Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10035

Search results for: zeta potential

10035 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek


Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential, albumin

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
10034 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni


This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics®, electrokinetic, electroosmotic, microfluidics, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
10033 Analysis of Dust Particles in Snow Cover in the Surroundings of the City of Ostrava: Particle Size Distribution, Zeta Potential and Heavy Metal Content

Authors: Roman Marsalek


In this paper, snow samples containing dust particles from several sampling points around the city of Ostrava were analyzed. The pH values of sampled snow were measured and solid particles analyzed. Particle size, zeta potential and content of selected heavy metals were determined in solid particles. The pH values of most samples lay in the slightly acid region. Mean values of particle size ranged from 290.5 to 620.5 nm. Zeta potential values varied between -5 and -26.5 mV. The following heavy metal concentration ranges were found: copper 0.08-0.75 mg/g, lead 0.05-0.9 mg/g, manganese 0.45-5.9 mg/g and iron 25.7-280.46 mg/g. The highest values of copper and lead were found in the vicinity of busy crossroads, and on the contrary, the highest levels of manganese and iron were detected close to a large steelworks. The proportion between pH values, zeta potentials, particle sizes and heavy metal contents was established. Zeta potential decreased with rising pH values and, simultaneously, heavy metal content in solid particles increased. At the same time, higher metal content corresponded to lower particle size.

Keywords: dust, snow, zeta potential, particles size distribution, heavy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
10032 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan


In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: celestite, contact angle, suspension stability, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
10031 Influence of the Molecular Architecture of a Polycarboxylate-Based Superplasticizer on the Rheological and Physicomechanical Properties of Cement Pastes

Authors: Alya Harichane, Abderraouf Achour, Abdelbaki Benmounah


The main difficulty encountered in the formulation of high-performance concrete (HPC) consists in choosing the most efficient cement-superplasticizer pair allowing to obtain maximum water reduction, good workability of the concrete in the fresh state, and very good mechanical resistance in the hardened state. The aim of this work is to test the efficiency of three polycarboxylate ether-based superplasticizers (PCE) marketed in Algeria with CEMI 52.5 R cement and to study the effect of chemical structure of PCE on zeta potential, rheological and mechanical properties of cement pastes. The property of the polymers in cement was tested by a Malvern Zetasizer 2000 apparatus and VT 550 viscometer. Results showed that the zeta potential and its rheological properties are related to the molecular weight and the density carboxylic of PCE. The PCE with a moderate molecular weight and the highest carboxylic groups had the best dispersion (high value of zeta potential) and lowest viscosity. The effect of the chemical structure of PCEs on mechanical properties is evaluated by the formulation of cement mortar with these PCEs. The result shows that there is a correlation between the zeta potential of polymer and the compressive strength of cement paste.

Keywords: molecular weight, polycarboxylate-ether superplasticizer, rheology, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
10030 Characterizing the Diffused Double Layer Properties of Clay Minerals

Authors: N. Saranya


The difference in characteristic behavior of clay minerals for different electrolyte solution is dictated by the corresponding variation occurring at its diffused double layer thickness (DDL). The diffused double layer of clay mineral has two distinct regions; the inner region is termed as ‘Stern layer’ where ions are strongly attached to the clay surface. In the outer region, the ions are not strongly bonded with the clay surface, and this region is termed as ‘diffuse layer’. Within the diffuse layer, there is a plane that forms a boundary between the moving ions and the ions attached to the clay surface, which is termed as slipping or shear plane, and the potential of this plane is defined as zeta potential (ζ). Therefore, the variation in diffused double layer properties of clay mineral for different electrolyte solutions can be modeled if the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential are computed. In view of this, the present study has attempted to characterize the diffused double layer properties of three different clay minerals interacting with different pore fluids by measuring the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential. Further, the obtained variation in the diffused double layer property is compared with the Gouy-Chapman model, which is the widely accepted theoretical model to characterize the diffused double layer properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: DDL, surface charge, surface potential, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
10029 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro


In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
10028 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: Fathiah Mohamed Zuki, Robert George Edyvean


