Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: Quran

66 Mathematical and Fuzzy Logic in the Interpretation of the Quran

Authors: Morteza Khorrami

Abstract:

The logic as an intellectual infrastructure plays an essential role in the Islamic sciences. Hence, there are a few of the verses of the Holy Quran that their interpretation is not possible due to lack of proper logic. In many verses in the Quran, argument and the respondent has requested from the audience that shows the logic rule is in the Quran. The paper which use a descriptive and analytic method, tries to show the role of logic in understanding of the Quran reasoning methods and display some of Quranic statements with mathematical symbols and point that we can help these symbols for interesting and interpretation and answering to some questions and doubts. In this paper, this problem has been mentioned that the Quran did not use two-valued logic (Aristotelian) in all cases, but the fuzzy logic can also be searched in the Quran.

Keywords: aristotelian logic, fuzzy logic, interpretation, Holy Quran

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65 Metaphysical and Mystical Viewpoints of Roozbihan Baqli Shirazi on the Quran

Authors: Seyed Abdol Majid Hosseinizadeh

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This study aims at an assessment of the part of interpretational issues on the Quran in Roozbihan Baqli Shirazi's books, who has been a mystic and Sufi in the 12th century. He has written many mystical books which Henry Corbin and others have introduced and researched, especially his commentary on the Quran called Ara'is al-Bayan, but he also has other interpretational viewpoints on the Quran spread throughout his mystical works, which have not been considered. In this paper, it has been shown through a documentary method that Quranic verses and their interpretations also have a great role in his other works.

Keywords: interpretation, Islamic mysticism, Quran, Roozbihan Baqli Shirazi

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
64 Arabic Quran Search Tool Based on Ontology

Authors: Mohammad Alqahtani, Eric Atwell

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This paper reviews and classifies most of the important types of search techniques that have been applied on the holy Quran. Then, it addresses the limitations in these techniques. Additionally, this paper surveys most existing Quranic ontologies and what are their deficiencies. Finally, it explains a new search tool called: A semantic search tool for Al Quran based on Qur’anic ontologies. This tool will overcome all limitations in the existing Quranic search applications.

Keywords: holy Quran, natural language processing (NLP), semantic search, information retrieval (IR), ontology

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
63 Misconception on Multilingualism in Glorious Quran

Authors: Muhammed Unais

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The holy Quran is a pure Arabic book completely ensured the absence of non Arabic term. If it was revealed in a multilingual way including various foreign languages besides the Arabic, it can be easily misunderstood that the Arabs became helpless to compile such a work positively responding to the challenge of Allah due to their lack of knowledge in other languages in which the Quran is compiled. As based on the presence of some non Arabic terms in Quran like Istabrq, Saradiq, Rabbaniyyoon, etc. some oriental scholars argued that the holy Quran is not a book revealed in Arabic. We can see some Muslim scholars who either support or deny the presence of foreign terms in Quran but all of them agree that the roots of these words suspected as non Arabic are from foreign languages and are assimilated to the Arabic and using as same in that foreign language. After this linguistic assimilation was occurred and the assimilated non Arabic words became familiar among the Arabs, the Quran revealed as using these words in such a way stating that all words it contains are Arabic either pure or assimilated. Hence the two of opinions around the authenticity and reliability of etymology of these words are right. Those who argue the presence of foreign words he is right by the way of the roots of that words are from foreign and those who argue its absence he is right for that are assimilated and changed as the pure Arabic. The possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book is logically negative but its significance is being changed according to time and place. The problem of multilingualism in Quran is the misconception raised by some oriental scholars that the Arabs became helpless to compile a book equal to Quran not because of their weakness in Arabic but because the Quran is revealed in languages they are ignorant on them. Really, the Quran was revealed in pure Arabic, the most literate language of the Arabs, and the whole words and its meaning were familiar among them. If one become positively aware of the linguistic and cultural assimilation ever found in whole civilizations and cultural sets he will have not any question in this respect. In this paper the researcher intends to shed light on the possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book and debates among scholars in this issue, foreign terms in Quran and the logical justifications along with the exclusive features of Quran.

