Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 254

Search results for: Sri Lanka

254 School Counseling in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the past Recommending a Way Forward

Authors: Buddhiprabha D. D. Pathirana

Abstract:

Despite a rapid increase in the number of school counselors in the recent past; procuring the service of school counselors is a luxury that many Sri Lankan schools cannot afford. In addition, school counseling in Sri Lanka also faces new challenges in implementation due to the fact that a generally agreed consensus on training, ethical standards, role identity, counseling model, and structures for school counselors has not been reached. Therefore, this paper has several objectives. First, it reviews a brief history of school counseling in Sri Lanka and describes its current status. Second, it describes current trends/ problems specific to Sri Lankan school counseling milieu which have limited the progress of school counseling as a practice. Third, it discusses societal and cultural issues that are important to consider when implementing school counseling as a practices in Sri Lanka and provides recommendations to improve it.

Keywords: school counseling, Sri Lanka, current situation, recommendations

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
253 Recognition and Enforcement of International Commercial Arbitral Awards in Sri Lanka, A Lesson from Singapore

Authors: Kahandawala Arachchige Thani Chathurika Kahandawala

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This research is attempted to analyse, Sri Lanka’s current situation regarding the recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards. Sri Lanka has been involved with commercial arbitration for a long time period. But there are good and bad legal practices in place in proceedings in Sri Lanka legal system. The common perception and reality of Sri Lanka’s arbitration law and practices regarding recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards is far behind the international standards. Therefore arbitration as a dispute resolution method has become a time-consuming and costly method in Sri Lanka. This research is employed with the qualitative method based on both primary and secondary resources. This carried out the comparative analysis of recognition and enforcement in international arbitration laws established jurisdiction in Singapore and the United Kingdom, which are known as best counties as a seat of arbitration in Asia and Europe. International conventions, act and all the legal proceedings regarding recognition and enforcement of an international arbitral award in Sri Lanka are going to be discussed in the research. In the Jurisdiction of Sri Lanka, critically need to value an international arbitral award in the domestic legal system. Therefore an award has to be recognised in Sri Lanka. Otherwise, it doesn’t have any value. After recognizing it, court can enforce it. This research intends to provide a comparative analysis to overcome the drawbacks.

Keywords: arbitration, alternative dispute method, recognition and enforcement, foreign arbitral awards, Sri Lankan legal system, arbitral award in Singapore

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
252 Politicization of India Sri Lanka Fishing Dispute

Authors: Mohamed Faslan

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This research examines the impact of the politicization of the fishing dispute on India-Sri Lanka relations, particularly the influence of internal and party politics. The maritime border is clearly demarcated between India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka signed bilateral agreements on maritime boundaries in 1974 and 1976 respectively. They signed the United Nations Law of the Sea- III as well. Despite this, fishing disputes persist between the two nations. Tamil Nadu politics is closely linked with Sri Lankan Tamil issues and Tamil Nadu has been playing a significant role in Indo-Lanka relations. This is due to the fact that many Indian trawlers involved in fishing activities in Sri Lankan waters are from Tamil Nadu. The Government of Tamil Nadu is also very concerned about the issue of fishing in Sri Lankan waters. During the ethnic war, Sri Lankan fishermen were restricted on fishing activities in the Northern sea by the Sri Lankan Government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE). This created a vacuum in the Northern sea of Sri Lanka, and Indian trawlers filled the vacuum with the support of the LTTE. After the end of the war, Northern fishermen of Sri Lanka recommenced their fishing activities and realized that the Tamil Nadu trawlers had scooped their fishing resources. The Northern fishermen started to protest the invasion of Indian trawlers and pushed the Sri Lankan Government to stop the Indian trawlers. When Sri Lanka arrested Indian fishermen and confiscated their fishing boats, the Tamil Nadu Government used this as an opportunity to accuse Sri Lanka as having a Sinhalese government, to express feelings of hatred towards Sri Lanka due to the ethnic war against Tamils and tried to increase the voting bank by selling Tamil feelings. Thus, this research finds that Tamil Nadu does not associate this fishing dispute with Tamils in Sri Lanka but with the Sinhalese despite the status quo. This research has covered the Northern fishermen and stakeholders of Sri Lanka and could not do any field research in India due to visa restrictions. However, the researcher tries to balance the gap by referring to secondary sources and a few interviews with Indian scholars.

Keywords: Indo Lanka relations, fishing dispute, maritime border, Tamil Nadu & Sri Lankan waters

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251 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

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Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
250 Viability of Smart Grids for Green IT Sustainability: Contemplated within the Context of Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

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Information Technology (IT) is considered to be the prime contributor towards most of the energy releases and hence recursively impacting on the environmental Carbon Footprint on a major scale. The hostile effects brought about due to this massive carbon release such as global warming and ecosystem wipe-outs are currently being realized in Sri Lanka due to the rapid development and merging of computer based technologies. Sri Lanka, being a nature-rich island, has the undying need to preserve its natural environment hence resolving to better ‘Green IT’ practices in all possible spheres. Green IT implies the IT related practices for environmental sustainability. But the industrial divisions in Sri Lanka are still hesitant to fully realize the benefits of applying better “Green IT” principles due to considerations related to costs and other issues. In order to bring about a positive awareness of Green IT, the use of Smart Grids, which is yet a conceptualized principle within the Sri Lankan context, can be considered as a feasible proof in hand. This paper tends to analyze the feasibility of utilizing Smart Grids to ensure minimized cost and effects in preserving the environment hence ensuring Sustainable Green IT practices in an economically and technologically viable manner in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: green IT, industry, smart grid, Sri Lanka, sustainability