Electrostatic interaction energy (∆EEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (∆EVDW) and acid base (∆EAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential, however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focuses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: XDLVO, electrostatic interaction energy, zeta potential, P. putida, mineral

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
10027 Stability and Rheological Study of Carbon Nanotube Water Based Nanofluid

Authors: S. Rashidi, L. C. Abdullah, R. Walvekar, K. Mohammad, F-R. Ahmadun, M. Y. Faizah


In this research, stability and rheology behavior of Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanofluids by using Xanthan Gum as a dispersant were measured. This paper addresses the effects of Xanthan Gum (XG) concentration and nanoparticle loading on stability and viscosity of nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids is measured by Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS (Malvern Instruments, ZEN 3600). The zeta potential of the stable samples was analyzed. The rheological behavior of carbon nanotube CNT nanofluids was analyzed using rheometer (Model AR G2, TA Instrument). Both stability and viscosity of the nanofluids increased with increasing CNT and XG concentration. The experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of nanofluid samples is stable. The results demonstrated that the zeta potential was affected by the CNT concentration and is augmented in parallel with increasing CNT concentration. The rheology results showed that the viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid was increased. The escalated viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid is owing to the higher van der Waals interaction between the CNT nanoparticles. On the other hand, the viscosity of the CNT/XG nanofluid decreases with increasing temperature. In summary, this research provides useful insight into the behavior of CNT nanofluids.

Keywords: nanofluid, carbon nanotube, stability, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
10026 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Asim Olgun, Ali Kara, Vural Butun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek


In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeta potential, adsorption, Orange 16, isotherms

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
10025 Surface Modification of Polycarbonate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Staining with Methylene Blue

Authors: Haruka Kaji, Jae-Ho Kim, Yonezawa Susumu


The surface of polycarbonate (PC) was modified with fluorine gas at 25℃ and 10-380 Torr for one h. The surface roughness of the fluorinated PC samples was approximately five times larger than that (1.2 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds (e.g., -C=O and C-Hx) derived from raw PC decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) after surface fluorination. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. Fluorinated PC could be strained with the methylene blue basic dye because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: dyeable layer, polycarbonate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
10024 Arta (Calligonum Comosum, L'her.) Shoot Extract: Bio-mediator in Silver Nanoparticles Formation and Antimycotic Potential

Authors: Afrah E. Mohammed, Mudawi M. Nour


Environmentally friendly green synthesis of nanomaterial has a very significant part in nanotechnology. In the present research, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was established by treating silver ions with the aqueous extract of Calligonum comosum green shoots at room temperature. AgNPs formation was firstly detected by the colour change of mixed extract (plant extract and AgNO3). Further characterization was done by ultraviolet (UV)-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The peak values for UV-VIS- spectroscopy were in the range of 440 nm, TEM micrograph showed a spherical shape for the particles and zeta potential showed the formation of negative charged nanoparticles with an average size of about 105.8 nm. 1635.41 and 3249.83 cm−1 are the peaks detected from the FTIR analysis. In this study, biosynthesized silver nanoparticles mediated by C. comosum were tested for their antimycotic activity using a well diffusion method against fungal species; Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp, Fusarium oxysporum. Our findings indicated that biosynthesized AgNPs showed an efficient antimycotic activity against tested species. The antimycotic action of AgNPs varied according to different fungal species. Results confirmed the ability of C. comosum green shoot extract to act as an reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis of AgNPs.

Keywords: AGNPS, zeta potential, TEM, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
10023 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin


Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
10022 Effect of Humic Acids on Agricultural Soil Structure and Stability and Its Implication on Soil Quality

