Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Ali Lohi

5 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar


The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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4 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Ijaz Javed, Riaz Hussain, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan


This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µ and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, dosage regimen, ciprofloxacin, HPLC, sheep

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3 Mathematical Modeling of the Fouling Phenomenon in Ultrafiltration of Latex Effluent

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi


An efficient and well-planned ultrafiltration process is becoming a necessity for monetary returns in the industrial settings. The aim of the present study was to develop a mathematical model for an accurate prediction of ultrafiltration membrane fouling of latex effluent applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes with uniform and non-uniform pore sizes, respectively. The models were also developed for an accurate prediction of power consumption that can handle the large-scale purposes. The model incorporated the fouling attachments as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling for accurate prediction and scale-up application. Both Polycarbonate and Polysulfone flat membranes, with pore sizes of 0.05 µm and a molecular weight cut-off of 60,000, respectively, were used under a constant feed flow rate and a cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of the simulated paint effluent. Furthermore, hydrophilic ultrafilic and hydrophobic PVDF membranes with MWCO of 100,000 were used to test the reliability of the models. Monodisperse particles of 50 nm and 100 nm in diameter, and a latex effluent with a wide range of particle size distributions were utilized to validate the models. The aggregation and the sphericity of the particles indicated a significant effect on membrane fouling.

Keywords: membrane fouling, mathematical modeling, power consumption, attachments, ultrafiltration

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2 Cationic Surfactants Influence on the Fouling Phenomenon Control in Ultrafiltration of Latex Contaminated Water and Wastewater

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi


The goal of the present study was to minimize the ultrafiltration fouling of latex effluent using Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Hydrophilic Polysulfone and Ultrafilic flat heterogeneous membranes, with MWCO of 60,000 and 100,000, respectively, as well as hydrophobic Polyvinylidene Difluoride with MWCO of 100,000, were used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of latex solution. In addition, a Polycarbonate flat membrane with uniform pore size of 0.05 µm was also used. The effect of CTAB on the latex particle size distribution was investigated at different concentrations, various treatment times, and diverse agitation duration. The effects of CTAB on the zeta potential of latex particles and membrane surfaces were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the particle size distribution of treated latex effluent showed noticeable shifts in the peaks toward a larger size range due to the aggregation of particles. As a consequence, the mass of fouling contributing to pore blocking and the irreversible fouling were significantly reduced. The optimum results occurred with the addition of CTAB at the critical micelle concentration of 0.36 g/L for 10 minutes with minimal agitation. Higher stirring rate had a negative effect on membrane fouling minimization.

Keywords: cationic surfactant, latex particles, membrane fouling, ultrafiltration, zeta potential

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1 Examining Influence of The Ultrasonic Power and Frequency on Microbubbles Dynamics Using Real-Time Visualization of Synchrotron X-Ray Imaging: Application to Membrane Fouling Control

Authors: Masoume Ehsani, Ning Zhu, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi, Amira Abdelrasoul


Membrane fouling poses severe challenges in membrane-based wastewater treatment applications. Ultrasound (US) has been considered an effective fouling remediation technique in filtration processes. Bubble cavitation in the liquid medium results from the alternating rarefaction and compression cycles during the US irradiation at sufficiently high acoustic pressure. Cavitation microbubbles generated under US irradiation can cause eddy current and turbulent flow within the medium by either oscillating or discharging energy to the system through microbubble explosion. Turbulent flow regime and shear forces created close to the membrane surface cause disturbing the cake layer and dislodging the foulants, which in turn improve the cleaning efficiency and filtration performance. Therefore, the number, size, velocity, and oscillation pattern of the microbubbles created in the liquid medium play a crucial role in foulant detachment and permeate flux recovery. The goal of the current study is to gain in depth understanding of the influence of the US power intensity and frequency on the microbubble dynamics and its characteristics generated under US irradiation. In comparison with other imaging techniques, the synchrotron in-line Phase Contrast Imaging technique at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) allows in-situ observation and real-time visualization of microbubble dynamics. At CLS biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) polychromatic beamline, the effective parameters were optimized to enhance the contrast gas/liquid interface for the accuracy of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bubble cavitation within the system. With the high flux of photons and the high-speed camera, a typical high projection speed was achieved; and each projection of microbubbles in water was captured in 0.5 ms. ImageJ software was used for post-processing the raw images for the detailed quantitative analyses of microbubbles. The imaging has been performed under the US power intensity levels of 50 W, 60 W, and 100 W, in addition to the US frequency levels of 20 kHz, 28 kHz, and 40 kHz. For the duration of 2 seconds of imaging, the effect of the US power and frequency on the average number, size, and fraction of the area occupied by bubbles were analyzed. Microbubbles’ dynamics in terms of their velocity in water was also investigated. For the US power increase of 50 W to 100 W, the average bubble number and the average bubble diameter were increased from 746 to 880 and from 36.7 µm to 48.4 µm, respectively. In terms of the influence of US frequency, a fewer number of bubbles were created at 20 kHz (average of 176 bubbles rather than 808 bubbles at 40 kHz), while the average bubble size was significantly larger than that of 40 kHz (almost seven times). The majority of bubbles were captured close to the membrane surface in the filtration unit. According to the study observations, membrane cleaning efficiency is expected to be improved at higher US power and lower US frequency due to the higher energy release to the system by increasing the number of bubbles or growing their size during oscillation (optimum condition is expected to be at 20 kHz and 100 W).

Keywords: bubble dynamics, cavitational bubbles, membrane fouling, ultrasonic cleaning

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