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249 Talent Sourcing Practices in Sri Lankan Software Industry

Authors: Malmi Amadoru, Chandana Gamage

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Sri Lanka is emerging as a global IT-BPO hub topping up among the 20 global outsourcing destinations. When setting up a new venture in Sri Lanka, talent sourcing plays one of the key functions due to the rapid growth of workforce. Getting competent people with right skills for right positions leads organizations achieving its vision, mission and objectives. It also drives in earning competitive advantage over industry competitors. Thus it is crucial to scan and recruit the best employees to an organization. However there is no published information available on recruitment methods utilized in Sri Lankan software industry, as a study of this nature had not being conducted previously in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study was to explore various talent sourcing practices exploited in Sri Lankan software industry. Also this study analyses the extent which Sri Lanka has adopted different recruitment strategies utilized in worldwide and its deviations. The research outcome is beneficial for HR professionals to identify the current trends in recruitment practices. Moreover investors who are interested in IT-BPO engagements can gain a thorough knowledge about talent sourcing techniques in Sri Lankan software industry. Finally, this research clues trending areas which can be further investigated in future.

Keywords: IT-BPO, recruitment, Sri Lanka, software industry, talent

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248 The Effect of Stress on Job Performance of Frontline Employees of Hotels: Reference to Star Class Hotels in North Central Province, Sri Lanka

Authors: W. M. M. Weerasooriya, K. T. N. P. Abeywickrama

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There has been some research on stress in the hotel industry in Sri Lanka and elsewhere. Still, the amount is not proportionate to the severity of the issue. This paper examined the effect of stress on job performance of frontline employees of Sri Lankan hotel context. Duly completed 70 self-administered questionnaires filled by frontline employees of star class hotels in North Central Province in Sri Lanka were used for the purpose with a response rate of 70%. The researcher employed empirical analysis using statistical tools such as regression analysis of Pearson’s correlation of coefficient. It was found that there is a high level of workload and role ambiguity existing among the frontline employees of hotels located in North Central Province and existing role ambiguity significantly reduce the job performance of the frontline employees of star class hotels while the existing low level of physical work environment also leads to a low level of job performance.

Keywords: hotel front line employees, job stress, job performance, Sri Lanka

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247 Impact of Business Intelligence on the Business Performance of the Banking Sector in Sri Lanka

Authors: Anjana Manawadu, Isuri Namalka, Sathma Perera, Charuni Wickraamarachchi, Anuradha Jayakody, Vandhana Dunuwila

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Business intelligence is a set of tools and techniques which are used to analyze and convert raw data into actionable and coherent information to make better decisions in businesses; this has become an essential component of any organization in today’s world context. The banking industry has adapted business intelligence to gain a competitive advantage over others. This study reveals how business intelligence affects the business performance of the banking sector and how they utilize business intelligence in their day-to-day operations. The general objective of this study is to determine the impact of business intelligence on the business performance of Sri Lankan banking sector, and this was accomplished by completing the three sub-objectives. The developed sub-objectives were derived to check the relationship between business intelligence factors (perception, product, process, team, and technology) and business performance; and to check how business intelligence factors influence the business performance of Sri Lankan banking sector. Further, to differentiate the impact of business intelligence among the state and non-state banks in Sri Lanka. The deductive approach was used as the research method, and the stratified sampling method was used to determine the sample of this study. Data has been collected covering twenty-eight state and non-state banks in Sri Lanka. The multiple regression and correlation were used as the main analytical techniques to obtain the results. Based on the findings of this study, it has been concluded that there is a positive relationship between business intelligence factors and banking performance, and there is significant impact of business intelligence on the business performance of the banking sector in Sri Lanka. Further, it concluded that state and non-state banks in Sri Lanka have a similar impact of business intelligence on their business performance. Finally, as a recommendation, banks should pay more attention to develop business intelligence in banks to enhance their business performance.

Keywords: business intelligence, business performance, banking sector, Sri Lanka

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246 Efficient GIS Based Public Health System for Disease Prevention

Authors: K. M. G. T. R. Waidyarathna, S. M. Vidanagamachchi

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Public Health System exists in Sri Lanka has a satisfactory complete information flow when compared to other systems in developing countries. The availability of a good health information system contributed immensely to achieve health indices that are in line with the developed countries like US and UK. The health information flow at the moment is completely paper based. In Sri Lanka, the fields like banking, accounting and engineering have incorporated information and communication technology to the same extent that can be observed in any other country. The field of medicine has behind those fields throughout the world mainly due to its complexity, issues like privacy, confidentially and lack of people with knowledge in both fields of Information Technology (IT) and Medicine. Sri Lanka’s situation is much worse and the gap is rapidly increasing with huge IT initiatives by private-public partnerships in all other countries. The major goal of the framework is to support minimizing the spreading diseases. To achieve that a web based framework should be implemented for this application domain with web mapping. The aim of this GIS based public health system is a secure, flexible, easy to maintain environment for creating and maintaining public health records and easy to interact with relevant parties.

