Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: leather

55 Construct the Fur Input Mixed Model with Activity-Based Benefit Assessment Approach of Leather Industry

Authors: M. F. Wu, F. T. Cheng

Abstract:

Leather industry is the most important traditional industry to provide the leather products in the world for thousand years. The fierce global competitive environment and common awareness of global carbon reduction make livestock supply quantities falling, salt and wet blue leather material reduces and the price skyrockets significantly. Exchange rate fluctuation led sales revenue decreasing which due to the differences of export exchanges and compresses the overall profitability of leather industry. This paper applies activity-based benefit assessment approach to build up fitness fur input mixed model, fur is Wet Blue, which concerned with four key factors: the output rate of wet blue, unit cost of wet blue, yield rate and grade level of Wet Blue to achieve the low cost strategy under given unit price of leather product condition of the company. The research findings indicate that applying this model may improve the input cost structure, decrease numbers of leather product inventories and to raise the competitive advantages of the enterprise in the future.

Keywords: activity-based benefit assessment approach, input mixed, output rate, wet blue

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
54 Leather Quality of Some Sudan Goats under Range Condition

Authors: Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the effect of breed and feeding level before slaughter on the skin\leather quality of the three main breeds of Sudan goats. Thirty (30) pieces of fresh skins from the three goat breeds (an average age 1-1.5 years) were chosen for the study purpose. For whole variations between the three breeds in two levels of feeding (poor and rich pastures) Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used for data analysis. The results revealed that, leather weight (kg), elongation%, tensile strength (kg/cm2), cracking load (kg), thickness (mm), tear load (kg/cm) and chrome% findings were significantly affected (P≥0.05) by breed variation. Flexibility, moisture%, Ash% and fat % were not significantly affected (P ≥ 0.05) by breed. On the other hand, skin weight (kg), Cracking load (kg), Tear load (kg/cm) and Ash% were significantly affected (P≥0.05) by pasture quality. While Leather Elongation%, Tensile strength (kg/cm2), Thickness (mm), Flexibility, Moisture%, Fat % and Chrome% were not statistically (P ≥ 0.05) affected by pastures quality.

Keywords: skin\leather quality, goats leather, natural pasture, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
53 Characterization of Poly(Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate)-Imino Diacetic Acid Membrane to Adsorbing Leather Dye

Authors: Ahmet Aslan, Safiye Meric Acikel, Raziye Hilal Senay, Sinan Akgol

Abstract:

Different chemical substances and too much water are used during leather production. Therefore, the waste water load of the leather industry is harmful to the environment. One of the pollution sources is the production of leather coloring process is a further need to focus on the removal of dye waste waters subject. These water-soluble dyes have a small organic molecular size. Besides the environmental hazards, these dyes cannot be underestimated, they also have harmful effects on human health. In this study, poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) p(HEMA-GMA) hydrogel membranes were synthesized by UV polymerization method. The hydrogel synthesized is modified with imino diacetic acid (IDA) and then chelated with Cr (III) ions. The chelating capacity of the membranes was determined according to the time, pH and concentration parameters. Dynamic swelling test, elemental analysis, ninhydrin analysis and adsorption, desorption and reusability performances of membranes were also determined.

Keywords: adsorption, dye, leather, p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
52 Antecedent and Outcome of New Product Development in Leather Industry, Bangkok and Vicinity, Thailand

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund

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The purposes of this research were to develop and to monitor the antecedent factors which directly affected the success rate of new product development. This was a case study of the leather industry in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 350 leather factories were used as a sample group. The findings revealed that the new product development model was harmonized with the empirical data at the acceptable level, the statistic values are: x^2=6.45, df= 7, p-value = .48856; RMSEA = .000; RMR = .0029; AGFI = .98; GFI = 1.00. The independent variable that directly influenced the dependent variable at the highest level was marketing outcome which had a influence coefficient at 0.32 and the independent variables that indirectly influenced the dependent variables at the highest level was a clear organization policy which had a influence coefficient at 0.17, whereas, all independent variables can predict the model at 48 percent.