Keywords: Quran, foreign Terms, multilingualism, language

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62 An Analytical and Inductive Study of the Aspect and Impact of the Prophetic Traditions in Understating Quran and Its Interpretation

Authors: Zabihur Rahman

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In present day we see in our surroundings and in different societies of the world an uprising approach of understanding Quran without the help of Hadith and Sunnah. As they believe that ‘Quran is sufficient for our guidance’. They do not give any preference to Prophetic traditions (Hadith and Sunnah), to understand or realize the actual meaning and purpose of the reveling of Quranic verses. Based on the afore mentioned idea we are going to pin point an analytical and inductive study of tafsir Ahkâm-ul Qu’ran by: Ibn-ul Arabi al-Mâliki. In this study we are trying to show the importance of Hadith and Sunnah in interpretation and understanding of Quran by presenting various examples from tafsir Ahkâm-ul Quran. This book is for being an important source in the relative filed of Ahkam-ul Quran we are going to highlight the method of Ibn-ul Arabi in dealing with Quranic verses in the light of Hadith. Furthermore, the impact of quoting different types of hadith in Tefsir is also taken into account. Besides, while citing these Prophetic traditions it is also inevitable to kept in view the sciences of hadith and its application on the context in order to orientate the proper meaning. The study also includes the scrutiny of these narrations by their chain of narrators and text to ensure the perfection of these prophetic traditions. So that, a person can have accesses to the righteous understanding and interpretation of the Holy Quran.

Keywords: Hadith, interpretation, narrators, verses

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
61 Revisiting Domestication and Foreignisation Methods: Translating the Quran by the Hybrid Approach

Authors: Aladdin Al-Tarawneh

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The Quran, as it is the sacred book of Islam and considered the literal word of God (Allah) in Arabic, is highly translated into many languages; however, the foreignising or the literal approach excessively stains the quality and discredits the final product in the eyes of its receptors. Such an approach fails to capture the intended meaning of the Quran and to communicate it in any language. Therefore, this study is conducted to propose a different approach that seeks involving other ones according to a hybrid model. Indeed, this study challenges the binary adherence that is highly used in Translation Studies (TS) in general and in the translation of the Quran in particular. Drawing on the genuine fact that the Quran can be communicated in any language in terms of meaning, and the translation is not sacred; this paper approaches the translation of the Quran by blending different methods like domestication or foreignisation in a systematic way, avoiding the binary choice made by many translators. To reach this aim, the paper has a conceptual part that seeks to elucidate and clarify the main methods employed in TS, and criticise and modify them to propose the new hybrid approach (the hybrid model) for translating the Quran – that is, the deductive method. To support and validate the outcome of the previous part, a comparative model is employed in order to highlight the differences between the suggested translation and other widely used ones – that is, the inductive method. By applying this methodology, the paper proves that there is a deficiency of communicating the original meaning of the Quran in light of the foreignising approach. In conclusion, the paper suggests producing a Quran translation has to take into account the adoption of many techniques to express the meaning of the Quran as understood in the original, and to offer this understanding in English in the most native-like manner to serve the intended target readers.

Keywords: Quran translation, hybrid approach, domestication, foreignization, hybrid model

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60 Peaceful Coexistence with Non-Muslims from the Perspective of Quran

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei

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Peaceful coexistence with other religions is one of the most important matters raised the issue of religious diversity. Some people believe that the Quranic policy about the non-Muslims is based on the war and regard the reason of the progress of Islam in the early centuries as based on sword force. This article, which is written in a descriptive and analytical method, investigates this claim and evaluates it with the teachings and instructions of the Quran. The result of this paper shows that not only the teachings of the Quran do not cause the problems, but also The Quranic verses has obligated the Muslims to interact peacefully with their doctrinal opponents and exercise justice in this regard. This paper shows that the principle of interaction with non-Muslims is based on peace and coexistence, and Islam is the inspirer of religious coexistence with the followers of other religions.

Keywords: Quran, peace, religious coexistence, Christians, Jewish

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59 Reasons for Language Words in the Quran and Literary Approaches That Are Persian

Authors: Fateme Mazbanpoor, Sayed Mohammad Amiri

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In this article, we will examine the Persian words in Quran and study the reasons of their presence in this holy book. Writers of this paper extracted about 70 Persian words of Quran by referring to resources. (Alalfaz ol Moarab ol Farsieh Edishir, Almoarabol Javalighi, Almahzab va Etghan Seuti; Vocabulary involved in Quran Arthur Jeffry;, and etc…), some of these words are: ‘Abarigh, ‘Estabragh’,’Barzakh’, ‘Din’,’Zamharir, ‘Sondos’ ‘Sejil’,’ Namaregh’, ‘Fil’ etc. These Persian words have entered Arabic and finally entered Quran in two ways: 1) directly from Persian language, 2) via other languages. The first way: because of the Iranian dominance on Hira, Yemen, whole Oman and Bahrein land in Sasanian period, there were political, religious, linguistic, literary, and trade ties between these Arab territories causing the impact of Persian on Arabic; giving way to many Persian-loan words into Arabic in this period of time. The second way: Since the geographical and business conditions of the areas were dominated by Iran, Hejaz had lots of deals and trades with Mesopotamia and Yemen. On the other hand, Arabic language which was relatively a young language at that time, used to be impressed by Semitic languages in order to expand its vocabulary (Syrian and Aramaic were influenced by the languages of Iran). Consequently, due to the long relationship between Iranian and Arabs, some of the Persian words have taken longer ways through Aramaic and Syrian to find their way into Quran.

