Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: ultrafiltration

47 Comparison Between Conventional Ultrafiltration Combined with Modified Ultrafiltration and Conventional Ultrafiltration Only for Adult Open-heart Surgery: Perspective from Systemic Inflammation, Vascular Resistance, and Cardiac Index

Authors: Ratna Farida Soenarto, Anas Alatas, Made Ryan Kharmayani

Abstract:

Background: Conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) system was shown to be helpful in reducing anti-inflammatory mediators for patients who underwent open heart surgery. Additionally, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) has been shown to reduce anti-inflammatory mediators further while reducing interstitial fluid volume at the same time. However, there has been minimal data concerning the efficacy of combining both ultrafiltration methods. This study aims to compare inflammation marker, vascular resistance, and cardiac index on CUF+MUF patients with CUF only patients undergoing open heart surgery. Method: This is a single blind randomized controlled trial on patients undergoing open heart surgery between June 2021 - October 2021 in CiptoMangunkusumo National Referral Hospital and Jakarta Heart Hospital. Patients wererandomized using block randomization into modified ultrafiltration following conventional ultrafiltration (CUF+MUF) and conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) only. Outcome assessed in this study were 24-hoursinterleukin-6 levels, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and cardiac index. Results: A total of 38patients were included (19 CUF+MUF and 19 CUF subjects). There was no difference in postoperative IL-6 level between groups (p > 0.05).No difference in PVR was observed between groups.Higher difference in SVR was observed in CUF+MUF group (-646 vs. -261dyn/s/cm-5, p < 0.05). Higher cardiac index was observed on CUF+MUF group (0.93 vs. 0.48, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients undergoing open heart surgery with modified ultrafiltration following conventional ultrafiltration had similar systemic inflammatory response and better cardiac response than those having conventional ultrafiltration.

Keywords: open-heart, CUF, MUF, SVR, PVR, IL-6

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46 Recovery of Proteins from EDAM Whey Using Membrane Ultrafiltration

Authors: F. Yelles-Allam, A. A. Nouani

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In Algeria, whey is discarded without any treatment and this causes not only pollution problem, but also a loss in nutritive components of milk. In this paper, characterization of EDAM whey, which is resulted from pasteurised mixture of cow’s milk and skim milk, and recovery of whey protein by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, was studied. The physical-chemical analysis of whey has emphasized on its pollutant and nutritive characteristics. In fact, its DBO5 and DCO are 49.33, and 127.71 gr of O2/l of whey respectively. It contains: fat (1,90±0,1 gr/l), lactose (47.32±1,57 gr/l), proteins (8.04±0,2 gr/l) and ashes (5,20±0,15 gr/l), calcium (0,48±0,04 gr/l), Na (1.104gr/l), K (1.014 gr/l), Mg (0.118 gr/l) and P (0.482 gr/l). Ultrafiltration was carried out in a polyetersulfone membrane with a cut-off of 10K. Its hydraulic intrinsic resistance and permeability are respectively: 2.041.1012 m-1 and 176,32 l/h.m2 at PTM of 1 bar. The retentate obtained at FC6, contains 16,33g/l of proteins and 70,25 g/l of dry matter. The retention rate of protein is 97, 7% and the decrease in DBO5 and DCO are at 18.875 g /l and 42.818 g/l respectively. Diafiltration performed on protein concentrates allowed the complete removal of lactose and minerals. The ultrafiltration of the whey before the disposal is an alternative for Algéria dairy industry.

Keywords: diafiltration, DBO, DCO, protein, ultrafiltration, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
45 Response Surface Methodology Approach to Defining Ultrafiltration of Steepwater from Corn Starch Industry

Authors: Zita I. Šereš, Ljubica P. Dokić, Dragana M. Šoronja Simović, Cecilia Hodur, Zsuzsanna Laszlo, Ivana Nikolić, Nikola Maravić

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In this work the concentration of steep-water from corn starch industry is monitored using ultrafiltration membrane. The aim was to examine the conditions of ultrafiltration of steep-water by applying the membrane of 2.5nm. The parameters that vary during the course of ultrafiltration, were the transmembrane pressure, flow rate, while the permeate flux and the dry matter content of permeate and retentive were the dependent parameter constantly monitored during the process. Experiments of ultrafiltration are conducted on the samples of steep-water, which were obtained from the starch wet milling plant Jabuka, Pancevo. The procedure of ultrafiltration on a single-channel 250mm length, with inner diameter of 6.8mm and outer diameter of 10mm membrane were carried on. The membrane is made of a-Al2O3 with TiO2 layer obtained from GEA (Germany). The experiments are carried out at a flow rate ranging from 100 to 200lh-1 and transmembrane pressure of 1-3 bars. During the experiments of steep-water ultrafiltration, the change of permeate flux, dry matter content of permeate and retentive, as well as the absorbance changes of the permeate and retentive were monitored. The experimental results showed that the maximum flux reaches about 40lm-2h-1. For responses obtained after experiments, a polynomial model of the second degree is established to evaluate and quantify the influence of the variables. The quadratic equitation fits with the experimental values, where the coefficient of determination for flux is 0.96. The dry matter content of the retentive is increased for about 6%, while the dry matter content of permeate was reduced for about 35-40%, respectively. During steep-water ultrafiltration in permeate stays 40% less dry matter compared to the feed.