Keywords: antecedent, new product development, leather industry, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
51 Treatment of Leather Industry Wastewater with Advance Treatment Methods

Authors: Seval Yilmaz, Filiz Bayrakci Karel, Ali Savas Koparal

Abstract:

Textile products produced by leather have been indispensable for human consumption. Various chemicals are used to enhance the durability of end-products in the processing of leather products. The wastewaters from the leather industry which contain these chemicals exhibit toxic effects on the receiving environment and threaten the natural ecosystem. In this study, leather industry wastewater (LIW), which has high loads of contaminants, was treated using advanced treatment techniques instead of conventional methods. During the experiments, the performance of electrochemical methods was investigated. During the electrochemical experiments, the performance of batch electrooxidation (EO) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with monopolar configuration for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from LIW were investigated. The influences of electrolysis time, current density (which varies as 5 mA/cm², 10 mA/cm², 20 mA/cm², 30 mA/cm², 50 mA/cm²) and initial pH (which varies as 3,80 (natural pH of LIW), 7, 9) on removal efficiency were investigated in a batch stirred cell to determine the best treatment conditions. The current density applied to the electrochemical reactors is directly proportional to the consumption of electric energy, so electrical energy consumption was monitored during the experiment. The best experimental conditions obtained in electrochemical studies were as follows: electrolysis time = 60 min, current density = 30.0 mA/cm², pH 7. Using these parameters, 53.59% COD removal rates for LIW was achieved and total energy consumption was obtained as 13.03 kWh/m³. It is concluded that electrooxidation process constitutes a plausible and developable method for the treatment of LIW.

Keywords: BDD electrodes, COD removal, electrochemical treatment, leather industry wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
50 The Effect of Market Orientation on Marketing Performance through Product Adaptation Strategy

Authors: Hotlan Siagian, Hatane Semuel, Wilma Laura Sahetapy

Abstract:

This study aims at examining the effect of market orientation on marketing performance through product adaptation strategy. The population of the research is domestic leather craft companies located in five regions, the center of the leather craft industry in Indonesia, i.e., Central Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, Bali, and West Kalimantan. The respondent consists of a manager level from each company. Data collection used a questionnaire designed with five-item Likert scale. Collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique with SmartPLS software version 3.0 to examine the hypotheses. The result of the study shows that all hypotheses are supported. Market orientation affects marketing performance. Market orientation affects product adaptation strategy. Product adaptation strategy influences the marketing performance. The research also has revealed the main finding that product adaptation strategy contributes to a mediating role in the market orientation strategy and marketing performance relationship. The leather craft companies in Indonesia, therefore, may refer to this result in improving their marketing performance.

Keywords: leather craft industry, market orientation, marketing performance, product adaptation strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
49 The Profitability Management Mechanism of Leather Industry-Based on the Activity-Based Benefit Approach

Authors: Mei-Fang Wu, Shu-Li Wang, Tsung-Yueh Lu, Feng-Tsung Cheng

Abstract:

Strengthening core competitiveness is the main goal of enterprises in a fierce competitive environment. Accurate cost information is a great help for managers in dealing with operation strategies. This paper establishes a profitability management mechanism that applies the Activity-Based Benefit approach (ABBA) to solve the profitability for each customer from the market. ABBA provides financial and non-financial information for the operation, but also indicates what resources have expired in the operational process. The customer profit management model shows the level of profitability of each customer for the company. The empirical data were gathered from a case company operating in the leather industry in Taiwan. The research findings indicate that 30% of customers create little profit for the company as a result of asking for over 5% of sales discounts. Those customers ask for sales discount because of color differences of leather products. This paper provides a customer’s profitability evaluation mechanism to help enterprises to greatly improve operating effectiveness and promote operational activity efficiency and overall operation profitability.

Keywords: activity-based benefit approach, customer profit analysis, leather industry, profitability management mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
48 Conducting Glove Leathers Prepared through in-situ Polymerization of Pyrrole

Authors: Wegene Demisie Jima

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Leather is a durable and flexible material used for various purposes including clothing, footwear, upholstery and gloves. However, the use of leather for smart product applications is a challenge since it is electrically insulating material. Here, we report a simple method to produce conducting glove leathers using an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole. The concentrations of pyrrole, ferric chloride and anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate were optimized to produce maximum conductivity in the treated leathers. The coating of polypyrrole in the treated leathers was probed using FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analysis. FTIR confirms that the formation of polypyrrole on the leather surface as well as presence of prominent N-C stretching band. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests para-crystallinity in the PPy-treated leathers.We further demonstrate that the treated leathers, with maximum conductivity of 7.4 S/cm, can be used for making conductive gloves for operating touch-screen devices apart from other smart product applications.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, in-situ polymerization, pyrrole, smart product

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
47 Valorization of Waste and By-products for Protein Extraction and Functional Properties

Authors: Lorena Coelho, David Ramada, Catarina Nobre, Joaquim Gaião, Juliana Duarte

Abstract:

The development of processes that allows the valorization of waste and by-products generated by industries is crucial to promote symbiotic relationships between different sectors and is mandatory to “close the loop” in the circular economy paradigm. In recent years, by-products and waste from agro-food and forestry sector have attracted attention due to their potential application and technical characteristics. The extraction of bio-based active compounds to be reused is in line with the circular bioeconomy concept trends, combining the use of renewable resources with the process’s circularity, aiming the waste reduction and encouraging reuse and recycling. Among different types of bio-based materials, which are being explored and can be extracted, proteins fractions are becoming an attractive new raw material. Within this context, BioTrace4Leather project, a collaboration between two Technological Centres – CeNTI and CTIC, and a company of Tanning and Finishing of Leather – Curtumes Aveneda, aims to develop innovative and biologically sustainable solutions for leather industry and accomplish the market circularity trends. Specifically, it aims to the valorisation of waste and by-products from the tannery industry through proteins extraction and the development of an innovative and biologically sustainable materials. The achieved results show that keratin, gelatine, and collagen fractions can be successfully extracted from hair and leather bovine waste. These products could be reintegrated into the industrial manufacturing process to attain innovative and functional textile and leather substrates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work has been developed under BioTrace4Leather scope, a project co-funded by Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization (COMPETE) of PORTUGAL2020, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), under grant agreement Nº POCI-01-0247-FEDER-039867.

Keywords: leather by-products, circular economy, sustainability, protein fractions

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
46 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

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This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
45 Industrial Waste to Energy Technology: Engineering Biowaste as High Potential Anode Electrode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: Pejman Salimi, Sebastiano Tieuli, Somayeh Taghavi, Michela Signoretto, Remo Proietti Zaccaria

Abstract:

Increasing the growth of Industrial waste due to the large quantities of production leads to numerous environmental and economic challenges such as climate change, soil and water contamination, human disease, etc. Energy recovery of waste can be applied to produce heat or electricity. This strategy allows reducing energy produced using coal or other fuels and directly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different factories, leather manufacturing plays a very important role in the whole world from the socio-economic point of view. The leather industry plays a very important role in our society from a socio-economic point of view. There are approximately 10,000 tanneries in the world producing leather for more than 6.5 million tons per year. Even though the leather industry uses a by-product from the meat industry as raw material, it is considered as an activity demanding for integrated prevention and control of pollution. Along the entire process, from raw skins/hides to finished leather, a huge amount of solid and water waste is generated. The solid wastes include fleshings, raw trimmings, shavings, buffing dust, etc. One of the most abundant solid wastes (ca. 25% in weight of leather) generated throughout the leather tanning is the shaving waste. Leather shaving is a mechanical process that aims at reducing the tanned skin to a specific thickness before tanning and finishing. This product consists mainly of collagen and tanning agent. At present, over 85 % of the world's leather processing is chrome-tanned based. Consequently, large amounts of chromium-containing shaving wastes need to be treated. The major concern about the management of this kind of solid waste is ascribed to chrome content, which makes the conventional disposal methods, such as landfilling and incineration, not practicable. Therefore, many efforts have been developed in recent decades for promoting eco-friendly/alternative leather production and more effective waste management. Herein, shaving waste resulting from metal-free tanning technology is proposed as low-cost precursors for the preparation of carbon material as anodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In line with the philosophy of a reduced environmental impact, for preparing fully sustainable and environmentally friendly LIBs anodes, deionized water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) have been used as alternatives to toxic/teratogen N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone (NMP) and to biologically hazardous Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), respectively. Furthermore, going towards the reduced cost, we had employed water solvent and Fluoride-free bio-derived CMC binder (as an alternative to NMP and PVdF, respectively) together with LiFePO4 (LFP) when a full cell was considered. These actions make closer to the 2030 goal of having green LIBs at 100 $ kW h-1. Besides, preparation of the water-based electrodes does not need a controlled environment and, due to the higher vapor pressure of water in comparison with NMP, the water-based electrode drying is much faster. This aspect determines an important consequence, namely a reduced energy consumption for the electrode preparation. The electrode derived from leather waste demonstrated the discharge capacity of 735 mAh g-1 after 1000 charge and discharge cycles at 0.5 A g-1. This promising performance is ascribed to the synergistic effect of defects, interlayer spacing, heteroatoms-doped (N, O, and S), high specific surface area and hierarchical micro/mesopore structure of the biochar. Interestingly, these features of activated biochars derived from the leather industry open the way for possible applications in other EESDs as well.