Keywords: Quran, Persian word, Arabic language, Persian

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
58 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori

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In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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57 The Functions of “Question” and Its Role in Education Process: Quranic Approach

Authors: Sara Tusian, Zahra Salehi Motaahed, Narges Sajjadie, Nikoo Dialame

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One of the methods which have frequently been used in Quran is the “question”. In the Quran, in addition to the content, methods are also important. Using analysis-interpretation method, the present study has investigated Quranic questions, and extracted its functions from educational perspective. In so doing, it has first investigated all the questions in Quran and then taking the three-stage classification of education into account, it has offered question functions. The results obtained from this study suggest that question functions in Quran are presented in three categories: the preparation stage (including preparation of the audience, revising the insights, and internal Evolution); main body (including the granting the insight, and elimination of intellectual negligence and the question of innate and logical axioms, the introducting of the realm of thinking, creating emotional arousal and alleged in the claim) and the third stage as modification and revision (including invitation to move in the framework of tasks using the individual beliefs to reveal the contradictions and, Error detection and contribution to change the function) that each of which has a special role in the education process.

Keywords: education, question, Quranic questions, Quran

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56 The Islamic Administrative Morals among Criminal Investigators in the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Practical Study on the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majed Aldusaimani

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Introduction: The researcher aims to verify the extent of the criminal investigator's commitment to the Islamic morals set out in the Holy Quran, their application in his work, and to understand the point of view of police officers, clerks and suspects regarding the investigator's commitment to moral and ethics in practice. Research question: Are the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia committed to the application of the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran in the view of the police officers, clerks and suspects with whom they work? Objectives of the study: 1. Identifying the standing of morality in Islam. 2. Identifying the practical morals outlined in the Holy Quran. 3. Identifying the most important practical morals in the Holy Quran that must be met by the criminal investigator from the viewpoint of the investigator himself. 4. Identifying the criminal investigator's commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran as perceived from the perspectives of police officers, clerks and suspects. Methodology: This study will use a descriptive methodology through quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data from respondents, who will be asked to answer questions about the extent of the commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran of the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution that they have encountered.

Keywords: Islamic, investigator, Morals, Quran

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55 Teaching the Meaning of the Holy Quran Using Modern Technology

Authors: Arjumand Warsy

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Among the Muslims, the Holy Quran is taught from early childhood and generally by the age of 7-8 years the reading of the entire Quran is completed by most of the children in Muslim families. During this period excellent reciter’s are selected to teach and emphasis is laid on correct reading, pronunciation and memorization. Following these years, the parents lay emphasis on the recitation of the Quran on daily basis. During the month of Ramadan the entire Quran is read one or more times and there are considerable number of Muslims who complete the entire Quran once or more each calendar month. Many Muslims do not know Arabic and for them message in the Quran is what others tell them and often they have no idea about this Guidance sent to them. This deficiency is reflected in many ways, both among people living in Muslim or non-Muslim countries. Due to the deficiency in knowledge about Islamic teachings, the foundations of Islam are being eroded by a variety of forces. In an attempt to guard against the non-Islamic influences, every Muslim must have a clear understanding of the Islamic teachings and requirements. The best guidance can be provided by the understanding of the Holy Quran. However, we are faced with the problem that often the Quran is taught in a way that fails to develop an interest and understanding of the message from Allah. Looking at the teaching of other subjects both scientific and non-scientific, at school, college or University levels, it is obvious that the advances in teaching methodologies using electronic technology have had a major impact, where both the understanding and the interest of the students are significantly elevated. We attempted to teach the meaning of the Holy Quran to children and adults using a scientific and modern approach using slide presentation and animations. The results showed almost 100% increase in the understanding of the Quran message; all attendees claimed they developed an increased interest in the study of the Holy Quran and did not lose track or develop boredom throughout the lectures. They learnt the information and remembered it more effectively. The love for Allah and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) increased significantly. The fear of Allah and love of Heaven developed significantly. Historical facts and the stories of the past nations became clearer and the Greatness of the Creator was strongly felt. Several of attendees wanted to become better Muslims and to spread the knowledge of Islam. In this presentation, the adopted teaching method will be first presented and demonstrated to the audience using a short Surah from the Quran, followed by discussion on the results achieved during our study. We will endeavor to convey to the audience that there is a need to adopt a more scientific approach to teach the Quran so that a greater benefit is achieved by all.