Authors: Omkar Gaonkar, Indumathi Nambi, Suresh G. Kumar


The functional and morphological aspects of soil structure determine the soil quality. The dispersion of colloidal soil particles, especially the clay fraction and rupture of soil aggregates, both of which play an important role in soil structure development, lead to degradation of soil quality. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of the behaviour of soil colloids on the agricultural soil structure and quality. The effect of commercial humic acid and soil natural organic matter on the electrical and structural properties of the soil colloids was also studied. Agricultural soil, belonging to the sandy loam texture class from northern part of India was considered in this study. In order to understand the changes in the soil quality in the presence and absence of humic acids, the soil fabric and structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties of natural soil colloids in aqueous suspensions were assessed by zeta potential measurements at varying pH values with and without the presence of humic acids. The influence of natural organic matter was analyzed by oxidizing the natural soil organic matter with hydrogen peroxide. The zeta potential of the soil colloids was found to be negative in the pH range studied. The results indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatment leads to deflocculation of colloidal soil particles. In addition, the humic acids undergoes effective adsorption onto the soil surface imparting more negative zeta potential to the colloidal soil particles. The soil hydrophilicity decreased in the presence of humic acids which was confirmed by surface free energy determination. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of humic acids altered the soil fabric and structure, thereby affecting the soil quality. This study assumes significance in understanding soil aggregation and the interactions at soil solid-liquid interface.

Keywords: humic acids, natural organic matter, zeta potential, soil quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
10021 Mechanism of pH Sensitive Flocculation for Organic Load and Colour Reduction in Landfill Leachate

Authors: Brayan Daniel Riascos Arteaga, Carlos Costa Perez


Landfill leachate has an important fraction of humic substances, mainly humic acids (HAs), which often represent more than half value of COD, specially in liquids proceeded from composting processes of organic fraction of solid wastes. We propose in this article a new method of pH sensitive flocculation for COD and colour reduction in landfill leachate based on the chemical properties of HAs. Landfill leachate with a high content of humic acids can be efficiently treated by pH sensitive flocculation at pH 2.0, reducing COD value in 86.1% and colour in 84.7%. Mechanism of pH sensitive flocculation is based in protonation first of phenolic groups and later of carboxylic acid groups in the HAs molecules, resulting in a reduction of Zeta potential value. For pH over neutrality, carboxylic acid and phenolic groups are ionized and Zeta potential increases in absolute value, maintaining HAs in suspension as colloids and conducting flocculation to be obstructed. Ionized anionic groups (carboxylates) can interact electrostatically with cations abundant in leachate (site binding) aiding to maintain HAs in suspension. Simulation of this situation and ideal visualization of Zeta potential behavior is described in the paper and aggregation of molecules by H-bonds is proposed as the main step in separation of HAs from leachate and reduction of COD value in this complex liquid. CHNS analysis, FT-IR spectrometry and UV–VIS spectrophotometry show chemical elements content in the range of natural and commercial HAs, clear aromaticity and carboxylic acids and phenolic groups presence in the precipitate from landfill leachate

Keywords: landfill leachate, humic acids, COD, chemical treatment, flocculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
10020 Effect of Anionic Lipid on Zeta Potential Values and Physical Stability of Liposomal Amikacin

Authors: Yulistiani, Muhammad Amin, Fasich


A surface charge of the nanoparticle is a very important consideration in pulmonal drug delivery system. The zeta potential (ZP) is related to the surface charge which can predict stability of nanoparticles as nebules of liposomal amikacin. Anionic lipid such as 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) is expected to contribute to the physical stability of liposomal amikacin and the optimal ZP value. Suitable ZP can improve drug release profiles at specific sites in alveoli as well as their stability in dosage form. This study aimed to analyze the effect of DPPG on ZP values and physical stability of liposomal amikacin. Liposomes were prepared by using the reserved phase evaporation method. Liposomes consisting of DPPG, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol and amikacin were formulated in five different compositions 0/150/5/100, 10//150/5/100, 20/150/5/100, 30/150/5/100 and 40/150/5/100 (w/v) respectively. A chloroform/methanol mixture in the ratio of 1 : 1 (v/v) was used as solvent to dissolve lipids. These systems were adjusted in the phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Nebules of liposomal amikacin were produced by using the vibrating nebulizer and then characterized by the X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and scanning electron microscope. Amikacin concentration from liposome leakage was determined by the immunoassay method. The study revealed that presence of DPPG could increase the ZP value. The addition of 10 mg DPPG in the composition resulted in increasing of ZP value to 3.70 mV (negatively charged). The optimum ZP value was reached at -28.780 ± 0.70 mV and particle size of nebules 461.70 ± 21.79 nm. Nebulizing process altered parameters such as particle size, conformation of lipid components and the amount of surface charges of nanoparticles which could influence the ZP value. These parameters might have profound effects on the application of nebules in the alveoli; however, negatively charge nanoparticles were unexpected to have a high ZP value in this system due to increased macrophage uptake and pulmonal clearance. Therefore, the ratio of liposome 20/150/5/100 (w/v) resulted in the most stable colloidal system and might be applicable to pulmonal drug delivery system.