Keywords: biowaste, lithium-ion batteries, physical activation, waste management, leather industry

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44 A Study of Binding Methods and Techniques in Safavid Era Emphasizing on Iran Shahnamehs (16-18th Century AD/10-12th Century AH)

Authors: Ashrafosadat Mousavi Laer, Elaheh Moravej

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The art of binding was simple and elementary at the beginning of Islam. This art thrived gradually and continued its development as an independent art. Identification of the binding techniques and used materials in covers and investigation of the arrays give us indexes for the better identification of different doctrines and methods of that time. The catalogers of the manuscripts usually pay attention to four items: gender, color, art elegances, injury, and exquisiteness of the cover. The criterion for classification of the covers is their art nature and gender. 15th century AD (9th century AH) was the period of the binding art development in which the most beautiful covers were produced by the so-called method of ‘burning’. At 16th century AD (10th century AH), in Safavid era, art changed completely and a fundamental evolution occurred in the technique and method of binding. The greatest change in this art was the extensive use of stamp that was made mostly of steel and copper. Theses stamps were presses against leather. These covers were called ‘beat’. In this paper, writing and bookbinding of about 32 Shahnamehs of Safavid era available in the Iranian libraries and museums are studied. An analytical-statistical study shows that four methods have been used including beat, burning, mosaic, and oily. 69 percent of the covers of these copies are cardboards with a leathery coating (goatskin) and have been produced by burning and beat methods. Its reasons are that these two methods have been common methods in Safavid era and performing them was only feasible on leather and the most desirable and commonly used leather of that time was goatskin which was the best option for cover legend durability and preserving the book and it was more durable because it had been made of goat skin. In addition, it had prepared a suitable opportunity for the binding artist’s creativity and innovation.

Keywords: Shahnameh, Safavid era, bookbinding, beat cover, burning cover

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
43 In Vitro Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Composite Obtained by Mixture of Natural Rubber and Leather Residues for Textile Application

Authors: Dalita G. S. M. Cavalcante, Elton A. P. dos Reis, Andressa S. Gomes, Caroline S. Danna, Leandra Ernest Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E. Job

Abstract:

In order to minimize environmental impacts, a composite was developed from mixture of leather shavings (LE) with natural rubber (NR), which patent is already deposited. The new material created can be used in applications such as floors e heels for shoes. Besides these applications, the aim is to use this new material for the production of products for the textile industry, such as boots, gloves and bags. But the question arises, as to biocompatibility of this new material. This is justified because the structure of the leather shavings has chrome. The trivalent chromium is usually not toxic, but the hexavalent chromium can be highly toxic and genotoxic for living beings, causing damage to the DNA molecule and contributing to the formation of cancer. Based on this, the objective of this study is evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of the new composite, using as system - test two cell lines (MRC-5 and CHO-K1) by comet assay. For this, the production of the composite was performed in three proportions: for every 100 grams of NR was added 40 (E40), 50 (E50) or 60 (E60) grams of LE. The latex was collected from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). For vulcanization of the NR, activators and accelerators were used. The two cell lines were exposed to the new composite in its three proportions using elution method, that is, cells exposed to liquid extracts obtained from the composite for 24 hours. For obtaining the liquid extract, each sample of the composite was crushed into pieces and mixed with an extraction solution. The quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in the extracts were performed by Optical Emission Spectrometry by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to both extracts were monitored by alkaline version of the comet assay. The results of the quantification of metals in ICP-OES indicated the presence of total chromium in different extracts, but were not detected presence of hexavalent chromium in any extract. Through the comet assay were not found DNA damage of the CHO-K1 cells exposed to both extracts. As for MRC-5, was found a significant increase in DNA damage in cells exposed to E50 and E60. Based on the above data, it can be asserted that the extracts obtained from the composite were highly genotoxic for MRC-5 cells. These biological responses do not appear to be related to chromium metal, since there was a predominance of trivalent chromium in the extracts, indicating that during the production process of the new composite, there was no formation of hexavalent chromium. In conclusion it can infer that the leather shavings containing chromium can be reused, thereby reducing the environmental impacts of this waste. Already on the composite indicates to its incorporation in applications that do not aim at direct contact with the human skin, and it is suggested the chain of composite production be studied, in an attempt to make it biocompatible so that it may be safely used by the textile industry.

Keywords: cell line, chrome, genotoxicity, leather, natural rubber

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42 Mental Well-Being and Quality of Life: A Comparative Study of Male Leather Tannery and Non-Tannery Workers of Kanpur City, India