Keywords: The Holy Quran, Muslims, presentations, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
54 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Kamran Malik

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"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: NLP, Quran, Computational Linguistics, E Learning

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53 The Station and Value of Beauty in Islam Based on the Holy Quran

Authors: Hamidreza Qaderi

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Beauty is a part of our life and we as Muslims cannot ignore it. Furthermore, Islam did not ignore. God in Quran has used words that mean beauty many times. Zain «زین» and its synonyms are some of that words that are used 46 times in a different meaning of beauty. Some of them are mentioned to worldly beauty and not acceptable beauty and other of them are mentioned to the Moral beauty. In this article, the meaning of Zain 'beauty' in Surah Al Aaraf (The Heights) is explained and described. In fact, there are specific signs about beauty in the 31 and 32 verses of this Surah in which the station of beauty can determine. For clarification of this issue, the analytic philosophy method is used to express the relation between this word and aesthetics and beauty in this article. The results of this research show that the beauty is an important issue in Islam as much as God order to Muslims to be beautiful when they want to pray.

Keywords: beauty, Quran, al zinah, Zain

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52 The Scientific Phenomenon Revealed in the Holy Quran - an Update

Authors: Arjumand Warsy

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The Holy Quran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) over fourteen hundred years ago, at a time when majority of the people in Arabia were illiterate and very few could read or write. Any knowledge about medicine, anatomy, biology, astronomy, physics, geology, geophysics or other sciences were almost non-existent. Many superstitious and groundless believes were prevalent and these believes were passed down through past generations. At that time, the Holy Quran was revealed and it presented several phenomenon that have been only currently unveiled, as scientists have worked endlessly to provide explanation for these physical and biological phenomenon applying scientific technologies. Many important discoveries were made during the 20th century and it is interesting to note that many of these discoveries were already present in the Holy Quran fourteen hundred years ago. The Scientific phenomenon, mentioned in the Holy Quran, cover many different fields in biological and physical sciences and have been the source of guidance for a number of scientists. A perfect description of the creation of the universe, the orbits in space, the development process, development of hearing process prior to sight, importance of the skin in sensing pain, uniqueness of fingerprints, role of males in selection of the sex of the baby, are just a few of the many facts present in the Quran that have astonished many scientists. The Quran in Chapter 20, verse 50 states: قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِيۤ اَعْطٰى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهٗ ثُمَّ هَدٰى ۰۰ (He said "Our Lord is He, Who has given a distinctive form to everything and then guided it aright”). Explaining this brief statement in the light of the modern day Molecular Genetics unveils the entire genetic basis of life and how guidance is stored in the genetic material (DNA) present in the nucleus. This thread like structure, made of only six molecules (sugar, phosphate, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine), is so brilliantly structured by the Creator that it holds all the information about each and every living thing, whether it is viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or humans or any other living being. This paper will present an update on some of the physical and biological phenomena’ presented in the Holy Quran, unveiled using advanced technologies during the last century and will discuss how the need to incorporate this information in the curricula.

Keywords: The Holy Quran, scientific facts, curriculum, Muslims

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51 Holy Quran’s Hermeneutics from Self-Referentiality to the Quran by Quran’s Interpretation

Authors: Mohammad Ba’azm

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The self-referentiality method as the missing ring of the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation has a precise application at the level of the Quranic vocabulary, but after entering the domain of the verses, chapters and the whole Qur’an, it reveals its defect. Self-referentiality cannot show the clear concept of the Quranic scriptures, unlike the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation method that guides us to the comprehension and exact hermeneutics. The Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation is a solid way of comprehension of the verses of the Qur'an and does not use external resources to provide implications and meanings with different theoretical and practical supports. In this method, theoretical supports are based on the basics and modalities that support and validate the legitimacy and validity of the interpretive method discussed, and the practical supports also relate to the practitioners of the religious elite. The combination of these two methods illustrates the exact understanding of the Qur'an at the level of Quranic verses, chapters, and the whole Qur’an. This study by examining the word 'book' in the Qur'an shows the difference between the two methods, and the necessity of attachment of these, in order to attain a desirable level for comprehensions meaning of the Qur'an. In this article, we have proven that by aspects of the meaning of the Quranic words, we cannot say any word has an exact meaning.