Keywords: DHIS2, GIS, public health, Sri Lanka

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245 Egalitarianism and Social Stratification: An Overview of the Caste System among the Southern Muslims of Sri Lanka

Authors: Mohamed Faslan

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This paper describes how caste-based differentiation functions among the Southern Muslims of Sri Lanka despite Islamic egalitarian principles. Such differences are not promoted by religious teachings, mosques, or the various Islamic religious denominations. Instead, it underpins a hereditary, hierarchical stratification in social structure. Since Islam is against social stratification and promotes egalitarianism, what are the persuasive social structures that organize the existing caste system among Southern Muslims? To answer this puzzle, this paper discusses and analyses the caste system under these five subsections: ancestry; marriage; geography; mosque ownership or trustees; and occupation. The study of caste in Sri Lanka is generally compartmentalized into separate Sinhala and Tamil systems. Most caste studies have focused on the characteristics, upward mobility, or discrimination of specific castes in relation to other castes within ethnic systems. As an operational definition, in this paper, by “southern” or the south of Sri Lanka, I refer to the Kalutara, Galle and Matara Districts. This research was conducted in these three districts, and the respondents were selected purposively. Community history interviews were used as a tool for collecting information, and grounded theory used for analysis. Caste stratification among the Southern Muslims of Sri Lanka is directly connected to whether they are descended from Arab or South Indian ancestors. Arab ancestors are considered upper caste and South Indian ancestors are considered lower caste. Endogamy is the most serious driving factor keeping caste system functioning among Muslims while the other factors—geography, mosques, and occupations—work as supporting factors.

Keywords: caste, social stratification, Sri Lanka Muslims, endogamy

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244 The Impact of Environment Psychology on Customer Primary Emotions with Special Reference to Conference Travellers to Sri Lanka

Authors: Koswaththage Dilushika Sewwandi, Aminda Lakmal

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From an activity reserved for the privileged few only some decades ago, tourism today moves more than one billion people across international borders each year. As the main part of the tourism industry, MICE tourism came to the floor and nowadays it became the main part of tourism especially in developing countries. Currently due to the fast development projects and infrastructure building, focus on tourism development in Sri Lanka could earn a global identity by practicing MICE tourism especially international conferences. Examine the behavior of conference travelers who looking for Sri Lanka as a conference destination must be required. Since the tourism industry highly involved with the personal factor and the destination selections taken by human beings it is vital to explore the factors affecting to their primary emotions which are shaped up with environmental factors. The Environmental Psychology studies the cognitive and affective behavior of human beings and based on that this study was carried out to examine the impact of environment psychology on customer primary emotions; with special reference to conference travelers to Sri Lanka. Finally, the study concludes with identifying the number of environmental factors as Accommodation, Travel Mode and Hotel Atmosphere that could impact the customer primary emotions of conference travelers to Sri Lanka.

Keywords: MICE tourism, envionmental psychology, primary emotions, destination selection

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243 Patients' Satisfaction about Private Sector Primary Care Nurses in Sri Lanka

Authors: N. R. N. Mendis, S. N. Silva

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Introduction: Patient satisfaction of services provided by primary care health services depends on many factors. One key factor in this depends on is the nursing services received in primary care. Since majority of the primary care in Sri Lanka is provided by the private sector, it is important to assess patient satisfaction on this. Objective: To assess the satisfaction among the public on nurses working in dispensaries in Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive study was done on 200 individual selected using convenient sampling among dispensaries in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Results: 59.3% of the sample had long term illnesses or disabilities and all of them preferred speaking to a nurse. 70.9% of the sample used to make appointments with nurses while 57.8% out of them were comfortable in discussing their health concerns. 98.9 % agreed that they get individual attention by the nurses. Majority of the sample that is 34.2% spends around 20 minutes with the nurse without even making any pay. Significantly, the whole sample believes that the nurses are professional and admits that the care given is of high quality. All 100% of the sample said that the nurses could understand their concerns while 93.5% admitted that it was very useful in their recovery. Conclusions: Majority of the public were very much satisfied with the nurses and their practice at the dispensaries.

Keywords: health education, nurses practices, patient satisfaction, primary care

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242 Investigation of Buddhology Reflected from Wall Paintings in Sri Lanka

Authors: R. G. D Jayawardena

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The Buddha was known by great wise men from 6th century B.C up to date as a superhuman being born in the world beyond the omnipotent. The Buddha’s doctrinal descriptions reflect his deep enlightenment about imperial and metaphysical knowledge. Buddhology undertaken for this study is an unexposed subject in metaphysical points. The Buddhist wall painting in Sri Lanka depicts deep metaphysical meaning than its simple perspective of estheticism. Buddhology, in some perspectives, has been interpreted as a complete natural science discovered by the Buddha to teach the way of honorable living in perfect happiness and peace of mind till death. Such interpretations which emphasized are based on textual studies. The Buddhology conducted through literal tradition is depicted in wall paintings in Sri Lanka are in visual art with specific techniques rules. The Buddhology, which is investigated on wall paintings, portrays the Buddha in the form of a superhuman being and as an unparalleled person among the Devas, Brahmas, Yakshas, Maras, and humans. The Buddha concept is known to Sri Lankan Buddhists as a person attained to full awakening of wisdom. In personality, the Buddha is depicted as a supernormal person in the world and a rare birth. In brief, the paper will discuss and illustrate the Buddha’s transcendental position and the reality of what he experienced and its authenticity.