Authors: Gyan Kashyap, Shri Kant Singh

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Improved mental health can be articulated as a good physical health and quality of life. Mental health plays an important role in survival of any one’s life. In today’s time people living with stress in life due to their personal matters, health problems, unemployment, work environment, living environment, substance use, life style and many more important reasons. Many studies confirmed that the significant proportion of mental health people increasing in India. This study is focused on mental well-being of male leather tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. Environment at work place as well as living environment plays an important health risk factors among leather tannery workers. Leather tannery workers are more susceptible to many chemicals and physical hazards, just because they are liable to be affected by their exposure to lots of hazardous materials and processes during tanning work in very hazardous work environment. The aim of this study to determine the level of mental health disorder and quality of life among male leather tannery and non-tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. This study utilized the primary data from the cross- sectional household study which was conducted from January to June, 2015 on tannery and non-tannery workers as a part of PhD program from the Jajmau area of Kanpur city, India. The sample of 286 tannery and 295 non-tannery workers has been collected from the study area. We have collected information from the workers of age group 15-70 those who were working at the time of survey for at least one year. This study utilized the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and work related stress scale to test the mental wellbeing of male tannery and non-tannery workers. By using GHQ-12 and work related stress scale, Polychoric factor analysis method has been used for best threshold and scoring. Some of important question like ‘How would you rate your overall quality of life’ on Likert scale to measure the quality of life, their earnings, education, family size, living condition, household assets, media exposure, health expenditure, treatment seeking behavior and food habits etc. Results from the study revealed that around one third of tannery workers had severe mental health problems then non-tannery workers. Mental health problem shown the statistically significant association with wealth quintile, 56 percent tannery workers had severe mental health problem those belong to medium wealth quintile. And 42 percent tannery workers had moderate mental health problem among those from the low wealth quintile. Work related stress scale found the statistically significant results for tannery workers. Large proportion of tannery and non-tannery workers reported they are unable to meet their basic needs from their earnings and living in worst condition. Important result from the study, tannery workers who were involved in beam house work in tannery (58%) had severe mental health problem. This study found the statistically significant association with tannery work and mental health problem among tannery workers.

Keywords: GHQ-12, mental well-being, factor analysis, quality of life, tannery workers

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41 Skill-Based or Necessity-Driven Entrepreneurship in Animal Agriculture for Sustainable Job and Wealth Creations

Authors: I. S. R. Butswat, D. Zahraddeen

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This study identified and described some skill-based and necessity-driven entrepreneurship in animal agriculture (AA). AA is an integral segment of the world food industry, and provides a good and rapid source of income. The contribution of AA to the Sub-Saharan economy is quite significant, and there are still large opportunities that remain untapped in the sector. However, it is imperative to understand, simplify and package the various components of AA in order to pave way for rapid wealth creation, poverty eradication and women empowerment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. The entrepreneurial areas of AA highlighted were animal breeding, livestock fattening, dairy production, poultry farming, meat production (beef, mutton, chevon, etc.), rabbit farming, wool/leather production, animal traction, animal feed industry, commercial pasture management, fish farming, sport animals, micro livestock production, private ownership of abattoirs, slaughter slabs, animal parks and zoos, among others. This study concludes that reproductive biotechnology such as oestrous synchronization, super-/multiple ovulation, artificial insemination and embryo transfer can be employed as a tool for improvement of genetic make-up of low-yielding animals in terms of milk, meat, egg, wool, leather production and other economic traits that will necessitate sustainable job and wealth creations.

Keywords: animal, agriculture, entreprenurship, wealth

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40 The Socio-Economic Impact of the English Leather Glove Industry from the 17th Century to Its Recent Decline

Authors: Frances Turner

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Gloves are significant physical objects, being one of the oldest forms of dress. Glove culture is part of every facet of life; its extraordinary history encompasses practicality, and symbolism reflecting a wide range of social practices. The survival of not only the gloves but associated articles enables the possibility to analyse real lives, however so far this area has been largely neglected. Limited information is available to students, researchers, or those involved with the design and making of gloves. There are several museums and independent collectors in England that hold collections of gloves (some from as early as 16th century), machinery, tools, designs and patterns, marketing materials and significant archives which demonstrate the rich heritage of English glove design and manufacturing, being of national significance and worthy of international interest. Through a research glove network which now exists thanks to research grant funding, there is potential for the holders of glove collections to make connections and explore links between these resources to promote a stronger understanding of the significance, breadth and heritage of the English glove industry. The network takes an interdisciplinary approach to bring together interested parties from academia, museums and manufacturing, with expert knowledge of the production, collections, conservation and display of English leather gloves. Academics from diverse arts and humanities disciplines benefit from the opportunities to share research and discuss ideas with network members from non-academic contexts including museums and heritage organisations, industry, and contemporary designers. The fragmented collections when considered in entirety provide an overview of English glove making since earliest times and those who wore them. This paper makes connections and explores links between these resources to promote a stronger understanding of the significance, breadth and heritage of the English Glove industry. The following areas are explored: current content and status of the individual museum collections, potential links, sharing of information histories, social and cultural and relationship to history of fashion design, manufacturing and materials, approaches to maintenance and conservation, access to the collections and strategies for future understanding of their national significance. The facilitation of knowledge exchange and exploration of the collections through the network informs organisations’ future strategies for the maintenance, access and conservation of their collections. By involving industry in the network, it is possible to ensure a contemporary perspective on glove-making in addition to the input from heritage partners. The slow fashion movement and awareness of artisan craft and how these can be preserved and adopted for glove and accessory design is addressed. Artisan leather glove making was a skilled and significant industry in England that has now declined to the point where there is little production remaining utilising the specialist skills that have hardly changed since earliest times. This heritage will be identified and preserved for future generations of the rich cultural history of gloves may be lost.