Keywords: Qur’an’s hermeneutic, self-referentiality, The Qur’an by Qur’an’s Interpretation, polysemy

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
50 Meaningfulness of Right to Life in Holy Quran

Authors: Masoud Raei, Mohammadmahdi Sadeghi

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The right to life as the most essential right in human rights issues and in the first group has devoted a special place to itself. Attention to this right and its domain and its reflection in civil rights is one of the most important axis of the rights to life issues. Issues discussed concerning this matter in public law with regard to its status in human rights are the determination of government’s duty toward identification; application and guarantee of this right. The constitutions of countries have chosen different approaches towards the identification of this right and also its limits and boundaries, determining the territory of governments for citizens. The reason for such a difference is the question arising in this regard. It is claimed that without the determination of meaningfulness of the right to life, it is not possible to provide a clear response to this question. The goal of this paper is to justify its theoretical framework from the view of meaningfulness of right to life relying on Quranic verses with a conceptual approach towards the right to life so that the relationship between government and citizens with regard to right to life is determined. Through a comparative study, it is possible to attain significant differences between the teachings of the Holy Quran and human rights documents. The method of this paper is a descriptive-analytic approach relying on interpretation books on Holy Quran.

Keywords: meaningfulness, objectivism, separatism, right to life

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49 Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners

Authors: Marwa A. Nasser

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This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).

Keywords: consonant articulations, Egyptian learners of English, Egyptian learners of Quran, empirical study, error analysis, pronunciation problems

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48 A Comprehensive Model of Professional Ethics Based on the Teachings of the Holy Quran

Authors: Zahra Mohagheghian, Fatema Agharebparast

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Professional ethic is a subject that has been an issue today, so most of the businesses, including the teaching profession, understand the need and importance of it. So they need to develop a code of professional ethics for their own. In this regard, this study seeks to answer the question, with respect to the integrity of the Qur'an (Nahl / 89), is it possible to contemplate the divine teachers conduct to extract the divine pattern for teaching and training? In the code of conduct for divine teachers what are the most important moral obligations and duties of the teaching professionals? The results of this study show that the teaching of Khidr, according to the Quran’s verses, Abundant and subtle hints emphasized that it can be as comprehensive and divine pattern used in teaching and in the drafting of the charter of professional ethics of teachers used it. Also, the results show that in there have been many ethical principles in prophet Khidr’s teaching pattern.The most important ethical principles include: Student assessment, using objective and not subjective examples, assessment during teaching, flexibility, and others. According to each of these principles can help teachers achieve their educational goals and lead human being in their path toward spiritual evaluation.

Keywords: professional ethics, teaching-learning process, teacher, student, Quran

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47 Unsupervised Reciter Recognition Using Gaussian Mixture Models

Authors: Ahmad Alwosheel, Ahmed Alqaraawi

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This work proposes an unsupervised text-independent probabilistic approach to recognize Quran reciter voice. It is an accurate approach that works on real time applications. This approach does not require a prior information about reciter models. It has two phases, where in the training phase the reciters' acoustical features are modeled using Gaussian Mixture Models, while in the testing phase, unlabeled reciter's acoustical features are examined among GMM models. Using this approach, a high accuracy results are achieved with efficient computation time process.

Keywords: Quran, speaker recognition, reciter recognition, Gaussian Mixture Model

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46 Study of Irritant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Snuhi/Zaqqum (Euphorbia nerifolia) with Special Reference to Holy Quran and Ayurveda

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Pradnya Chigle, Bushra Farhen