Keywords: Buddhology, Metaphysic, Sri Lanka, paintings

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241 Analysis of Survivability, Trends, and Status of Sea Turtle Species Found in Sri Lanka

Authors: Lihini Hiranya Kankanamge, L. P. N. D. Premarathna, H. A. C. C. Perera, Kumarasinghe Dudley Hemantha Perera, Charith Dilshan de Zoysa

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There are seven living sea turtle species recorded on Earth, of those five species, green turtle (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) are reported in Sri Lanka. The deterioration of the sea turtle population has happened due to illegal egg poaching, incidental by-catch, natural predators, and extreme human intrusion globally. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the rapid growth of civilization and anthropogenic activities have an impact on decreasing the number of sea turtle inhabitants in Sri Lanka. The distributional analysis proves that the prime nesting season in Sri Lanka is from January to June and November to December, and the total number of eggs laid in each destination and the number of species that visit Sri Lanka have decreased throughout the years (P < 0.05). In this study, the stability of the system of ordinary differential equations, which were initially formulated in previous literature, is evaluated and proven that the population of sea turtles in Sri Lanka may decrease when both prey and predator coexist. The contraction of sea turtle species is obtained using the Lefkovitch matrix, proving that the reduction of the number of green sea turtle, hawksbill, and olive ridley sea turtle will happen in Sri Lanka within 12,15 and 24 years, respectively. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the probability of juveniles surviving and growing into the next level is the most sensitive parameter in the model. Accordingly, the present study proposes to head start conservation by protecting the juvenile sea turtle population to prevent the reduction of sea turtle inhabitants. Therefore, conducting awareness programs and declaration of protected areas strictly following and implementing existing laws are recommended for their conservation.

Keywords: extinction, lefkovitch, predator-prey, sea turtles, sensitivity analysis

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240 Passion Songs in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Village Wahakotte

Authors: Niroshi Senevirathne

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The history of Pasan Gee (Passion Songs) relates back to the Portuguese Colonial period (1505-1658) in Sri Lanka. It is about chants on the passion of Christ during the Lent period which is repentance for Christians lasting for 40 days. Among the other villages in Sri Lanka, Wahakotte, which is situated in Matale district, Central Province is famous for their traditional Pasan melodies. It is a village where both Christians and Buddhists live. King Rajasinghe II of Kandy, who fought against the Portuguese, allowed the captives to settle down in Wahakotte. These people fairer in complexion have assimilated themselves with locals. Pasan singing in Wahakotte is a significant event and it is influenced by traditional folk music melodies such as “Nelum Gee” (harvesting songs) sung by farmers of Matale, Welapum Gee (Lamantation songs) sung at funerals in Sri Lanka and Buddhist Pirith chanting melodies. Prose of Pasan verses are included in the book named “Deshana namaye Pasan potha” (Nine Sermon Passion Book), written by Fr. Jacome Gonsalvez. The verses are composed with Sinhala and with some Tamil words. These songs are transmitted from generation to generation in an oral tradition. Today, chanting of Pasan is not heard in many Catholic areas during the lent season. Some of them have been recorded in cassette form. This research should aim to protect these traditional Passion songs unique to village Wahakotte of Sri Lanka without changing its character and original melodies.

Keywords: influence of folk melodies, passion songs, preserving traditional passion songs, traditional passion melodies

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239 Peace through Language Policy as a Solution to the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka

Authors: R. M. W. Rajapakshe

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Sri Lanka, which is officially called the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island nation situated near India. It is a multi-lingual, multi- religious and multi – ethnic country, where Sinhalese form the majority and the Tamils form the largest ethnic minority. The composition of the population (ethnic basis) in Sri Lanka is as follows: Sinhalese: 74.5%, Tamil (Sri Lankan): 12.6%, Muslim: 7.5 %, Tamil (Indian): 5.5%, Malay: 0.3%, Burgher: 0.3 %, other: 0.2 %. The Tamil people use the Tamil language as their mother tongue and the Sinhala people use the Sinhala language as their mother tongue. A very few people in both communities use English as their mother tongue and however, a large number of people use English as a second language. The Sinhala Language was declared the only official language in Sri Lanka in 1959. However, it was not acceptable to Tamil politicians as well as to the common Tamil people and it was the beginning of long standing ethnic crisis which later became a military war where a lot of blood was shed. As a solution to the above ethnic crisis the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of Sri Lanka was introduced in 1987 and according to it both Sinhala and Tamil were declared official languages and English as the link language in Sri Lanka. Thus, a new programme namely, second language teaching programme under which Sinhala was taught to Tamil students and Tamil was taught to Sinhala students, was introduced at government schools. Language teaching includes knowledge of the culture of the target language. As all cultures are mixed and have common features students have reduced their enmity about the other community and learned to respect the other culture. On the other hand as all languages are mixed, students came to the understanding that there are no pure languages. Thus, they learned to respect the other language. In the case of Sri Lanka the Sinhala language is mixed with the Tamil language and vice versa. Thus, the development of second language teaching is the prominent way to solve the above ethnic problem and this study clearly shows it. However, the above programme suffers with lack of trained second language teachers, infrastructure facilities and insufficient funds and, they can be considered as the main obstacles to develop the second language teaching programme. Yet, there are no satisfactory answers to those problems. The data were collected from relevant books, articles and other documents based on research and forty five recordings, each with one hour duration, of natural conversations covering all factions of the Sinhala community.