Keywords: artisan glove-making skills, English leather gloves, glove culture, the glove network

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
39 Removal of Protein from Chromium Tanning Bath by Biological Treatment Using Pseudomonas sp.

Authors: Amel Benhadji, Mourad Taleb Ahmed, Rachida Maachi

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The challenge for the new millennium is to develop an industrial system that has minimal socio-ecological impacts, without compromising quality of life. Leather industry is one of these industries demanding environmentally friendly products. In this study, we investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This strain tested the efficiency of the batch biological treatment in the recovery of protein and hexavalent chromium from chromium tanning bath. We have compared suspended and fixed bacteria culture. The results showed the removal of the total protein of treatment and a decrease of hexavalent chromium concentration is during the treatment. The better efficiency of the biological treatment is obtained when using fixed culture of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: tanning wastewater, biological treatment, protein removal, hexavalent chromium

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
38 Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

Authors: Gentiana Shegani

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Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analysing the change in organic matter, odor, colour, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulphate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, faecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulphate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed.

Keywords: coagulation, effluent, tannery, treatment

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37 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Industrial Waste Materials: Full Factorial Design

Authors: Semra Çoruh, Yusuf Tibet

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Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, paper, paints, leather, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, food, and drug etc, to color their products. Due to their chemical structures, dyes are resistant to fading on exposure to light, water and many chemicals and, therefore, are difficult to be decolorized once released into the aquatic environment. Many of the organic dyes are hazardous and may affect aquatic life and even the food chain. This study deals with the adsorption of malachite green dye onto fly ash and red mud. The effects of experimental factors (adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature) on the adsorption process were examined by using 24 full factorial design. The results were statistically analyzed by using the student’s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test to define important experimental factors and their levels. A regression model that considers the significant main and interaction effects was suggested. The results showed that initial dye concentration an pH is the most significant factor that affects the removal of malachite green.

Keywords: malachite green, adsorption, red mud, fly ash, full factorial design

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36 Optimization of Effecting Parameters for the Removal of H₂S Gas in Self Priming Venturi Scrubber Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap

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Highly toxic and corrosive gas H₂S is recognized as one of the hazardous air pollutants which has significant effect on the human health. Abatement of H₂S gas from the air is very necessary. H₂S gas is mainly released from the industries like paper and leather industry as well as during the production of crude oil, during wastewater treatment, etc. But the emission of H₂S gas in high concentration may cause immediate death while at lower concentrations can cause various respiratory problems. In the present study, self priming venturi scrubber is used to remove the H₂S gas from the air. Response surface methodology with central composite design has been chosen to observe the effect of process parameters on the removal efficiency of H₂S. Experiments were conducted by varying the throat gas velocity, liquid level in outer cylinder, and inlet H₂S concentration. ANOVA test confirmed the significant effect of parameters on the removal efficiency. A quadratic equation has been obtained which predicts the removal efficiency very well. The suitability of the developed model has been judged by the higher R² square value which obtained from the regression analysis. From the investigation, it was found that the throat gas velocity has most significant effect and inlet concentration of H₂S has less effect on H₂S removal efficiency.

Keywords: desulfurization, pollution control, response surface methodology, venturi scrubber

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35 A Comparative Study of Murayya Koenigii Varieties for the Removal of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Mesfin Tsegaw, Sivakumar C. V., Chandrakal Gunturu, Meera Indracanti

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Chromium (VI), a toxic metal ion, is widely used in electroplating, stainless steel production, leather tanning, paint, and textile manufacturing. Cr (VI) is mobile in the environment, acutely toxic and carcinogenic. In the present study, the ability to remove Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions has been compared using leaves of dwarf and gamthi varieties of Murayya koerigii abundantly available in Selaqui region of Dehradun as an adsorbent. Effects of temperature, pH, initial concentration of adsorbate and adsorbent dosage have been studied for effective removal of Cr (VI). The biosorptive ability of biosorbent was reliant on the pH of the biosorbate, with pH 2 being most favorable for both the varieties. The obtained results were analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir equation at different temperature and related parameters were determined for each adsorption isotherm. The study also includes results on the kinetic dimensions of adsorption of the Cr (VI) on the derived adsorbent. Gamthi variety has a promising absorption rate of 80% over the dwarf variety. FTIR studies confirmed that carboxyl and hydroxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake.