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Indian mythology believes that Vedas are eternal treatises. Vedas are categorized into four divisions viz., Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharveda. All these spiritual classics not only deal with rituals and customs but also consist of inclusion of many references related to health. Out of these four, Atharveda deals with maximum principles pertaining to health sciences. Therefore, it is said that the science and the art of Ayurveda has developed from Atharveda. Ayurveda deals with many medicinal plants either as a single therapeutic use or in combination. One such medicinal plant is Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) which finds its extensive importance along with Haridra and Apamargakshar, in the preparation of Ksharsutra which in turn is used for the treatment of Fistula in Ano. It is interesting to note that this plant Snuhi is also referred in Holy Quran as the Tree of Zaqqum advocated as the food for the sinners as a part of torment. The reference in Surat Ad-Dukhan is as follows: - 44:43-46. “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners, Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.” The above verse implies that plant Snuhi/Zaqqum due to irritant property acts as a drastic purgative but at the same time it also possesses anti inflammatory properties in order to relieve the irritation. These properties of Zaqqum has been unfolded in the modern research which states that, Diterpene polycyclic esters are responsible for its toxic and irritant nature whereas; triterpenes are responsible for its anti inflammatory property. Present work will be an effort to review the concept of Quran about latex of the Tree of Zaqqum in terms of its phytochemistry and its therapeutic use in Ksharsutra pertaining to irritant and anti inflammatory property.

Keywords: ayurveda, Quran, zaqqum, ksharsutra, latex piles, inflammation

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45 An Introduction to the Current Epistemology of Ethical Philosophy of Islamic Banking

Authors: Mohd Iqbal Malik

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Ethical philosophy of Quran pinnacled virtue and economics as the part and parcel of human life. Human beings are to be imagined by the sign of morals. Soul and morality are both among the essences of human personality. Islam lays the foundation of ethics by installation of making a momentous variance between virtue and vice. It suggests for the distribution of wealth in-order to terminate accumulation of economic resources. Quran claims for the ambiguous pavement to attain virtue by saying, ‘Never will you attain the good (reward) until you spend (in the way of Allah) from that which you love. And whatever you spend indeed, Allah knows of it.’ The essence of Quran is to eliminate all the deep-seated approaches through which the wealth of nations is being accumulated within few hands. The paper will study the Quranic Philosophy Of Islamic Economic System. In recent times, to get out of the human resource development mystery of Muslims, Ismail Al-Raji Faruqi led the way in the so-called ‘Islamization’ of knowledge. Rahman and Faruqi formed opposite opinions on this project. Al-Faruqi thought of the Islamization of knowledge in terms of introducing Western learning into received Islamic values and vice versa. This proved to be a mere peripheral treatment of Islamic values in relation to Western knowledge. It is true that out of the programme of Islamization of knowledge arose Islamic universities in many Muslim countries. Yet the academic programmes of these universities were not founded upon a substantive understanding and application of the tawhidi epistemology.

Keywords: ethical philosophy, modern Islamic finance, knowledge of finance, Islamic banking

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44 A Comparative Study of Milton’s Paradise Lost and the Quran in Islam

Authors: Najmeh Dehghanitafti

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Paradise Lost, John Milton's epic poem of theology and cosmology, gained substantial critical attention in the twentieth century. Milton's illustration of Satan and Eve and his allusions to the Bible can be an interesting source of criticism for the scholars who try to analyze Milton's works in terms of religious studies. Therefore, various studies of Paradise Lost try to investigate this epic in terms of religions beyond Christianity. Paradise Lost's comparison with religious books such as the Qur’an in Islam in terms of character illustration created multiple translations of this epic into Arabic. Accordingly, this paper aims to compare Miltonic Satan versus Quranic Iblis based on Inani’s translation of Paradise Lost into Arabic. This study also tries to investigate Miltonic and Quranic view of Eve to find out the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam in terms of feminism.

Keywords: Eve, feminism, Iblis, Paradise Lost, Satan, The Quran

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43 Sound Exposure Effects towards Ross Broilers Growth Rate

Authors: Rashidah Ghazali, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Mashitah Shikh Maidin, Shafishuhaza Sahlan, Noramli Abdul Razak

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Sound exposure effects have been investigated by broadcasting a group of broilers with sound of Quran verses (Group B) whereas the other group is the control broilers (Group C). The growth rate comparisons in terms of weight and raw meat texture measured by shear force have been investigated. Twenty-seven broilers were randomly selected from each group on Day 24 and weight measurement was carried out every week till the harvest day (Day 39). Group B showed a higher mean weight on Day 24 (1.441±0.013 kg) than Group C. Significant difference in the weight on Day 39 existed for Group B compared to Group C (p< 0.05). However, there was no significant (p> 0.05) difference of shear force in the same muscles (breast and drumstick raw meat) of both groups but the shear force of the breast meat for Group B and C broilers was lower (p < 0.05) than that of their drumstick meat. Thus, broadcasting the sound of Quran verses in the coop can be applied to improve the growth rate of broilers for producing better quality poultry.