Keywords: ethnic crisis, official language, second language teaching, Sinhala, Tami

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238 The Challenges Faced in Learning English as a Second Language in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Ordinary Level Students in Kurunegala District

Authors: H. L. M. Fawzan

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Undoubtedly, learning English as a second language (ESL) is considered a challenging task. It is more difficult for students in far-away districts when compared with the students in the capital cities, where learning resources are easily available and where the environment is conducive to learning. Thus, this study is an analysis of the challenges faced by learners in learning English as the second language within kurunegala district in Sri Lanka. Even though various efforts have been taken by the Sri Lankan Educationalists for improving the situation of English language teaching for the past few decades, a disappointing situation still exist in the achievements of English learning among Sri Lankan students. So, it is necessary to explore real reasons behind the poor achievements of the students in the English Language. It is also an attempt to highlight what can be done to improve the situation significantly. Kurunegala is far away from the capital city of Sri Lanka and is a densely populated district. In the year 2020, state university admission was 45.87% from the Kurunegala district (Department of Examinations). The researcher strived to examine some of the likely challenges faced when teaching English in secondary schools in Kurunegala. The data was collected using a questionnaire from 35 students from schools within the Kurunegala education division. The result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for their prospects and expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement, and employment prospects.

Keywords: english, teaching, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, challenges

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237 Creativity in the Use of Sinhala and English in Advertisements in Sri Lanka: A Morphological Analysis

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

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Sri Lanka has lived with the English language for more than 200 years. Although officially considered a link language, the phenomenal usage of English by the Sinhala-English bilingual has given rise to a mixed code with identifiable structural characteristics. The extensive use of the mixed language by the average Sri Lankan bilingual has resulted in it being used as a medium of communication by creative writers of bilingual advertisements in Sri Lanka. This study analyses the way in which English is used in bilingual advertisements in both print and electronic media in Sri Lanka. The theoretical framework for the study is based on Kachru’s analysis of the use of English by the bilingual, Muysken’s typology on code mixing theories in colonial settings and Myers-Scotton’s theory on the Matrix Language Framework Model. The study will look at a selection of Sinhala-English advertisements published in newspapers from 2015 to 2016. Only advertisements using both Sinhala and English are used for the analysis. To substantiate data collected from the newspapers, the study will select bilingual advertisements from television advertisements. The objective of the study is to analyze the mixed patterns used for creative purposes by advertisers. The results of the study will reveal the creativity used by the Sinhala –English bilingual and the morphological processes used by the creators of Sinhala-English bilingual advertisements to attract the masses.

Keywords: bilingual, code mixing, morphological processes, mixed code

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236 Implementing Green IT Practices in Non-IT Industries in Sri Lanka: Contemplating the Feasibility and Methods to Ensure Sustainability

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

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Green IT is a term that refers to the collective strategic and tactical practices that unswervingly condense the carbon footprint to a diminished proportion in an establishment’s computing procedures. This concept has been tightly knit with IT related organizations; hence it has been precluded to be applied within non-IT organizations in Sri Lanka. With the turn of the century, computing technologies have taken over commonplace activities in every nook and corner in Sri Lanka, which is still on the verge of moving forth in its march towards being a developed country. Hence, it needs to be recursively proven that non-IT industries are well-bound to adhere to ‘Green IT’ practices as well, in order to reduce their carbon footprint and move towards considering the practicality of implementing Green-IT practices within their work-arounds. There are several spheres that need to be taken into account in creating awareness of ‘Green IT’, such as the economic breach, technologies available, legislative bounds, community mind-set and many more. This paper tends to reconnoiter causes that currently restrain non-IT organizations from considering Green IT concepts. By doing so, it is expected to prove the beneficial providence gained by implementing this concept within the organization. The ultimate goal is to propose feasible ‘Green IT’ practices that could be implemented within the context of Sri Lankan non-IT sectors in order to ensure that organization’s sustainable growth towards a long term existence.