Keywords: anionic lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, liposomal amikacin, stability, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
10019 Fabrication of Ligand Coated Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Synergistic Treatment of Autoimmune Disease

Authors: Asiya Mahtab, Sushama Talegaonkar


The research is aimed at developing targeted lipid-based nanocarrier systems of chondroitin sulfate (CS) to deliver an antirheumatic drug to the inflammatory site in arthritic paw. Lipid-based nanoparticle (TEF-lipo) was prepared by using a thin-film hydration method. The coating of prepared drug-loaded nanoparticles was done by the ionic interaction mechanism. TEF-lipo and CS-coated lipid nanoparticle (CS-lipo) were characterized for mean droplet size, zeta potential, and surface morphology. TEF-lipo and CS-lipo were further subjected to in vitro cell line studies on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage, U937, and MG 63 cell lines. The pharmacodynamic study was performed to establish the effectiveness of the prepared lipid-based conventional and targeted nanoparticles in comparison to pure drugs. Droplet size and zeta potential of TEF-lipo were found to be 128. 92 ± 5.42 nm and +12.6 ± 1.2 mV. It was observed that after the coating of TEF-lipo with CS, particle size increased to 155.6± 2.12 nm and zeta potential changed to -10.2± 1.4mV. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the nanovesicles were uniformly dispersed and detached from each other. Formulations followed sustained release pattern up to 24 h. Results of cell line studies ind icated that CS-lipo formulation showed the highest cytotoxic potential, thereby proving its enhanced ability to kill the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage and U937 cells when compared with other formulations. It is clear from our in vivo pharmacodynamic results that targeted nanocarriers had a higher inhibitory effect on arthritis progression than nontargeted nanocarriers or free drugs. Results demonstrate that this approach will provide effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, and CS served as a potential prophylactic against the advancement of cartilage degeneration.

Keywords: adjuvant induced arthritis, chondroitin sulfate, rheumatoid arthritis, teriflunomide

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
10018 Closed Forms of Trigonometric Series Interms of Riemann’s ζ Function and Dirichlet η, λ, β Functions or the Hurwitz Zeta Function and Harmonic Numbers

Authors: Slobodan B. Tričković


We present the results concerned with trigonometric series that include sine and cosine functions with a parameter appearing in the denominator. We derive two types of closed-form formulas for trigonometric series. At first, for some integer values, as we know that Riemann’s ζ function and Dirichlet η, λ equal zero at negative even integers, whereas Dirichlet’s β function equals zero at negative odd integers, after a certain number of members, the rest of the series vanishes. Thus, a trigonometric series becomes a polynomial with coefficients involving Riemann’s ζ function and Dirichlet η, λ, β functions. On the other hand, in some cases, one cannot immediately replace the parameter with any positive integer because we shall encounter singularities. So it is necessary to take a limit, so in the process, we apply L’Hospital’s rule and, after a series of rearrangements, we bring a trigonometric series to a form suitable for the application of Choi-Srivastava’s theorem dealing with Hurwitz’s zeta function and Harmonic numbers. In this way, we express a trigonometric series as a polynomial over Hurwitz’s zeta function derivative.