Keywords: ultrafiltration, steep-water, starch industry, ceramic membrane

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44 Mathematical Modeling of the Fouling Phenomenon in Ultrafiltration of Latex Effluent

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi

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An efficient and well-planned ultrafiltration process is becoming a necessity for monetary returns in the industrial settings. The aim of the present study was to develop a mathematical model for an accurate prediction of ultrafiltration membrane fouling of latex effluent applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes with uniform and non-uniform pore sizes, respectively. The models were also developed for an accurate prediction of power consumption that can handle the large-scale purposes. The model incorporated the fouling attachments as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling for accurate prediction and scale-up application. Both Polycarbonate and Polysulfone flat membranes, with pore sizes of 0.05 µm and a molecular weight cut-off of 60,000, respectively, were used under a constant feed flow rate and a cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of the simulated paint effluent. Furthermore, hydrophilic ultrafilic and hydrophobic PVDF membranes with MWCO of 100,000 were used to test the reliability of the models. Monodisperse particles of 50 nm and 100 nm in diameter, and a latex effluent with a wide range of particle size distributions were utilized to validate the models. The aggregation and the sphericity of the particles indicated a significant effect on membrane fouling.

Keywords: membrane fouling, mathematical modeling, power consumption, attachments, ultrafiltration

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43 The Use of Arabic Gum Mixed with Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Dodecylamine to Fabricate Superior Ultrafiltration Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien

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In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with dodecylamine (CNT-DDA) to the casting solutions of polysulfone (PS) was investigated. The aim of adding AG and CNT-DDA was to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. Different CNT-DDA loadings (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in 2 wt.% AG were added to PS/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) casting solutions to prepare PS membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PS/AG/CNT-DDA membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of BSA solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG and CNT-DDA to PS membranes was found to increase the hydrophilicity, porosity and hence the permeate flux of the fabricated membranes.

Keywords: Arabic gum, hydrophilicity, polysulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
42 Cationic Surfactants Influence on the Fouling Phenomenon Control in Ultrafiltration of Latex Contaminated Water and Wastewater

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi

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The goal of the present study was to minimize the ultrafiltration fouling of latex effluent using Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Hydrophilic Polysulfone and Ultrafilic flat heterogeneous membranes, with MWCO of 60,000 and 100,000, respectively, as well as hydrophobic Polyvinylidene Difluoride with MWCO of 100,000, were used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of latex solution. In addition, a Polycarbonate flat membrane with uniform pore size of 0.05 µm was also used. The effect of CTAB on the latex particle size distribution was investigated at different concentrations, various treatment times, and diverse agitation duration. The effects of CTAB on the zeta potential of latex particles and membrane surfaces were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the particle size distribution of treated latex effluent showed noticeable shifts in the peaks toward a larger size range due to the aggregation of particles. As a consequence, the mass of fouling contributing to pore blocking and the irreversible fouling were significantly reduced. The optimum results occurred with the addition of CTAB at the critical micelle concentration of 0.36 g/L for 10 minutes with minimal agitation. Higher stirring rate had a negative effect on membrane fouling minimization.

Keywords: cationic surfactant, latex particles, membrane fouling, ultrafiltration, zeta potential

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41 Fouling of Regenerated Ultrafiltration Membrane in Treatment of Oily Wastewater of Palm Oil Refinery

Authors: K. F. Md Yunos, N. S. Pajar, N. S. Azmi

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Oily wastewater in Malaysian refinery has become a big issue of water and environment pollution to be solved urgently. The results of an experimental study on separation of oily wastewaters are presented. The characteristic of filtration behavior of commercial polymer ultrafiltration (UF) membranes was evaluated in the treatment of oily wastewater from palm oil refinery. The performance of different molecular weight cut off 5kDa and 10kDa regenerated cellulose membrane were evaluated and compared and the fouling behavior were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of pressure (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 bar) and sample concentration (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) on fouling of 5kDa and 10kDa membrane were evaluated. The characteristic of the sample solutions were analyzed for turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), BOD, and COD. The results showed that the best fit to experimental data corresponds to the cake layer formation followed by the intermediate blocking for the experimental conditions tested. A more detailed analysis of the fouling mechanisms was studied by dividing the filtration curves into different regions corresponding to the different fouling mechanisms. Intermediate blocking and cake layer formation or combinations of them were found to occur during the UF experiments depending on the operating conditions.

Keywords: fouling, oily wastewater, regenerated cellulose, ultrafiltration

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40 The Effect of Arabic Gum on Polyethersulfone Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien

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In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) to the dope solutions of polyethersulfone (PES) was studied. The aim of adding AG is to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. several AG loading (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in PES/ N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) casting solutions were prepared to fabricate PES membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PES/AG membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of oil solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG to PES membranes was found to increase the permeate flux and porosity as well as reducing surface roughness and the contact angle of the membranes.

Keywords: antifouling, Arabic gum, polyethersulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
39 Use of Yeast-Chitosan Bio-Microcapsules with Ultrafiltration Membrane to Remove Ammonia Nitrogen and Organic Matter in Raw Water

Authors: Chao Ding, Jun Shi, Huiping Deng

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This study reports the preparation of a new type yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule coating sodium alginate and chitosan, with good biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Focusing on the optimum preparation conditions of bio-microcapsule, a dynamic test of yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule combined with ultrafiltration membrane was established to evaluate both the removal efficiency of major pollutants from raw water and the applicability of this system. The results of orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum preparation procedure are as follows: mix sodium alginate solution (3%) with bacteria liquid in specific proportion, drop in calcium chloride solution (4%) and solidify for 30 min; put the plastic beads into chitosan liquid (1.8%) to overlay film for 10 min and then into glutaraldehyde solution (1%) to get cross-linked for 5 min. In dynamic test, the microcapsules were effective as soon as were added in the system, without any start-up time. The removal efficiency of turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and organic matter was 60%, 80%, and 40%. Besides, the bio-microcapsules were prospective adsorbent for heavy metal; they adsorb Pb and Cr⁶⁺ in water while maintaining high biological activity to degrade ammonia nitrogen and small molecular organics through assimilation. With the presence of bio-microcapsules, the internal yeast strains’ adaptability on the external environment and resistance ability on toxic pollutants will be increased.

