Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5202

Search results for: particle size

5202 Influence of Processing Parameters on the Reliability of Sieving as a Particle Size Distribution Measurements

Authors: Eseldin Keleb


In the pharmaceutical industry particle size distribution is an important parameter for the characterization of pharmaceutical powders. The powder flowability, reactivity and compatibility, which have a decisive impact on the final product, are determined by particle size and size distribution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of processing parameters on the particle size distribution measurements. Different Size fractions of α-lactose monohydrate and 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by wet granulation and were used for the preparation of samples. The influence of sieve load (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 g), processing time (5, 10, and 15 min), sample size ratios (high percentage of small and large particles), type of disturbances (vibration and shaking) and process reproducibility have been investigated. Results obtained showed that a sieve load of 50 g produce the best separation, a further increase in sample weight resulted in incomplete separation even after the extension of the processing time for 15 min. Performing sieving using vibration was rapider and more efficient than shaking. Meanwhile between day reproducibility showed that particle size distribution measurements are reproducible. However, for samples containing 70% fines or 70% large particles, which processed at optimized parameters, the incomplete separation was always observed. These results indicated that sieving reliability is highly influenced by the particle size distribution of the sample and care must be taken for samples with particle size distribution skewness.

Keywords: sieving, reliability, particle size distribution, processing parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
5201 Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Mechanical Strength and Physical Properties in Engineered Quartz Stone

Authors: Esra Arici, Duygu Olmez, Murat Ozkan, Nurcan Topcu, Furkan Capraz, Gokhan Deniz, Arman Altinyay


Engineered quartz stone is a composite material comprising approximately 90 wt.% fine quartz aggregate with a variety of particle size ranges and `10 wt.% unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). In this study, the objective is to investigate the influence of particle size distribution on mechanical strength and physical properties of the engineered stone slabs. For this purpose, granular quartz with two particle size ranges of 63-200 µm and 100-300 µm were used individually and mixed with a difference in ratios of mixing. The void volume of each granular packing was measured in order to define the amount of filler; quartz powder with the size of less than 38 µm, and UPR required filling inter-particle spaces. Test slabs were prepared using vibration-compression under vacuum. The study reports that both impact strength and flexural strength of samples increased as the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm increased. On the other hand, the values of water absorption rate, apparent density and abrasion resistance were not affected by the particle size distribution owing to vacuum compaction. It is found that increasing the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm caused the higher porosity. This led to increasing in the amount of the binder paste needed. It is also observed that homogeneity in the slabs was improved with the particle size range of 63-200 µm.

Keywords: engineered quartz stone, fine quartz aggregate, granular packing, mechanical strength, particle size distribution, physical properties.

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5200 Self-Assembled Tin Particles Made by Plasma-Induced Dewetting

Authors: Han Joo Choe, Soon-Ho Kwon, Jung-Joong Lee


Tin particles of various size and distribution were self-assembled by plasma treating tin film deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Plasma treatment was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. A range of ICP power and topographic templated substrates were evaluated to observe changes in particle size and particle distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the particles were analyzed using computer software. The evolution of tin film dewetting into particles initiated from the hole nucleation in grain boundaries. Increasing ICP power during plasma treatment produced larger number of particles per area and smaller particle size and particle-size distribution. Topographic templates were also effective in positioning and controlling the size of the particles. By combining the effects of ICP power and topographic templates, particles of similar size and well-ordered distribution were obtained.

Keywords: dewetting, particles, plasma, tin

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
5199 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin


In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
5198 Effect of Particle Size on Alkali-Activation of Slag

Authors: E. Petrakis, V. Karmali, K. Komnitsas


In this study grinding experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill using Polish ferronickel slag in order to study the effect of the particle size on alkali activation and the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). In this regard, the particle size distribution and the specific surface area of the grinding products in relation to grinding time were assessed. The experimental results show that products with high compressive strength, e.g. higher than 60 MPa, can be produced when the slag median size decreased from 39.9 μm to 11.9 μm. Also, finer fractions are characterized by higher reactivity and result in the production of AAMs with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.

Keywords: alkali activation, compressive strength, grinding time, particle size distribution, slag, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5197 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
5196 The Experimental Study on Reducing and Carbonizing Titanium-Containing Slag by Iron-Containing Coke

Authors: Yadong Liu


The experimental study on reduction carbonization of coke containing iron respectively with the particle size of <0.3mm, 0.3-0.6mm and 0.6-0.9mm and synthetic sea sand ore smelting reduction titanium-bearing slag as material were studied under the conditions of holding 6h at most at 1500℃. The effects of coke containing iron particle size and heat preservation time on the formation of TiC and the size of TiC crystal were studied by XRD, SEM and EDS. The results show that it is not good for the formation, concentration and growth of TiC crystal when the particle size of coke containing iron is too small or too large. The suitable particle size is 0.3~0.6mm. The heat preservation time of 2h basically ensures that all the component TiO2 in the slag are reduced and carbonized and converted to TiC. The size of TiC crystal will increase with the prolongation of heat preservation time. The thickness of the TiC layer can reach 20μm when the heat preservation time is 6h.