Keywords: adsorption, cromium, kinetics, variety

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34 Effect of Some Metal Ions on the Activity of Lipase Produced by Aspergillus Niger Cultured on Vitellaria Paradoxa Shells

Authors: Abdulhakeem Sulyman, Olukotun Zainab, Hammed Abdulquadri

Abstract:

Lipases (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolases) (EC 3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. They account for up to 10% of the enzyme in the market and have a wide range of applications in biofuel production, detergent formulation, leather processing and in food and feed processing industry. This research was conducted to study the effect of some metal ions on the activity of purified lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells. Purified lipase in 12.5 mM p-NPL was incubated with different metal ions (Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺). The final concentrations of metal ions investigated were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 mM. The results obtained from the study showed that Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ ions increased the activity of lipase up to 3.0, 3.0, 1.0, and 26.0 folds respectively. Lipase activity was partially inhibited by Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ with up to 88.5% and 83.7% loss of activity respectively. Lipase activity was also inhibited by K⁺ with up to 56.7% loss in the activity as compared to in the absence of metal ions. The study concluded that lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells can be activated by the presence of Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ and inhibited by Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Vitellaria paradoxa, lipase, metal ions

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33 Determination of the Oxidative Potential of Organic Materials: Method Development

Authors: Jui Afrin, Akhtarul Islam

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In this paper, the solution of glucose, yeast and glucose yeast mixture are being used as sample solution for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general COD determination method used to determine the different rang of oxidative potential. But in this work has shown to determine the definite oxidative potential for different concentration for known COD value and wanted to see the difference between experimental value and the theoretical value for evaluating the method drawbacks. In this study, made the values of oxidative potential like 400 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 700 mg/L and 800mg/L for various sample solutions and determined the oxidative potential according to our developed method. Plotting the experimental COD values vs. sample solutions of various concentrations in mg/L to draw the curve. From these curves see that the curves for glucose solution is not linear; its deviate from linearity for the lower concentration and the reason for this deviation is unknown. If these drawback can be removed this method can be effectively used to determine Oxidative Potential of Industrial wastewater (such as: Leather industry wastewater, Municipal wastewater, Food industry wastewater, Textile wastewater, Pharmaceuticals waste water) that’s why more experiment and study required.

Keywords: bod (biological oxygen demand), cod (chemical oxygen demand), oxidative potential, titration, waste water, development

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32 Ground Water Contamination by Tannery Effluents and Its Impact on Human Health in Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Fawad Ali, Muhammad Ateeq, Ikhtiar Khan

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Ground water, a major source of drinking water supply in Peshawar has been severely contaminated by leather tanning industry. Effluents from the tanneries contain high concentration of chromium besides several other chemical species. Release of untreated effluents from the tanning industry has severely damaged surface and ground water, agriculture soil as well as vegetables and crops. Chromium is a well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic agent. Once in the human food chain, it causes multiple problems to the exposed population including various types of cancer, skin dermatitis, and DNA damage. In order to assess the extent of chromium and other heavy metals contamination, water samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GFAAS, Analyst 700, Perkin Elmer). Total concentration of chromium was above the permissible limit (0.048 mg/l) in 85% of the groundwater (drinking water) samples. The concentration of cobalt, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc and iron was also determined in the ground water, surface water, agriculture soil, and vegetables samples from the affected area.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil, groundwater, tannery effluents, food chain

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31 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, , Ananda Kumar Saha

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This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: characterization, effluent, tannery, treatment

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30 Study on Biodeterioration of Proteinous Objects in Museums and Toxic Efficacy of Myristica Fragrans and Syzygium Aromaticum Oils against the Larvae of Anthrenus verbasci

Authors: Fatma Faheem, K. Abduraheem

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Museums are custodians of natural and cultural heritage. Objects like tribal dresses, headgears, weapons, musical instruments, manuscripts and other ethnocultural materials housed in museums are prized possessions of intellectual and cultural property of people. Tropical countries like India have a favorable climatic condition for biodeterioration. Organic materials such as leather and parchment objects which form a substantial part of natural history collections of museums across the world are promptly infested by insects like dermestid beetles, tenebrionides, silver fishes, cockroaches and other micro-organisms. The environmental problems caused due to the overuse of pesticides and other non-degradable chemicals have been the matter of serious concern for both the scientists and public in recent years. Synthetic pesticides are very expensive and also highly toxic for humans and its environment. Due to its high health risk factor government has taken severe initiatives on policy of banning it. In order to overcome the problems of biodeterioration, natural biocides should be applied. In this paper, comparative study has been done to investigate the toxic efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum oil in variation with contact and stomach toxicity against larvae of Anthrenus verbasci.