Keywords: ammonia nitrogen, bio-microcapsules, ultrafiltration membrane, yeast-chitosan

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38 Hospital Wastewater Treatment by Ultrafiltration Membrane System

Authors: Selin Top, Raul Marcos, M. Sinan Bilgili

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Although there have been several studies related to collection, temporary storage, handling and disposal of solid wastes generated by hospitals, there are only a few studies related to liquid wastes generated by hospitals or hospital wastewaters. There is an important amount of water consumptions in hospitals. While minimum domestic water consumption per person is 100 L/day, water consumption per bed in hospitals is generally ranged between 400-1200 L. This high amount of consumption causes high amount of wastewater. The quantity of wastewater produced in a hospital depends on different factors: bed numbers, hospital age, accessibility to water, general services present inside the structure (kitchen, laundry, laboratory, diagnosis, radiology, and air conditioning), number and type of wards and units, institution management policies and awareness in managing the structure in safeguarding the environment, climate and cultural and geographic factors. In our country, characterization of hospital wastewaters conducted by classical parameters in a very few studies. However, as mentioned above, this type of wastewaters may contain different compounds than domestic wastewaters. Hospital Wastewater (HWW) is wastewater generated from all activities of the hospital, medical and non medical. Nowadays, hospitals are considered as one of the biggest sources of wastewater along with urban sources, agricultural effluents and industrial sources. As a health-care waste, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components due to using disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents making not suitable the connection of hospital wastewater to the municipal sewage network. These characteristics may represent a serious health hazard and children, adults and animals all have the potential to come into contact with this water. Therefore, the treatment of hospital wastewater is an important current interest point to focus on. This paper aims to approach on the investigation of hospital wastewater treatment by membrane systems. This study aim is to determined hospital wastewater’s characterization and also evaluates the efficiency of hospital wastewater treatment by high pressure filtration systems such as ultrafiltration (UF). Hospital wastewater samples were taken directly from sewage system from Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, located in the district of Şişli, in the European part of Istanbul. The hospital is a 784 bed tertiary care center with a daily outpatient department of 3850 patients. Ultrafiltration membrane is used as an experimental treatment and the influence of the pressure exerted on the membranes was examined, ranging from 1 to 3 bar. The permeate flux across the membrane was observed to define the flooding membrane points. The global COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies were 54% and 75% respectively for ultrafiltration, all the SST removal efficiencies were above 90% and a successful removal of the pathological bacteria measured was achieved.

Keywords: hospital wastewater, membrane, ultrafiltration, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
37 Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution by Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration Using Unmodified Starch as Biopolymer

Authors: Nurul Huda Baharuddin, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Mohammed Kheireddine Aroua

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The effects of pH, polymer concentration, and metal ions feed concentration for four selected heavy metals Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were tested by using Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (PEUF). An alternative biopolymer namely unmodified starch is proposed as a binding reagent in consequences, as compared to commonly used water-soluble polymers namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) in the removal of selected four heavy metal ions. The speciation species profiles of four selected complexes ions namely Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the present of hydroxides ions (OH-) in variously charged ions were investigated by available software at certain pH range. In corresponds to identify the potential of complexation behavior between metal ion-polymers, potentiometric titration studies were obtained at first before carried out experimental works. Experimental works were done using ultrafiltration systems obtained by laboratory ultrafiltration bench scale equipped with 10 kDa polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. Throughout the laboratory works, the rejection coefficient and permeate flux were found to be significantly affected by the main operating parameter, namely the effects of pH, polymer composition and metal ions concentrations. The interaction of complexation between two binding polymers namely unmodified starch and PEG were occurred due to physical attraction of metal ions to the polymer on the molecular surface with high possibility of chemical occurrence. However, these selected metal ions are mainly complexes by polymer functional groups whenever there is interaction with PEI polymer. For study of single metal ions solutions, Zn (II) ions' rejections approaching over 90% were obtained at pH 7 for each tested polymer. This behavior was similar to Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI); where the rejections were obtained at lower acidic pH and increased at neutral pH of 7. Different behavior was found by Cr (VI) ions where a high rejection was only achieved at acidic pH region with PEI. Polymer concentration and metal ions concentration are found to have a significant effect on rejections. For mixed metal ion solutions, the behavior of metal ion rejections was similar to single metal ion solutions for investigation on the effects of pH. Rejection values were high at pH 7 for Zn (II) pH 7 for Zn (II) and Cr (III) ions, corresponding to higher rejections with unmodified starch. Pb (II) ions obtained high rejections when tested with PEG whenever carried out in mixed metal ion solutions. High Cr (VI) ions' rejection was found with PEI in single and mixed metal ions solutions at neutral pH range. The influence of starch’s granule structure towards the rejections of these four selected metal ions is found to be attracted in a non-ionic manner. No significant effects on permeate flux were obtained when tested at different pH ranges, polymer concentrations and metal ions feed either by single or mixtures metal ions solutions. Canizares Model was employed as the theoretical model to predict permeate flux and metal ions retention on the study of heavy metal ions removal.