Keywords: computing practices, Green IT, non-IT industries, Sri Lanka, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
235 Sea Surface Trend over the Arabian Sea and Its Influence on the South West Monsoon Rainfall Variability over Sri Lanka

Authors: Sherly Shelton, Zhaohui Lin

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In recent decades, the inter-annual variability of summer precipitation over the India and Sri Lanka has intensified significantly with an increased frequency of both abnormally dry and wet summers. Therefore prediction of the inter-annual variability of summer precipitation is crucial and urgent for water management and local agriculture scheduling. However, none of the hypotheses put forward so far could understand the relationship to monsoon variability and related factors that affect to the South West Monsoon (SWM) variability in Sri Lanka. This study focused to identify the spatial and temporal variability of SWM rainfall events from June to September (JJAS) over Sri Lanka and associated trend. The monthly rainfall records covering 1980-2013 over the Sri Lanka are used for 19 stations to investigate long-term trends in SWM rainfall over Sri Lanka. The linear trends of atmospheric variables are calculated to understand the drivers behind the changers described based on the observed precipitation, sea surface temperature and atmospheric reanalysis products data for 34 years (1980–2013). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to understand the spatial and temporal behaviour of seasonal SWM rainfall variability and also investigate whether the trend pattern is the dominant mode that explains SWM rainfall variability. The spatial and stations based precipitation over the country showed statistically insignificant decreasing trends except few stations. The first two EOFs of seasonal (JJAS) mean of rainfall explained 52% and 23 % of the total variance and first PC showed positive loadings of the SWM rainfall for the whole landmass while strongest positive lording can be seen in western/ southwestern part of the Sri Lanka. There is a negative correlation (r ≤ -0.3) between SMRI and SST in the Arabian Sea and Central Indian Ocean which indicate that lower temperature in the Arabian Sea and Central Indian Ocean are associated with greater rainfall over the country. This study also shows that consistently warming throughout the Indian Ocean. The result shows that the perceptible water over the county is decreasing with the time which the influence to the reduction of precipitation over the area by weakening drawn draft. In addition, evaporation is getting weaker over the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Sri Lankan landmass which leads to reduction of moisture availability required for the SWM rainfall over Sri Lanka. At the same time, weakening of the SST gradients between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal can deteriorate the monsoon circulation, untimely which diminish SWM over Sri Lanka. The decreasing trends of moisture, moisture transport, zonal wind, moisture divergence with weakening evaporation over Arabian Sea, during the past decade having an aggravating influence on decreasing trends of monsoon rainfall over the Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Arabian Sea, moisture flux convergence, South West Monsoon, Sri Lanka, sea surface temperature

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234 An Entrepreneurial Culture Led by Creativity and Innovation: Challenges and Competencies for Sri Lanka as a Middle Income Country

Authors: Tissa Ravinda Perera

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An open economic policy was introduced by Sri Lanka in 1977, before many other countries in Asia to align her economy to world economic trends and it was affected indigenous businesses since they had to compete with foreign products, processes, technology, innovations and businesses. The year 2010 was a milestone in Sri Lankan history to achieve the developmental goals when Foxbuisness rated Sri Lanka as the best performing global economy. However, Sri Lanka missed her chances of achieving development with the political and social chaos, consequent the regime change in 2015. This paper argues that to support the development of the country, Sri Lanka must develop an entrepreneurial culture. In this endeavor, creativity and innovation will play a pivotal role to achieve the desired level of development. In this study, it was used secondary data from various local and international sources to understand and explore the existing scenario of Sri Lankan economy, state of entrepreneurial culture and innovation, and challenges and competencies for the development of an entrepreneurial culture in Sri Lanka. The data was collected from secondary sources were depicted in tables in this paper in a meaningful manner. Based on the tables many findings were aroused and conclusions were made to support the argument in this paper. This paper revealed that the development of an entrepreneurial culture has to be associated with creativity and innovation to gain a competitive advantage over the development strategies of other countries. It is exposed that an entrepreneurial culture will help minorities, women and underprivileged societies to empower themselves. This product will help to confront and manage youth unrest which has created anarchy in the country from time to time. Throughout this paper, it was highlighted the past, present and future scenario of Sri Lankan economy along with modification to be done to it through the development of an entrepreneur culture in light of innovation and creativity to achieve the desired level of development.

Keywords: economy, industry, creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial culture

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233 Stuck Down in the Mess of Aisles: Need of a Practical Consumer Welfare Policy Framework in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Japan

Authors: E. N. R. de Silva

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to set a policy framework for establishing a legal, institutional and social infrastructure that enhances the welfare, health, safety and economic interest of the consumers in Sri Lanka. It will help to develop an approach to continuously and successfully advocate for a consumer protection legal reform agenda and also it is significant as it gives directions to create national consumer protection associations in Sri Lanka. The methodology adopted for this research is purely a qualitative approach and it is generally and specifically categorized. Generally, part of this research looked at the existing laws, regulations and how effective they are in order to protect consumers. It will analyze the consumer protection framework and specially, consumer protection enhanced by the public organizations in Japan. This research offers a model with methods and legal instruments to enforce advocacy group to enhance consumer welfare, also brings out reforms to be made in the national legal framework on consumer welfare.