Keywords: Dirichlet eta lambda beta functions, Riemann's zeta function, Hurwitz zeta function, Harmonic numbers

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
10017 Curcumin-Loaded Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Nano-Spheres: Preparation, Stability Study, and Its Implication for Cataract Prevention

Authors: Pankaj Dinesh Baviskar


This study examines the impact of curcumin-loaded nano-spheres in the form of emulsions on fish eye cataracts. Curcumin nanoemulsions were prepared by using phenethyl isothiocyanate. Nanoemulsions were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted method at 150 Watt. A zeta potential measurement for curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions was found to be -30.7eV, -13.4eV, and -9.55eV, and particle size was found to be 149.3 nm, 245.3 and nm 403.5 nm using particle size analyzer respectively for different conditions. The surface morphology of nano-spheres was examined by FE-SEM analysis. The zeta potential measured indicates its stability for corresponding nano-spheres. The anti-cataract application was studied by using isolated fish eye lenses. The cataract was induced using high glucose concentrated solution. The biochemical parameters in the form of reduced glutathione were measured to interpret the anti-cataract ability of curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions.

Keywords: curcumin, nano, cataract, nanoemulsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
10016 Surface Modification of Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Ag+ Ions Adsorption

Authors: Kohei Yamamoto, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified with fluorine gas at 25 ℃ and 100 Torr for one h. Moreover, the effect of ethanol washing on surface modification was investigated in this study. The surface roughness of the fluorinated and washed PET samples was approximately six times larger than that (0.6 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds such as -C=O and -C-Hx derived from raw PET decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds such as -CFx after surface fluorination. Even after washing with ethanol, the fluorinated bonds stably existed on the surface. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. The negative surface charges were increased by washing the ethanol, and it caused to increase in the number of polar groups such as -CHF- and -C-Fx. The fluorinated and washed surface of PET could promote the adsorption of Ag+ ions in AgNO₃ solution because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: Ag+ ions adsorption, polyethylene terephthalate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
10015 Development and Evaluation of Naringenin Nanosuspension to Improve Antioxidant Potential

Authors: Md. Shadab, Mariyam N. Nashid, Venkata Srikanth Meka, Thiagarajan Madheswaran


Naringenin (NAR), is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, found predominantly in citrus fruits, that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory behaviour, cholesterol-lowering and anticarcinogenic activities. However, despite the therapeutic potential of naringenin shown in a number of animal models, its clinical development has been hindered due to its low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate and inefficient transport across biological membranes resulting in low bioavailability. Naringenin nanosuspension were produced using stabilizers Tween® 80 by high pressure homogenization techniques. The nanosuspensions were characterized with regard to size (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), size distribution, charge (zeta potential measurements), morphology, short term physical stability, dissolution profile and antioxidant potential. A nanocrystal PCS size of about 500 nm was obtained after 20 homogenization cycles at 1500 bar. The short-term stability was assessed by storage of the nanosuspensions at 4 ◦C, room temperature and 40 ◦C. Result showed that naringenin nanosuspension was physically unstable due to large fluctuations in the particle size and zeta potential after 30 days. Naringenin nanosuspension demonstrated higher drug dissolution (97.90%) compared to naringenin powder (62.76%) after 120 minutes of testing. Naringenin nanosuspension showed increased antioxidant activity compared to naringenin powder with a percentage DPPH radical scavenging activity of 49.17% and 31.45% respectively at the lowest DPPH concentration.

Keywords: bioavailability, naringenin, nanosuspension, oral delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
10014 Characterization of Nanoemulsion Incorporating Crude Cocoa Polyphenol

Authors: Suzannah Sharif, Aznie Aida Ahmad, Maznah Ismail


Cocoa bean is the raw material for products such as cocoa powder and chocolate. Cocoa bean contains polyphenol which has been shown in several clinical studies to confer beneficial health effects. However studies showed that cocoa polyphenol absorption in the human intestinal tracts are very low. Therefore nanoemulsion may be one way to increase the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenol. This study aim to characterize nanoemulsion incorporating crude cocoa polyphenol produced using high energy technique. Cocoa polyphenol was extracted from fresh freeze-dried cocoa beans from Malaysia. The particle distribution, particle size, and zeta potential were determined. The emulsion was also analysed using transmission electron microscope to visualize the particles. Solubilization study was conducted by titrating the nanoemulsion into distilled water or 1% surfactant solution. Result showed that the nanoemulsion contains particle which have narrow size distribution. The particles size average at 112nm with zeta potential of -45mV. The nanoemulsions behave differently in distilled water and surfactant solution.