Keywords: broilers, sound, shear force, weight

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42 The Loss of Oral Performative Semantic Influence of the Qur'an in Its Translations

Authors: Alalddin Al-Tarawneh

Abstract:

In its literal translation, the Qur’an is frequently subject to misinterpretation as a result of failures to deliver its meaning into any language. This paper relies on the genuine aspect that the Qur’an is an oral performance in its nature; and the objective of any Qur’an translation is to deliver its meaning in English. Therefore, it approaches the translation of the Qur’an beyond the usual formal linguistic approach in order to include an extra-textual factor. This factor is the recitation or oral performance of the Qur’an, that is, tajweed as it is termed in Arabic. The translations used in this paper to apply the suggested approach were carefully chosen to be representative of the problems that exist in many Qur’an translations. These translations are The Meaning of the Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary by Ali (1989), The Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Pickthall (1997/1930), and The Quran: Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings by Sahih (2010). Through the examples cited in this paper, it is suggested that the agents involved in producing a ‘translation’ of the Holy Qur’an have to take into account its oral aspect which yields additional senses and meanings that are not being captured by adhering to the words of the ‘written’ discourse. This paper attempts in its translation into English.

Keywords: oral performance, tajweed, Qur'an translation, recitation

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41 The Evaluation of Islamic Concept in Contemporary Mosque Design with the Case of Study: Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, M. Ikramullah al Kambuna

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Today the crisis of understanding in Islamic values has been extended to the architectural design. The majority of Muslim Architects when they designed Islamic Architectural building always stuck in cultural symbols, forms of facade, carvings calligraphy, and all of things which intimately associated with middle eastern culture. As well as the interpretation of symbols form, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carving in the interior of the mosque, and the other elements in the building which interpreted to the middle east culture. So here there are problems in understanding the meaning of Islam with Kaffah (overall), which appeared a distortion of understanding to distinguish between cultural and theological values in a design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with case studies in Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia. The building evaluation are focused in building function , aesthetic, comfort, and security. And finally from this research should be found the results of the integrated design evaluation of a contemporary mosque which based on the study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: evaluation, islamic concept, mosque, Hadith, Quran

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40 An Analysis of the Contemporary Western Academic Works in the Genre of Quranic Studies: a Case Study of Encyclopaedia of the Quran

Authors: Iffat Batool

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An extensive body of literature produced by the contemporary Western academia is an indication of their grave interest in the field of Qur’ānic studies. What increases its significance is the writings of the western scholars that underscore the element of objectivity and impartiality in the recent western academic works on the Qur’ān. Moreover, the participation of some Muslim scholars in the western academia is also highlighted by western thinkers to ensure the objectivity of western Qur’ānic scholarship. More specifically, with the publication of ‘Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān by Brill’ the western academia seems to assign these elements to this work vigorously. Being the foremost work of its nature, ‘Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān’ has attracted the academicians from across the world yet, with multiple receptions. The present study aims at locating the status of this work in the recent Western scholarship and its contribution towards the subject of Qur’ānic Studies. Through a critical analysis of articles, various features of this work are highlighted. This work concludes that although Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān presents wide-ranging and extensive study, yet, it lacks a perfect, rigorous and thorough scholarship of the Qur’ān. Besides, this work argues that because of the marginal contribution of Muslim researchers, the majority conclusions of this anthology are in contrast to the traditional Muslim standpoint

Keywords: academic, encyclopeadia, objectivity, quran

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39 Investigating the Influences of Long-Term, as Compared to Short-Term, Phonological Memory on the Word Recognition Abilities of Arabic Readers vs. Arabic Native Speakers: A Word-Recognition Study

Authors: Insiya Bhalloo

Abstract:

It is quite common in the Muslim faith for non-Arabic speakers to be able to convert written Arabic, especially Quranic Arabic, into a phonological code without significant semantic or syntactic knowledge. This is due to prior experience learning to read the Quran (a religious text written in Classical Arabic), from a very young age such as via enrolment in Quranic Arabic classes. As compared to native speakers of Arabic, these Arabic readers do not have a comprehensive morpho-syntactic knowledge of the Arabic language, nor can understand, or engage in Arabic conversation. The study seeks to investigate whether mere phonological experience (as indicated by the Arabic readers’ experience with Arabic phonology and the sound-system) is sufficient to cause phonological-interference during word recognition of previously-heard words, despite the participants’ non-native status. Both native speakers of Arabic and non-native speakers of Arabic, i.e., those individuals that learned to read the Quran from a young age, will be recruited. Each experimental session will include two phases: An exposure phase and a test phase. During the exposure phase, participants will be presented with Arabic words (n=40) on a computer screen. Half of these words will be common words found in the Quran while the other half will be words commonly found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) but either non-existent or prevalent at a significantly lower frequency within the Quran. During the test phase, participants will then be presented with both familiar (n = 20; i.e., those words presented during the exposure phase) and novel Arabic words (n = 20; i.e., words not presented during the exposure phase. ½ of these presented words will be common Quranic Arabic words and the other ½ will be common MSA words but not Quranic words. Moreover, ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA words presented will be comprised of nouns, while ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA will be comprised of verbs, thereby eliminating word-processing issues affected by lexical category. Participants will then determine if they had seen that word during the exposure phase. This study seeks to investigate whether long-term phonological memory, such as via childhood exposure to Quranic Arabic orthography, has a differential effect on the word-recognition capacities of native Arabic speakers and Arabic readers; we seek to compare the effects of long-term phonological memory in comparison to short-term phonological exposure (as indicated by the presentation of familiar words from the exposure phase). The researcher’s hypothesis is that, despite the lack of lexical knowledge, early experience with converting written Quranic Arabic text into a phonological code will help participants recall the familiar Quranic words that appeared during the exposure phase more accurately than those that were not presented during the exposure phase. Moreover, it is anticipated that the non-native Arabic readers will also report more false alarms to the unfamiliar Quranic words, due to early childhood phonological exposure to Quranic Arabic script - thereby causing false phonological facilitatory effects.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, phonological facilitation, phonological memory, Quranic arabic, word recognition

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38 A Postmodern Framework for Quranic Hermeneutics

Authors: Christiane Paulus

Abstract:

Post-Islamism assumes that the Quran should not be viewed in terms of what Lyotard identifies as a ‘meta-narrative'. However, its socio-ethical content can be viewed as critical of power discourse (Foucault). Practicing religion seems to be limited to rites and individual spirituality, taqwa. Alternatively, can we build on Muhammad Abduh's classic-modern reform and develop it through a postmodernist frame? This is the main question of this study. Through his general and vague remarks on the context of the Quran, Abduh was the first to refer to the historical and cultural distance of the text as an obstacle for interpretation. His application, however, corresponded to the modern absolute idea of authentic sharia. He was followed by Amin al-Khuli, who hermeneutically linked the content of the Quran to the theory of evolution. Fazlur Rahman and Nasr Hamid abu Zeid remain reluctant to go beyond the general level in terms of context. The hermeneutic circle, therefore, persists in challenging, how to get out to overcome one’s own assumptions. The insight into and the acceptance of the lasting ambivalence of understanding can be grasped as a postmodern approach; it is documented in Derrida's discovery of the shift in text meanings, difference, also in Lyotard's theory of différend. The resulting mixture of meanings (Wolfgang Welsch) can be read together with the classic ambiguity of the premodern interpreters of the Quran (Thomas Bauer). Confronting hermeneutic difficulties in general, Niklas Luhmann proves every description an attribution, tautology, i.e., remaining in the circle. ‘De-tautologization’ is possible, namely by analyzing the distinctions in the sense of objective, temporal and social information that every text contains. This could be expanded with the Kantian aesthetic dimension of reason (critique of pure judgment) corresponding to the iʽgaz of the Coran. Luhmann asks, ‘What distinction does the observer/author make?’ Quran as a speech from God to the first listeners could be seen as a discourse responding to the problems of everyday life of that time, which can be viewed as the general goal of the entire Qoran. Through reconstructing koranic Lifeworlds (Alfred Schütz) in detail, the social structure crystallizes the socio-economic differences, the enormous poverty. The koranic instruction to provide the basic needs for the neglected groups, which often intersect (old, poor, slaves, women, children), can be seen immediately in the text. First, the references to lifeworlds/social problems and discourses in longer koranic passages should be hypothesized. Subsequently, information from the classic commentaries could be extracted, the classical Tafseer, in particular, contains rich narrative material for reconstructing. By selecting and assigning suitable, specific context information, the meaning of the description becomes condensed (Clifford Geertz). In this manner, the text gets necessarily an alienation and is newly accessible. The socio-ethical implications can thus be grasped from the difference of the original problem and the revealed/improved order/procedure; this small step can be materialized as such, not as an absolute solution but as offering plausible patterns for today’s challenges as the Agenda 2030.

Keywords: postmodern hermeneutics, condensed description, sociological approach, small steps of reform

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37 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Samhani Ismail, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah

Abstract:

Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: auditory stimulation, cognition, EEG, linguistic, memory, Quranic recitation

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