Keywords: polyethyleneimine, polyethylene glycol, polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration, unmodified starch

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36 Synthesis of High-Antifouling Ultrafiltration Polysulfone Membranes Incorporating Low Concentrations of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Abdulqader Alkhouzaam, Hazim Qiblawey, Majeda Khraisheh

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Membrane treatment for desalination and wastewater treatment is one of the promising solutions to affordable clean water. It is a developing technology throughout the world and considered as the most effective and economical method available. However, the limitations of membranes’ mechanical and chemical properties restrict their industrial applications. Hence, developing novel membranes was the focus of most studies in the water treatment and desalination sector to find new materials that can improve the separation efficiency while reducing membrane fouling, which is the most important challenge in this field. Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the materials that have been recently investigated in the membrane water treatment sector. In this work, ultrafiltration polysulfone (PSF) membranes with high antifouling properties were synthesized by incorporating different loadings of GO. High-oxidation degree GO had been synthesized using a modified Hummers' method. The synthesized GO was characterized using different analytical techniques including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR), Raman spectroscopy, and CHNSO elemental analysis. CHNSO analysis showed a high oxidation degree of GO represented by its oxygen content (50 wt.%). Then, ultrafiltration PSF membranes incorporating GO were fabricated using the phase inversion technique. The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and showed a clear effect of GO on PSF physical structure and morphology. The water contact angle of the membranes was measured and showed better hydrophilicity of GO membranes compared to pure PSF caused by the hydrophilic nature of GO. Separation properties of the prepared membranes were investigated using a cross-flow membrane system. Antifouling properties were studied using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and humic acid (HA) as model foulants. It has been found that GO-based membranes exhibit higher antifouling properties compared to pure PSF. When using BSA, the flux recovery ratio (FRR %) increased from 65.4 ± 0.9 % for pure PSF to 84.0 ± 1.0 % with a loading of 0.05 wt.% GO in PSF. When using HA as model foulant, FRR increased from 87.8 ± 0.6 % to 93.1 ± 1.1 % with 0.02 wt.% of GO in PSF. The pure water permeability (PWP) decreased with loadings of GO from 181.7 L.m⁻².h⁻¹.bar⁻¹ of pure PSF to 181.1, and 157.6 L.m⁻².h⁻¹.bar⁻¹ with 0.02 and 0.05 wt.% GO respectively. It can be concluded from the obtained results that incorporating low loading of GO could enhance the antifouling properties of PSF hence improving its lifetime and reuse.

Keywords: antifouling properties, GO based membranes, hydrophilicity, polysulfone, ultrafiltration

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35 Purification of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Diverse Applications

Authors: Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G. Clarke

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Bacillus lipopeptides are biosurfactants with wide ranging applications in the medical, food, agricultural, environmental and cosmetic industries. They are produced as a mix of three families, surfactin, iturin and fengycin, each comprising a large number of homologues of varying functionalities. Consequently, the method and degree of purification of the lipopeptide cocktail becomes particularly important if the functionality of the lipopeptide end-product is to be maximized for the specific application. However, downstream processing of Bacillus lipopeptides is particularly challenging due to the subtle variations observed in the different lipopeptide homologues and isoforms. To date, the most frequently used lipopeptide purification operations have been acid precipitation, solvent extraction, membrane ultrafiltration, adsorption and size exclusion. RP-HPLC (reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography) also has potential for fractionation of the lipopeptide homologues. In the studies presented here, membrane ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC were evaluated for lipopeptide purification to different degrees of purities for maximum functionality. Batch membrane ultrafiltration using 50 kDa polyether sulphone (PES) membranes resulted in lipopeptide recovery of about 68% for surfactin and 82 % for fengycin. The recovery was further improved to 95% by using size-conditioned lipopeptide micelles. The conditioning of lipopeptides with Ca2+ ions resulted in uniformly sized micelles with average size of 96.4 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.18. The size conditioning also facilitated removal of impurities (molecular weight ranging between 2335-3500 Da) through operation of the system under dia-filtration mode, in a way similar to salt removal from protein by dialysis. The resultant purified lipopeptide was devoid of macromolecular impurities and could ideally suit applications in the cosmetic and food industries. Enhanced purification using RP-HPLC was carried out in an analytical C18 column, with the aim to fractionate lipopeptides into their constituent homologues. The column was eluted with mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and water over an acetonitrile gradient, 35% - 80%, over 70 minutes. The gradient elution program resulted in as many as 41 fractions of individual lipopeptide homologues. The efficacy test of these fractions against fungal phytopathogens showed that first 21 fractions, identified to be homologues of iturins and fengycins, displayed maximum antifungal activities, suitable for biocontrol in the agricultural industry. Thus, in the current study, the downstream processing of lipopeptides leading to tailor-made products for selective applications was demonstrated using two major downstream unit operations.

Keywords: bacillus lipopeptides, membrane ultrafiltration, purification, RP-HPLC

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34 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin

Abstract:

This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.

Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewater

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33 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager

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In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

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32 Removal of Heavy Metals by Ultrafiltration Assisted with Chitosan or Carboxy-Methyl Cellulose

Authors: Boukary Lam, Sebastien Deon, Patrick Fievet, Nadia Crini, Gregorio Crini