Keywords: consumer protection association, consumer protection law, consumer welfare, legal framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
232 Students Dropout in the Plantation settlement: A Case Study in Sri Lanka

Authors: Irshana Muhamadhu Razmy

Abstract:

Education is one of the main necessities for a modern society to access wealth as well as to achieve social well-being. Education contributes to enhancing as well as developing the social and economic status of an individual and building a vibrant community within a strong nation. The student dropout problem refers to students who enrolled in a school and are later unable to complete their grade education due to multiple factors). In Sri Lanka, the tea plantation sector is a prominent sector. The tea plantation sector is different from other plantation sectors such as palm oil, rubber, and coconut. Therefore, the present study particularly focuses on the influencing factors of student dropout in the tea plantation sector in Sri Lanka by conducting research in the Labookellie estate in Nuwera Eliya District. this research has opted to use both qualitative and quantitative methods. This study examines the factors associated with student dropout namely the family, school, and the social by the characteristic (gender, grade, and ethnicity) in the plantation area in the Labookellie estate.

Keywords: student dropout, school, plantation settlement, social environmental

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
231 Realizing the National Disaster Management Policy of Sri Lanka through Public Private Partnerships

Authors: K. W. A. M. Kokila, Matsui Kenichi

Abstract:

Sri Lanka’s disaster management policy aims to protect lives and developments in disaster affected areas by effectively using resources for disaster risk reduction, emergency management, and community awareness. However, funding for these action programs has posed a serious challenge to the country’s economy. This paper examines the extent to which private-public partnerships (PPPs) can facilitate and expedite disaster management works. In particular, it discusses the results of the questionnaire survey among policymakers, government administrators, NGOs, and private businesses. This questionnaire was conducted in 2017. All respondents were selected based on their experience in PPP projects in the past. The survey focused on clarifying the effectiveness of past PPP projects as well as their efficiency and transparency. The respondents also provided their own opinions and suggestions to improve the future PPP projects in Sri Lanka. The questionnaire was distributed to fifteen persons. The results show that almost all respondents think that PPP projects are beneficial and important for future disaster risk management in Sri Lanka. The respondents, however, showed some reservation about effectiveness and transparency of the PPP process. This paper also discusses the results on the respondents’ perceptions about their capacity regarding human resources and management. This paper, overall, sheds light on technological, financial and human resource management practices in developed countries as well as policy and legislation provisions regarding PPP projects.

Keywords: disaster management, policy, private public partnership, projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
230 Enhancing Small and Medium Enterprises Access to Finance: The Opportunities and Challenges of Using Intellectual Property Rights as Collateral in Sri Lanka

Authors: Nihal Chandratilaka Matara Arachchige, Nishantha Sampath Punichihewa

Abstract:

Intellectual property (IP) assets are the ‘crown-jewels’ of innovation-driven businesses in the knowledge-based economy. In that sense, IP rights such as patents, trademarks and copyrights afford enormous economic opportunities to an enterprise, especially Small and Medium Enterprise (SME). As can be gleaned from the latest statistics, the domestic industries in Sri Lanka are predominantly represented by SMEs. Undeniably, in terms of economic contribution, the SME sector is considered to be the backbone of the country’s ‘real economy’. However, the SME sector in Sri Lanka faces number of challenges. One of the nearly-insurmountable-hurdles for small businesses is the access to credit facilities, due to the lack of collateral. In the eyes of law, the collateral is something pledged as security for repayment in the event of default. Even though the intellectual property rights are used as collateral in order to facilitate obtaining credit for businesses in number of Asian jurisdictions, financial institutions in Sri Lanka are extremely reluctant to accept IP rights as collateral for granting financial resources to SMEs. Against this backdrop, this research investigates from a legal perspective reasons for not accepting IP rights as collateral when granting loans for SMEs. Drawing emerging examples from other jurisdiction, it further examines the inadequacies of existing legal framework in relation to the use of IP rights as collateral. The methodology followed in this paper is qualitative research. Empirical research and analysis concerning the core research question are carried out by conducting in-depth interviews with stakeholders, including leading financial institutions in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: intellectual property assets, SMEs, collaterals financial facilities, credits

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
229 Emergency Management and Patient Transportation of Road Traffic Accident Victims Admitted to the District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka

Authors: Asanka U. K. Godamunne

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a leading cause of death globally as well as in Sri Lanka and results in a large proportion of disability especially among young people. Ninety-percent of world’s road traffic deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. The gross disparities in injury outcomes relate to immediate post-crash and hospital management. Emergency management, methods of patient transportation following road traffic accidents and safety measures are important factors to reduce mortality and morbidity. Studies in this area are limited in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this research was to assess the emergency management and proper method of transportation of road traffic accident victims. This offers the best way to explore the ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity and raise the public awareness. This study was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study. All the consecutive road traffic accident victims admitted to surgical wards at District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka, over a period of three months were included in the study. Data from 387 victims were analyzed. The majority were in the 20-30 year age group. Seventy six percent of the patients were males. Motorcycles and trishaws were most affected. First-aid was given to only 2% of patients and it was given by non-medical persons. A significant proportion of patients (75%) were transported to the hospital by trishaws and only 1% transported by ambulance. About 86% of the patients were seated while transport and 14% were flat. Limbs and head were the most affected areas of the body. As per this study, immediate post-crash management and patient transportation were not satisfactory. There is a need to strengthen certain road safety laws and make sure people follow them.