Keywords: cocoa, nanoemulsion, cocoa polyphenol, solubilisation study

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
10013 Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Male Rats after Administration of Extract and Nanoparticle of Ginger Torch Flower

Authors: Tresna Lestari, Tita Nofianti, Ade Yeni Aprilia, Lilis Tuslinah, Ruswanto Ruswanto


Nanoparticle formulation is often used to improve drug absorptivity, thus increasing the sharpness of the action. Ginger torch flower extract was formulated into nanoparticle form using poloxamer 1, 3 and 5%. The nanoparticle was then characterized by its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and morphological form by SEM. The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential -41.0 - (-24.3) mV and entrapment efficiency 89.93-97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of the drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, nanoparticle, poloxamer

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
10012 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: aggregation, alkalinity, colloid, nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
10011 Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats

Authors: Tita Nofianti, Tresna Lestari, Ade Y. Aprillia, Lilis Tuslinah, Ruswanto Ruswanto


Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, nanoparticle, poloxamer

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
10010 Development of Cationic Gelatin Nanoparticles as an Antigen-Carrier for Mucosal Immunization

Authors: Ping-Lun Jiang, Hung-Jun Lin, Shen-Fu Lin, Mei-Yin Chien, Ting-Wei Li, Chun-Han Lin, Der-Zen Liu


Mucosal vaccine induces both mucosal (secretory IgA) and systemic immune responses and it is considered an ideal vaccination strategy for prevention of infectious diseases. One important point to be considered in mucosal vaccination is effective antigen delivery system which can manage effective delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of mucosal. In the present study, cationic gelatin nanoparticles were prepared as ideal carriers for more efficient antigen delivery. The average diameter of cationic gelatin nanoparticle was approximate 190 nm, and the zeta potential was about +45 mV, then ovalbumin (OVA) was physically absorbed onto cationic gelatin nanoparticle. The OVA absorption rate was near 95% the zeta potential was about +20 mV. We show that cationic gelatin nanoparticle effectively facilitated antigen uptake by mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs) and RAW264.7 cells and induced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice twice immunized intranasally with OVA-absorbed cationic gelatin nanoparticle induced high levels of OVA-specific IgG in the serum and IgA in their in the nasal and lung wash fluid. These results indicate that nasal administration of cationic gelatin nanoparticles induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses and cationic gelatin nanoparticles might be a potential antigen delivery carrier for further clinical applications.

Keywords: antigen delivery, antigen-presenting cells, gelatin nanoparticle, mucosal vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
10009 Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Moringa oleifera Extract as Reducing Agent

Authors: Temsiri Suwan, Penpicha Wanachantararak, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Siriporn Okonogi


In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by green synthesis approach using Moringa oleifera aqueous extract (ME) as a reducing agent and silver nitrate as a precursor. The obtained AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The results from UV-Vis revealed that the maximum absorption of AgNPs was at 430 nm and the EDX spectrum confirmed Ag element. The results from DLS indicated that the amount of ME played an important role in particle size, size distribution, and zeta potential of the obtained AgNPs. The smallest size (62.4 ± 1.8 nm) with narrow distribution (0.18 ± 0.02) of AgNPs was obtained after using 1% w/v of ME. This system gave high negative zeta potential of -36.5 ± 2.8 mV. SEM results indicated that the obtained AgNPs were spherical in shape. Antibacterial activity using dilution method revealed that the minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the obtained AgNPs against Streptococcus mutans were 0.025 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity test of AgNPs on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549) indicated that the particles impacted against A549 cells. The percentage of cell growth inhibition was 87.5 ± 3.6 % when only 0.1 mg/mL AgNPs was used. These results suggest that ME is the potential reducing agent for green synthesis of AgNPs.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Moringa oleifera extract, reducing agent, silver nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
10008 Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide Extracted from Camelina Meal as a New Source of Thickening Agent

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)


Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop currently used for the production of biofuels. However, the low price of diesel and gasoline has made camelina an unprofitable crop for farmers, leading to declining camelina production in the US. Hence, the ability to utilize camelina byproduct (defatted meal) after oil extraction would be a pivotal factor for promoting the economic value of the plant. Camelina defatted meal is rich in proteins and polysaccharides. The great diversity in the polysaccharide structural features provides a unique opportunity for use in food formulations as thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. There is currently a great degree of interest in the study of novel plant polysaccharides, as they can be derived from readily accessible sources and have potential application in a wide range of food formulations. However, there are no published studies on the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal, and its potential industrial applications remain largely underexploited. Rheological properties are a key functional feature of polysaccharides and are highly dependent on the material composition and molecular structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal at different conditions to obtain insight on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide. Flow and dynamic mechanical behaviors were determined under different temperatures (5-50°C) and concentrations (1-6% w/v). Additionally, the zeta potential of the polysaccharide dispersion was measured at different pHs (2-11) and a biopolymer concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Shear rate sweep data revealed that the camelina polysaccharide displayed shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior, which is typical of polymer systems. The polysaccharide dispersion (1% w/v) showed no significant changes in viscosity with temperature, which makes it a promising ingredient in products requiring texture stability over a range of temperatures. However, the viscosity increased significantly with increased concentration, indicating that camelina polysaccharide can be used in food products at different concentrations to produce a range of textures. Dynamic mechanical spectra showed similar trends. The temperature had little effect on viscoelastic moduli. However, moduli were strongly affected by concentration: samples exhibited concentrated solution behavior at low concentrations (1-2% w/v) and weak gel behavior at higher concentrations (4-6% w/v). These rheological properties can be used for designing and modeling of liquid and semisolid products. Zeta potential affects the intensity of molecular interactions and molecular conformation and can alter solubility, stability, and eventually, the functionality of the materials as their environment changes. In this study, the zeta potential value significantly decreased from 0.0 to -62.5 as pH increased from 2 to 11, indicating that pH may affect the functional properties of the polysaccharide. The results obtained in the current study showed that camelina polysaccharide has significant potential for application in various food systems and can be introduced as a novel anionic thickening agent with unique properties.

Keywords: Camelina meal, polysaccharide, rheology, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
10007 Functional Role of Tyr12 in the Catalytic Activity of Zeta-Like Glutathione S-Transferase from Acidovorax sp. KKS102

Authors: D. Shehu, Z. Alias


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. The gene for KKSG9 was cloned, purified and biochemically characterized. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH). The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate (a common substrate for zeta class GSTs) in addition to permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.

Keywords: Acidovorax sp. KKS102, bioremediation, glutathione s-transferase, site-directed mutagenesis, zeta

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
10006 Doxorubicin and Cyclosporine Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles to Combat Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Shamala Nadaraju, Srinivasan Ramamurthy


Doxorubicin is the most widely used anticancer drugs in chemotherapy treatment. However, problems related to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and acute cardiotoxicity have led researchers to investigate alternative forms of administering doxorubicin for cancer therapy. Several methods have been attempted to overcome MDR, including the co-administration of a chemosensitizer inhibiting the efflux caused by ATP binding cassette transporters with anticancer drugs, and the bypass of the efflux mechanism. Co encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclosporine A (CSA) into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was emulsification-solvent evaporation method using polyvinyl alcohol as emulsion stabilizers. The Dox-CSA loaded nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential and PDI by light scattering analysis and thermal characterizations by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Loading efficiency (LE %) and in-vitro dissolution samples were evaluated by developed and validated HPLC method. The optimum particle size obtained is 298.6.8±39.4 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) is 0.098±0.092. Zeta potential is found to be -29.9±4.23. Optimum pH to increase Dox LE% was found 7.1 which gave 42.5% and 58.9% increase of LE% for pH 6.6 and pH 8.6 compared respectively. LE% achieved for Dox is 0.07±0.01 % and CSA is 0.09±0.03%. Increased volume of PVA and weight of PLGA shows increase in size of nanoparticles. DSC thermograms showed shift in the melting peak for the nanoparticles compared to Dox and CSA indicating encapsulation of drugs. In conclusion, these preliminary studies showed the feasibility of PLGA nanoparticles to entrap Dox and CSA and require future in-vivo studies to be performed to establish its potential.

Keywords: doxorubicin, cyclosporine, PLGA, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 404