Keywords: biodeterioration, contact toxicity, cultural heritage, natural biocides, natural heritage, stomach toxicity

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29 Utilizing Laser Cutting Method in Men's' Custom-Made Casualwear

Authors: M A. Habit, S. A. Syed-Sahil, A. Bahari

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Abstract—Laser cutting is a method of manufacturing process that uses laser in order to cut materials. It provides and ensures extreme accuracy which has a clean cut effect, CO2 laser dominate this application due to their good- quality beam combined with high output power. It comes with a small scale and it has a limitation in cutting sizes of materials, therefore it is more appropriate for custom- made products. The same laser cutting machine is also capable in cutting fine material such as fine silk, cotton, leather, polyester, etc. Lack of explorations and knowledge besides being unaware about this technology had caused many of the designers not to use this laser cutting method in their collections. The objectives of this study are: 1) To identify the potential of laser cutting technique in Custom-Made Garments for men’s casual wear: 2) To experiment the laser cutting technique in custom made garments: 3) To offer guidelines and formula for men’s custom- made casualwear designs with aesthetic value. In order to achieve the objectives, this research has been conducted by using mixed methods which are interviews with two (2) local experts in the apparel manufacturing industries and interviews via telephone with five (5) local respondents who are local emerging fashion designers, the questionnaires were distributed to one hundred (100) respondents around Klang Valley, in order to gain the information about their understanding and awareness regarding laser cutting technology. The experiment was conducted by using natural and man- made fibers. As a conclusion, all of the objectives had been achieved in producing custom-made men’s casualwear and with the production of these attires it will help to educate and enhance the innovation in fine technology. Therefore, there will be a good linkage and collaboration between the design experts and the manufacturing companies.

Keywords: custom-made, fashion, laser cut, men’s wear

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28 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez

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Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photocatalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nanomaterial

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27 A 7 Dimensional-Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach Combining Quantum Mechanics Based Grid and Solvation Models to Predict Hotspots and Kinetic Properties of Mutated Enzymes: An Enzyme Engineering Perspective

Authors: R. Pravin Kumar, L. Roopa

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Enzymes are molecular machines used in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and animal feed, paper and leather processing, biofuel, and etc. Nevertheless, this has been possible only by the breath-taking efforts of the chemists and biologists to evolve/engineer these mysterious biomolecules to work the needful. Main agenda of this enzyme engineering project is to derive screening and selection tools to obtain focused libraries of enzyme variants with desired qualities. The methodologies for this research include the well-established directed evolution, rational redesign and relatively less established yet much faster and accurate insilico methods. This concept was initiated as a Receptor Rependent-4Dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (RD-4D-QSAR) to predict kinetic properties of enzymes and extended here to study transaminase by a 7D QSAR approach. Induced-fit scenarios were explored using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) simulations which were then placed in a grid that stores interactions energies derived from QM parameters (QMgrid). In this study, the mutated enzymes were immersed completely inside the QMgrid and this was combined with solvation models to predict descriptors. After statistical screening of descriptors, QSAR models showed > 90% specificity and > 85% sensitivity towards the experimental activity. Mapping descriptors on the enzyme structure revealed hotspots important to enhance the enantioselectivity of the enzyme.

Keywords: QMgrid, QM/MM simulations, RD-4D-QSAR, transaminase

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26 Theoretical Analysis of the Existing Sheet Thickness in the Calendering of Pseudoplastic Material

Authors: Muhammad Zahid

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The mechanical process of smoothing and compressing a molten material by passing it through a number of pairs of heated rolls in order to produce a sheet of desired thickness is called calendering. The rolls that are in combination are called calenders, a term derived from kylindros the Greek word for the cylinder. It infects the finishing process used on cloth, paper, textiles, leather cloth, or plastic film and so on. It is a mechanism which is used to strengthen surface properties, minimize sheet thickness, and yield special effects such as a glaze or polish. It has a wide variety of applications in industries in the manufacturing of textile fabrics, coated fabrics, and plastic sheeting to provide the desired surface finish and texture. An analysis has been presented for the calendering of Pseudoplastic material. The lubrication approximation theory (LAT) has been used to simplify the equations of motion. For the investigation of the nature of the steady solutions that exist, we make use of the combination of exact solution and numerical methods. The expressions for the velocity profile, rate of volumetric flow and pressure gradient are found in the form of exact solutions. Furthermore, the quantities of interest by engineering point of view, such as pressure distribution, roll-separating force, and power transmitted to the fluid by the rolls are also computed. Some results are shown graphically while others are given in the tabulated form. It is found that the non-Newtonian parameter and Reynolds number serve as the controlling parameters for the calendering process.

Keywords: calendering, exact solutions, lubrication approximation theory, numerical solutions, pseudoplastic material

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