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Treatment of heavy metal-contaminated industrial wastewater has become a major challenge over the last decades. Conventional processes for the treatment of metal-containing effluents do not always simultaneously satisfy both legislative and economic criteria. In this context, coupling of processes can then be a promising alternative to the conventional approaches used by industry. The polymer-assisted ultrafiltration (PAUF) process is one of these coupling processes. Its principle is based on a sequence of steps with reaction (e.g., complexation) between metal ions and a polymer and a step involving the rejection of the formed species by means of a UF membrane. Unlike free ions, which can cross the UF membrane due to their small size, the polymer/ion species, the size of which is larger than pore size, are rejected. The PAUF process was deeply investigated herein in the case of removal of nickel ions by adding chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Experiments were conducted with synthetic solutions containing 1 to 100 ppm of nickel ions with or without the presence of NaCl (0.05 to 0.2 M), and an industrial discharge water (containing several metal ions) with and without polymer. Chitosan with a molecular weight of 1.8×105 g mol⁻¹ and a degree of acetylation close to 15% was used. CMC with a degree of substitution of 0.7 and a molecular weight of 9×105 g mol⁻¹ was employed. Filtration experiments were performed under cross-flow conditions with a filtration cell equipped with a polyamide thin film composite flat-sheet membrane (3.5 kDa). Without the step of polymer addition, it was found that nickel rejection decreases from 80 to 0% with increasing metal ion concentration and salt concentration. This behavior agrees qualitatively with the Donnan exclusion principle: the increase in the electrolyte concentration screens the electrostatic interaction between ions and the membrane fixed the charge, which decreases their rejection. It was shown that addition of a sufficient amount of polymer (greater than 10⁻² M of monomer unit) can offset this decrease and allow good metal removal. However, the permeation flux was found to be somewhat reduced due to the increase in osmotic pressure and viscosity. It was also highlighted that the increase in pH (from 3 to 9) has a strong influence on removal performances: the higher pH value, the better removal performance. The two polymers have shown similar performance enhancement at natural pH. However, chitosan has proved more efficient in slightly basic conditions (above its pKa) whereas CMC has demonstrated very weak rejection performances when pH is below its pKa. In terms of metal rejection, chitosan is thus probably the better option for basic or strongly acid (pH < 4) conditions. Nevertheless, CMC should probably be preferred to chitosan in natural conditions (5 < pH < 8) since its impact on the permeation flux is less significant. Finally, ultrafiltration of an industrial discharge water has shown that the increase in metal ion rejection induced by the polymer addition is very low due to the competing phenomenon between the various ions present in the complex mixture.

Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose, chitosan, heavy metals, nickel ion, polymer-assisted ultrafiltration

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31 Removal of Chromium by UF5kDa Membrane: Its Characterization, Optimization of Parameters, and Evaluation of Coefficients

Authors: Bharti Verma, Chandrajit Balomajumder

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Water pollution is escalated owing to industrialization and random ejection of one or more toxic heavy metal ions from the semiconductor industry, electroplating, metallurgical, mining, chemical manufacturing, tannery industries, etc., In semiconductor industry various kinds of chemicals in wafers preparation are used . Fluoride, toxic solvent, heavy metals, dyes and salts, suspended solids and chelating agents may be found in wastewater effluent of semiconductor manufacturing industry. Also in the chrome plating, in the electroplating industry, the effluent contains heavy amounts of Chromium. Since Cr(VI) is highly toxic, its exposure poses an acute risk of health. Also, its chronic exposure can even lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the contrary, Cr (III) which is naturally occurring, is much less toxic than Cr(VI). Discharge limit of hexavalent chromium and trivalent chromium are 0.05 mg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. There are numerous methods such as adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, and electrochemical methods for the heavy metal removal. The present study focuses on the removal of Chromium ions by using flat sheet UF5kDa membrane. The Ultra filtration membrane process is operated above micro filtration membrane process. Thus separation achieved may be influenced due to the effect of Sieving and Donnan effect. Ultrafiltration is a promising method for the rejection of heavy metals like chromium, fluoride, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, etc. from effluent water. Benefits behind ultrafiltration process are that the operation is quite simple, the removal efficiency is high as compared to some other methods of removal and it is reliable. Polyamide membranes have been selected for the present study on rejection of Cr(VI) from feed solution. The objective of the current work is to examine the rejection of Cr(VI) from aqueous feed solutions by flat sheet UF5kDa membranes with different parameters such as pressure, feed concentration and pH of the feed. The experiments revealed that with increasing pressure, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) is increased. Also, the effect of pH of feed solution, the initial dosage of chromium in the feed solution has been studied. The membrane has been characterized by FTIR, SEM and AFM before and after the run. The mass transfer coefficients have been estimated. Membrane transport parameters have been calculated and have been found to be in a good correlation with the applied model.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, membrane process, waste water treatment, ultrafiltration

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30 Preparation and Removal Properties of Hollow Fiber Membranes for Drinking Water

Authors: Seung Moon Woo, Youn Suk Chung, Sang Yong Nam

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In the present time, we need advanced water treatment technology for separation of virus and bacteria in effluent which occur epidemic and waterborne diseases. Water purification system is mainly divided into two categorizations like reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF). Membrane used in these systems requires higher durability because of operating in harsh condition. Of these, the membrane using in UF system has many advantages like higher efficiency and lower energy consume for water treatment compared with RO system. In many kinds of membrane, hollow fiber type membrane is possible to make easily and to get optimized property by control of various spinning conditions such as temperature of coagulation bath, concentration of polymer, addition of additive, air gap and internal coagulation. In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 1.5 LPM, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria and virus removal performance of prepared UF membranes were over 6 logs.

Keywords: hollow fiber membrane, drinking water, ultrafiltration, bacteria

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29 The Production of Collagen and Collagen Peptides from Nile Tilapia Skin Using Membrane Technology

Authors: M. Thuanthong, W. Youravong, N. Sirinupong

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of fish species cultured in Thailand with a high production volume. A lot of skin is generated during fish processing. In addition, there are many research reported that fish skin contains abundant of collagen. Thus, the use of Nile tilapia skin as collagen source can increase the benefit of industrial waste. In this study, Acid soluble collagen (ASC) was extracted at 5, 15 or 25 ˚C with 0.5 M acetic acid then the acid was removed out and collagen was concentrated by ultrafiltration-diafiltration (UFDF). The triple helix collagen from UFDF process was used as substrate to produce collagen peptides by alcalase hydrolysis in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) coupling with 1 kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO) polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. The results showed that ASC extracted at high temperature (25 ˚C) with 0.5 M acetic acid for 5 h still preserved triple helix structure. In the UFDF process, the acid removal was higher than 90 % without any effect on ASC properties, particularly triple helix structure as indicated by circular dichroism spectrum. Moreover, Collagen from UFDF was used to produce collagen peptides by EMR. In EMR, collagen was pre-hydrolyzed by alcalase for 60 min before introduced to membrane separation. The EMR operation was operated for 10 h and provided a good of protein conversion stability. The results suggested that there is a successfulness of UF in application for acid removal to produce ASC with desirable preservation of its quality. In addition, the EMR was proven to be an effective process to produce low molecular weight peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity properties.