Keywords: emergency management, patient transportation, road traffic accident victims, Sri Lanka

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228 Sociological Analysis on Prisoners; with Special Reference to Prisoners of Death Penalty and Life Imprisonment in Sri Lanka

Authors: Wasantha Subasinghe

Abstract:

Crimes are one of big social problems in Sri Lanka. Crimes can be seen as simply way as an activity that against for the society or public law. There are offences in minor crimes and grave crimes including murder, rape, trafficking, robbery, excise, narcotic, kidnapping and so on. There are various forms of punishment such as bailing, fining, and prisoning to the death penalty. Death penalty contains the killing of an offender for an offense. There are 23 prison institutions in Sri Lanka including 03 closed prisoners and 20 remand prisons. There are 10 work camps, 02 open prison camps, 01 training school for youthful offenders and 02 correctional centers for youthful offenders. Capital punishment is legal in Sri Lanka as many other countries as India, Japan, Bangladesh, Iran and Iraq so on. When compared unconvicted prisoners from 2006-2010 there is an increase. It was 89190 in 2006 and it was 100191 in 2010. There were 28732 of convicted prisoners and it was 32128 in 2010. There were 165 Death sentences in 2006 and it was 96 in 2010. There are 540 individuals had been sentenced to death. The death penalty has not been implemented in Sri Lanka since 1976. Research problem: What are the feelings of prisoners as waiting for death?’ Objectives of the study were identifying prisoners’ point of view on their punishment and root causes for their offence. Case studies were conducted to identify the research problem and data were collected using formal interviews. Research area was Welikada prison. Stratified sampling method in probability samplings was used. Sample size was 20 cases from death penalty and life in prison prisoners and 20 from other convicted prisoners. Findings revealed causes and feelings them as offenders. They need if death penalty or freedom. Some of them need to convert death sentence to life imprisonment. They are physically and mentally damaged after their imprisonment. Lack of hope and as well as lack of welfare and rehabilitation programs they suffered their lives.

Keywords: death penalty, expectations, life imprisonment, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
227 Analyzing the Plausible Alternatives in Contracting the Societal Fissure Caused by Digital Divide in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

'Digital Divide' is a concept that has existed in this paradigm ever since the discovery of the first-generation technologies. Before the turn of the century, it was basically used to describe the gap between those with telephone communication access and those without it. At present, it is plainly descriptive in itself to illustrate the cavity among those with Internet access and those without. Though the concept of digital divide has been merely lying in sight for as long as time itself, the friction it caused has not yet been fully realized to solve major crisis situations. Unlike well-developed countries, Sri Lanka is still in the verge of moving farther away from a developing country in the race towards reaching a developed state. Access to technological resources varies from region to region, even within the island itself, with one region having a considerable percentage of its community exposed to the Internet and its related technologies, and the other unaware of such. Thus, this paper intends to analyze the roots for the still-extant gap instigated based on the concept of ‘Digital Divide’ and explores the plausible potentials that could be brought about by narrowing this prevailing percentage among the population, specifically entrenching the advantages reaped towards an economic augmentation and culture or lifestyle revolution on the path towards development.

Keywords: communication, digital divide, society, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
226 The Burden of Leptospirosis in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years in a District of Sri Lanka

Authors: A. M. U. P. Kumari, Vidanapathirana. J., Amarasekara J., Karunanayaka L.

Abstract:

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection with significant morbidity and mortality. As an occupational disease, it has become a global concern due to its disease burden in endemic countries and rural areas. The aim of this study was to assess disease burden in terms of DALYs of leptospirosis. A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using 450 clinically diagnosed leptospirosis patients admitted to base and above hospitals in Monaragala district, Sri Lanka, using a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. The patients were followed up till normal day today life after discharge. Estimation of DALYs was done using laboratory confirmed leptospirosis patients. Leptospirosis disease burden in the Monaragala district was 44.9 DALYs per 100,000 population which includes 33.18 YLLs and 10.9 YLDs. The incidence of leptospirosis in the Monaragala district during the study period was 59.8 per 100,000 population, and the case fatality rate (CFR) was 1.5% due to delay in health seeking behaviour; 75% of deaths were among males due to multi organ failure. The disease burden of leptospirosis in the Moneragala district was significantly high, and urgent efforts to control and prevent leptospirosis should be a priority.

Keywords: human leptospirosis, disease burden, disability adjusted life Years, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
225 Implementing Bioremediation Technologies to Degrade Chemical Warfare Agents and Explosives from War Affected Regions in Sri Lanka

Authors: Elackiya Sithamparanathan

Abstract:

Chemical agents used during the Sri Lankan civil war continue to threaten human and environmental health as affected areas are re-settled. Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to degrading chemical agents, and has greater public acceptance than chemical degradation. Baseline data on contaminant distribution, environmental parameters, and indigenous microbes are required before bioremediation can commence. The culture and isolate of suitable microbes and enzymes should be followed by laboratory trials, before field application and long-term monitoring of contaminant concentration, soil parameters, microbial ecology, and public health to monitor environmental and public health. As local people are not aware of the persistence of warfare chemicals and do not understand the potential impacts on human health, community awareness programs are required. Active community participation, and collaboration with international and local agencies, would contribute to the success of bioremediation and the effective removal of chemical agents in war affected areas of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: bioremediation, environmental protection, human health, war affected regions in Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 293