Keywords: phage display, nanobody, Morphine-3, glucuronide, ELISA, biosensor

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38 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar

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Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: camel, surgery, histopathology, breathing organ

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37 Nutritional Properties and Lipid Oxidation Assessments of Sucuks Prepared with Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Meat and Hump

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina

Abstract:

Different formulations of Turkish fermented sausages (sucuks) prepared with camel meat-hump (CH), camel meat-beef fat (CB), beef-hump (BH) and beef-beef fat (BB), were characterized. The sausages were analytically compared to determine differences in proximate composition and total cholesterol content (TCC), quality parameters such as fatty acids profile and fat quality characteristics, and lipid oxidation parameters including peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and resulted carbonyl compounds. The PUFAs/SFAs ratio was higher in CB and BB samples than CH and BH (p<0.05). The higher calculated atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes (AI and TI) were obtained from the samples made with hump (p< 0.05) as a result of high amounts of their SFAs. The CH sausages contained high amount of total fat (p<0.05) among all samples. The CB sucuks exhibited the highest protein content and the lowest TCC and rancidity at the end of ripening (p<0.05). The TBARS results showed that beef fat samples were more susceptible to lipid oxidation. Moreover, no significant difference (p<0.05) was observed for the values of short aldehydes among the sucuk samples excepting nonanal. This study demonstrated that supplementing camel meat for the production of dry-fermented sausage resulted in high quality products with good functional and nutritional characteristics.

Keywords: fermented sausages, quality properties, SPME, total cholesterol content

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36 Pathological Observations of Intestinal Coccidiosis in Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Abhilasha Dadhich, Manisha Mathur, Sanjay Kumar, Hemant Dadhich

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The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an important animal component of the fragile desert eco-system of India. Apart from others, impaired milk and meat production decrease in performance and even death are some of the major consequences of parasitic disease like coccidiosis in camel. Coccidiosis which is an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or isospora spp. Post-Mortem examinations of 5 carcasses of dromedary of different age groups aged from 2 to 5 years were conducted. The history indicated that the camels were suffering from diarrhoea, dysentery, pyrexia, inappetence, weight loss, and emaciation. Post mortem examinations showed macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the small intestine, particularly in jejunum and ileum regions. The mucosae were congested, and haemorrhagic on which there were numerous whitish-grey nodular foci were observed. The affected intestinal tissue specimens were preserved in 10% formal saline and processed mechanically for paraffin embedding by acetone and benzene technique. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin method of staining for histopathological examinations. Histologically, typical lesions such as congestion and haemorrhages were present. The intestinal villi were oedematous; mucosa degenerated and desquamated, along with infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages. Crypts of lieberkuhn were obliterated due to presence of schizonts in lamina propria. Older camels served as the source of spread of coccidial infection and were also predisposed to secondary infections.

Keywords: camel, coccidiosis, Eimeria, histopathology

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