Keywords: acid soluble collagen, ultrafiltration-diafiltration, enzymatic membrane reactor, ace-inhibitory activity

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28 Practical Experiences in the Development of a Lab-Scale Process for the Production and Recovery of Fucoxanthin

Authors: Alma Gómez-Loredo, José González-Valdez, Jorge Benavides, Marco Rito-Palomares

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Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid that exerts multiple beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antidiabetic and anti-obesity activity; making the development of a whole process for its production and recovery an important contribution. In this work, the lab-scale production and purification of fucoxanthin in Isocrhysis galbana have been studied. In batch cultures, low light intensities (13.5 μmol/m2s) and bubble agitation were the best conditions for production of the carotenoid with product yields of up to 0.143 mg/g. After fucoxanthin ethanolic extraction from biomass and hexane partition, further recovery and purification of the carotenoid has been accomplished by means of alcohol – salt Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) extraction followed by an ultrafiltration (UF) step. An ATPS comprised of ethanol and potassium phosphate (Volume Ratio (VR) =3; Tie-line Length (TLL) 60% w/w) presented a fucoxanthin recovery yield of 76.24 ± 1.60% among the studied systems and was able to remove 64.89 ± 2.64% of the carotenoid and chlorophyll pollutants. For UF, the addition of ethanol to the original recovered ethanolic ATPS stream to a final relation of 74.15% (w/w) resulted in a reduction of approximately 16% of the protein contents, increasing product purity with a recovery yield of about 63% of the compound in the permeate stream. Considering the production, extraction and primary recovery (ATPS and UF) steps, around a 45% global fucoxanthin recovery should be expected. Although other purification technologies, such as Centrifugal Partition Chromatography are able to obtain fucoxanthin recoveries of up to 83%, the process developed in the present work does not require large volumes of solvents or expensive equipment. Moreover, it has a potential for scale up to commercial scale and represents a cost-effective strategy when compared to traditional separation techniques like chromatography.

Keywords: aqueous two-phase systems, fucoxanthin, Isochrysis galbana, microalgae, ultrafiltration

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27 Modification of a Commercial Ultrafiltration Membrane by Electrospray Deposition for Performance Adjustment

Authors: Elizaveta Korzhova, Sebastien Deon, Patrick Fievet, Dmitry Lopatin, Oleg Baranov

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Filtration with nanoporous ultrafiltration membranes is an attractive option to remove ionic pollutants from contaminated effluents. Unfortunately, commercial membranes are not necessarily suitable for specific applications, and their modification by polymer deposition is a fruitful way to adapt their performances accordingly. Many methods are usually used for surface modification, but a novel technique based on electrospray is proposed here. Various quantities of polymers were deposited on a commercial membrane, and the impact of the deposit is investigated on filtration performances and discussed in terms of charge and hydrophobicity. The electrospray deposition is a technique which has not been used for membrane modification up to now. It consists of spraying small drops of polymer solution under a high voltage between the needle containing the solution and the metallic support on which membrane is stuck. The advantage of this process lies in the small quantities of polymer that can be coated on the membrane surface compared with immersion technique. In this study, various quantities (from 2 to 40 μL/cm²) of solutions containing two charged polymers (13 mmol/L of monomer unit), namely polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), were sprayed on a negatively charged polyethersulfone membrane (PLEIADE, Orelis Environment). The efficacy of the polymer deposition was then investigated by estimating ion rejection, permeation flux, zeta-potential and contact angle before and after the polymer deposition. Firstly, contact angle (θ) measurements show that the surface hydrophilicity is notably improved by coating both PEI and PSS. Moreover, it was highlighted that the contact angle decreases monotonously with the amount of sprayed solution. Additionally, hydrophilicity enhancement was proved to be better with PSS (from 62 to 35°) than PEI (from 62 to 53°). Values of zeta-potential (ζ were estimated by measuring the streaming current generated by a pressure difference on both sides of a channel made by clamping two membranes. The ζ-values demonstrate that the deposits of PSS (negative at pH=5.5) allow an increase of the negative membrane charge, whereas the deposits of PEI (positive) lead to a positive surface charge. Zeta-potentials measurements also emphasize that the sprayed quantity has little impact on the membrane charge, except for very low quantities (2 μL/m²). The cross-flow filtration of salt solutions containing mono and divalent ions demonstrate that polymer deposition allows a strong enhancement of ion rejection. For instance, it is shown that rejection of a salt containing a divalent cation can be increased from 1 to 20 % and even to 35% by deposing 2 and 4 μL/cm² of PEI solution, respectively. This observation is coherent with the reversal of the membrane charge induced by PEI deposition. Similarly, the increase of negative charge induced by PSS deposition leads to an increase of NaCl rejection from 5 to 45 % due to electrostatic repulsion of the Cl- ion by the negative surface charge. Finally, a notable fall in the permeation flux due to the polymer layer coated at the surface was observed and the best polymer concentration in the sprayed solution remains to be determined to optimize performances.

Keywords: ultrafiltration, electrospray deposition, ion rejection, permeation flux, zeta-potential, hydrophobicity

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26 Investigation on Properties and Applications of Graphene as Single Layer of Carbon Atoms

Authors: Ali Ashjaran

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Graphene is undoubtedly emerging as one of the most promising materials because of its unique combination of superb properties, which opens a way for its exploitation in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from electronics to optics, sensors, and biodevices. In addition, Graphene-based nanomaterials have many promising applications in energy-related areas. Graphene a single layer of carbon atoms, combines several exceptional properties, which makes it uniquely suited as a coating material: transparency, excellent mechanical stability, low chemical reactivity, Optical, impermeability to most gases, flexibility, and very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Graphene is a material that can be utilized in numerous disciplines including, but not limited to: bioengineering, composite materials, energy technology and nanotechnology, biological engineering, optical electronics, ultrafiltration, photovoltaic cells. This review aims to provide an overiew of graphene structure, properties and some applications.

Keywords: graphene, carbon, anti corrosion, optical and electrical properties, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
25 Ultrafiltration Process Intensification for Municipal Wastewater Reuse: Water Quality, Optimization of Operating Conditions and Fouling Management

Authors: J. Yang, M. Monnot, T. Eljaddi, L. Simonian, L. Ercolei, P. Moulin

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The application of membrane technology to wastewater treatment has expanded rapidly under increasing stringent legislation and environmental protection requirements. At the same time, the water resource is becoming precious, and water reuse has gained popularity. Particularly, ultrafiltration (UF) is a very promising technology for water reuse as it can retain organic matters, suspended solids, colloids, and microorganisms. Nevertheless, few studies dealing with operating optimization of UF as a tertiary treatment for water reuse on a semi-industrial scale appear in the literature. Therefore, this study aims to explore the permeate water quality and to optimize operating parameters (maximizing productivity and minimizing irreversible fouling) through the operation of a UF pilot plant under real conditions. The fully automatic semi-industrial UF pilot plant with periodic classic backwashes (CB) and air backwashes (AB) was set up to filtrate the secondary effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in France. In this plant, the secondary treatment consists of a conventional activated sludge process followed by a sedimentation tank. The UF process was thus defined as a tertiary treatment and was operated under constant flux. It is important to note that a combination of CB and chlorinated AB was used for better fouling management. The 200 kDa hollow fiber membrane was used in the UF module, with an initial permeability (for WWTP outlet water) of 600 L·m-2·h⁻¹·bar⁻¹ and a total filtration surface of 9 m². Fifteen filtration conditions with different fluxes, filtration times, and air backwash frequencies were operated for more than 40 hours of each to observe their hydraulic filtration performances. Through comparison, the best sustainable condition was flux at 60 L·h⁻¹·m⁻², filtration time at 60 min, and backwash frequency of 1 AB every 3 CBs. The optimized condition stands out from the others with > 92% water recovery rates, better irreversible fouling control, stable permeability variation, efficient backwash reversibility (80% for CB and 150% for AB), and no chemical washing occurrence in 40h’s filtration. For all tested conditions, the permeate water quality met the water reuse guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), French standards, and the regulation of the European Parliament adopted in May 2020, setting minimum requirements for water reuse in agriculture. In permeate: the total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, and turbidity were decreased to < 2 mg·L-1, ≤ 10 mg·L⁻¹, < 0.5 NTU respectively; the Escherichia coli and Enterococci were > 5 log removal reduction, the other required microorganisms’ analysis were below the detection limits. Additionally, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was measured in raw wastewater of WWTP, UF feed, and UF permeate in November 2020. As a result, the raw wastewater was tested positive above the detection limit but below the quantification limit. Interestingly, the UF feed and UF permeate were tested negative to SARS-CoV-2 by these PCR assays. In summary, this work confirms the great interest in UF as intensified tertiary treatment for water reuse and gives operational indications for future industrial-scale production of reclaimed water.

Keywords: semi-industrial UF pilot plant, water reuse, fouling management, coronavirus

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24 Effect of Hydraulic Residence Time on Aromatic Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Using Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Narges Fallah, Mohsen Kian, Mehrzad Pakzadeh

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The petrochemical complex releases wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and could not be treated easily. Treatment of the wastewater from a petrochemical industry has been investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). For this purpose, a pilot-scale submerged MBR with a flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane was used for treatment of petrochemical wastewater according to Bandar Imam Petrochemical complex (BIPC) Aromatic plant. The testing system ran continuously (24-h) over 6 months. Trials on different membrane fluxes and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were conducted and the performance evaluation of the system was done. During the 167 days operation of the MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18, 12, 6, and 3 and at an infinite sludge retention time (SRT), the MBR effluent quality consistently met the requirement for discharge to the environment. A fluxes of 6.51 and 13.02 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) was sustainable and HRT of 6 and 12 h corresponding to these fluxes were applicable. Membrane permeability could be fully recovered after cleaning. In addition, there was no foaming issue in the process. It was concluded that it was feasible to treat the wastewater using submersed MBR technology.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), petrochemical wastewater, COD removal, biological treatment

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23 A Review of Recent Studies on Advanced Technologies for Water Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin

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Growing concern for the presence and contamination of heavy metals in our water supplies has steadily increased over the last few years. A number of specialized technologies including precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, cementation, electrochemical operations, have been developed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. However, these technologies have many limitations in the application, such as high cost, low separation efficiency, Recently, numerous approaches have been investigated to overcome these difficulties and membrane filtration, advanced oxidation technologies (AOPs), and UV irradiation etc. are sufficiently developed to be considered as alternative treatments. Many factors come into play when selecting wastewater treatment technology, such as type of wastewater, operating conditions, economics etc. This study describes these various treatment technologies employed for heavy metal removal. Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are also compared to highlight their current limitations and future research needs. For example, we investigated the applicability of the ultrafiltration technology for treating of heavy metal ions (e.g., Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) from synthetic wastewater solutions. Results shown that complete removal of metal ions, could be achieved.

Keywords: heavy metal, treatment methodologies, water, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
22 Freshwater Recovering and Water Pollution Controlling Technology

Authors: Habtamu Abdisa

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In nature, water may not be free from contaminants due to its polar nature. But, more than this, the environmental water is highly polluted by manmade activities from industrial, agricultural, recreation, shipping, and domestic sites, thereby increasing the shortage of freshwater for designated purposes. Therefore, in the face of water scarcity, human beings are enforced to look at all the existing opportunities to get an adequate amount of freshwater resources. The most probable water resource is wastewater, from which the water can be recovered to serve designated purposes (for industrial, agricultural, drinking, and other domestic uses). Present-day, the most preferable method for recovering water from different wastewater streams for re-use is membrane technology. This paper looks at the progressive development of membrane technology in wastewater treatment. The applications of pressure-driven membrane separation technology (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nano-filtration, reverse osmosis, and tissue purification) and no pressure membrane separation technology (semipermeable membrane, liquefiedfilm, and electro-dialysis) and also ion-exchange were reviewed. More than all, the technology for converting environmental water pollutants into energy is of considerable attention. Finally, recommendations for future research relating to the application of membrane technology in wastewater treatment were made. Also, further research recommendation about membrane fouling and cleaning was made.

Keywords: environmental pollution, membrane technology, water quality, wastewater

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21 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi

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Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
20 Pharmacokinetics, Dosage Regimen and in Vitro Plasma Protein Binding of Danofloxacin following Intravenous Administration in Adult Buffaloes

Authors: Zahid Manzoor, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Zahid Iqbal, Imran Ahmad Khan, Abdul Aziz, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim

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The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics behavior and optimal dosage regimen of danofloxacin in 8 adult healthy buffaloes of local breed (Nili Ravi) following single intravenous administration at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Plasma drug concentrations at various time intervals were measured by HPLC method. In vitro plasma protein binding was determined employing the ultrafiltration technique. The distribution and elimination of danofloxacin was rapid, as indicated by the values (Mean±SD) of distribution half-life (t1/2α = 0.25±0.09 hours) and elimination half life (t1/2β = 3.26±0.43 hours), respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 1.14±0.12 L/kg, displaying its extensive distribution into various body fluids and tissues. The high value of AUC (9.80±2.14 µg/ml.hr) reflected the vast area of the body covered by drug concentration. The mean residence time was noted to be 4.78±0.52 hours. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters, a suitable intravenous regimen for danofloxacin in adult buffaloes would be 6.5 mg/kg to be repeated after 12 hours intervals. The present study is the foremost pharmacokinetic study of danofloxacin in the local species which would provide the valueable contribution in the local manufacturing of danofloxacin in Pakistan in future.

Keywords: danofloxacin, pharmacokinetics, plasma protein binding, buffaloes, dosage regimen

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19 In-Situ Fabrication of ZnO PES Membranes for Treatment of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Oranso T. Mahlangi, Bhekie B. Mamba

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The occurrence of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in water has raised health concerns for living organisms. The majority of TorCs, including pharmaceuticals and volatile organic compounds, are poorly monitored, partly due to the high cost of analysis and less strict water quality guidelines in South Africa. Therefore, the removal of TorCs is important to guarantee safe potable water. In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated in situ in polyethersulfone (PES) polymer solutions. This was followed by membrane synthesis using the phase inversion technique. Techniques such as FTIR, Raman, SEM, AFM, EDS, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the membranes for several physicochemical properties. The membranes were then evaluated for their efficiency in treating pharmaceutical wastewater and resistance to organic (sodium alginate) and protein (bovine serum albumin) fouling. EDS micrographs revealed uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles within the polymer matrix, while SEM images showed uniform fingerlike structures. The addition of ZnO increased membrane roughness as well as hydrophilicity (which in turn improved water fluxes). The membranes poorly rejected monovalent and divalent salts (< 10%), making them resistant to flux decline due to concentration polarization effects. However, the membranes effectively removed carbamazepine, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, and naproxen by over 50%. ZnO PES membranes were resistant to organic and protein fouling compared to the neat membrane. ZnO PES ultrafiltration membranes may provide a solution in the reclamation of wastewater.

Keywords: trace organic compounds, pharmaceuticals, membrane fouling, wastewater reclamation

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18 Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Aquarius Solutions Using Hybrid Ceramic Membranes

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese

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The technological advantages of ceramic filtration elements were combined with polyelectrolyte films in the development process of hybrid membrane for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from Aquarius solutions. Previously extruded alumina ceramic membranes were coated with nanosized polyelectrolyte films using Layer-by-Layer technology. The polyelectrolyte chains form a network with nano-pores on the ceramic surface and promote the retention of small molecules like pharmaceuticals and microplastics, which cannot be eliminated using standard ultrafiltration methods. Additionally, the polyelectrolyte coat contributes with its adjustable (based on application) Zeta Potential for repulsion of contaminant molecules with opposite charges. Properties like permeability, bubble point, pore size distribution and Zeta Potential of ceramic and hybrid membranes were characterized using various laboratory and pilot tests and compared with each other. The most significant role for the membrane characterization played the filtration behavior investigation, during which retention against widely used pharmaceuticals like Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Sulfamethoxazol was subjected to series of filtration tests. The presented study offers a new perspective on nanosized molecules removal from aqueous solutions and shows the importance of combined techniques application for the elimination of pharmaceutical contaminants from drinking water.

Keywords: water treatment, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer coating, filtration, polyelectrolytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 86