Keywords: coke containing iron, formation and concentration and growth of TiC, reduction and carbonization, titanium-bearing slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
5195 A Simplified, Fabrication-Friendly Acoustophoretic Model for Size Sensitive Particle Sorting

Authors: V. Karamzadeh, J. Adhvaryu, A. Chandrasekaran, M. Packirisamy


In Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) microfluidics, the throughput of particle sorting is dependent on the complex interplay between the geometric configuration of the channel, the size of the particles, and the properties of the fluid medium, which therefore calls for a detailed modeling and understanding of the fluid-particle interaction dynamics under an acoustic field, prior to designing the system. In this work, we propose a simplified Bulk acoustophoretic system that can be used for size dependent particle sorting. A Finite Element Method (FEM) based analytical model has been developed to study the dependence of particle sizes on channel parameters, and the sorting efficiency in a given fluid medium. Based on the results, the microfluidic system has been designed to take into account all the variables involved with the underlying physics, and has been fabricated using an additive manufacturing technique employing a commercial 3D printer, to generate a simple, cost-effective system that can be used for size sensitive particle sorting.

Keywords: 3D printing, 3D microfluidic chip, acoustophoresis, cell separation, MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems), microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
5194 Towards a Rigorous Analysis for a Supercritical Particulate Process

Authors: Yousef Bakhbakhi


Crystallization with supercritical fluids (SCFs), as a developed technology to produce particles of micron and sub-micron size with narrow size distribution, has found appreciable importance as an environmentally friendly technology. Particle synthesis using SCFs can be achieved employing a number of special processes involving solvent and antisolvent mechanisms. In this study, the compressed antisolvent (PCA) process is utilized as a model to analyze the theoretical complexity of crystallization with supercritical fluids. The population balance approach has proven to be an effectual technique to simulate and predict the particle size and size distribution. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of the particles formation in the PCA process is investigated using the population balance equation, which describes the evolution of the particle through coalescence and breakup levels with time. The employed mathematical population balance model contains a set of the partial differential equation with algebraic constraints, which demands a rigorous numerical approach. The combined Collocation and Galerkin finite element method are proposed as a high-resolution technique to solve the dynamics of the PCA process.

Keywords: particle formation, particle size and size distribution, PCA, supercritical carbon dioxide

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5193 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara


In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: powder, tablets, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), hardness, erosion, disintegration time, color

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5192 Formulation of Famotidine Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN): Preparation, Evaluation and Release Study

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Nurmazidah


Background and purpose: Famotidine is an H2 receptor blocker. Absorption orally is rapid enough, but famotidine can be degraded by stomach acid causing dose reduction until 35.8% after 50 minutes. This drug also undergoes first-pass metabolism which reduced its bio availability only until 40-50%. To overcome these problems, Solid Lipid Nano particles (SLNs) as alternative delivery systems can be formulated. SLNs is a lipid-based drug delivery technology with 50-1000 nm particle size, where the drug incorporated into the bio compatible lipids and the lipid particles are stabilized using appropriate stabilizers. When the particle size is 200 nm or below, lipid containing famotidine can be absorbed through the lymphatic vessels to the subclavian vein, so first-pass metabolism can be avoided. Method: Famotidine SLNs with various compositions of stabilizer was prepared using a high-speed homogenization and sonication method. Then, the particle size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, particle morphology and in vitro release profiles were evaluated. Optimization of sonication time also carried out. Result: Particle size of SLN by Particle Size Analyzer was in range 114.6 up to 455.267 nm. Ultrasonicated SLNs within 5 minutes generated smaller particle size than SLNs which was ultrasonicated for 10 and 15 minutes. Entrapment efficiency of SLNs were 74.17 up to 79.45%. Particle morphology of the SLNs was spherical and distributed individually. Release study of Famotidine revealed that in acid medium, 28.89 up to 80.55% of famotidine could be released after 2 hours. Nevertheless in basic medium, famotidine was released 40.5 up to 86.88% in the same period. Conclusion: The best formula was SLNs which stabilized by 4% Poloxamer 188 and 1 % Span 20, that had particle size 114.6 nm in diameter, 77.14% famotidine entrapped, and the particle morphology was spherical and distributed individually. SLNs with the best drug release profile was SLNs which stabilized by 4% Eudragit L 100-55 and 1% Tween 80 which had released 36.34 % in pH 1.2 solution, and 74.13% in pH 7.4 solution after 2 hours. The optimum sonication time was 5 minutes.

Keywords: famotodine, SLN, high speed homogenization, particle size, release study

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5191 A Numerical and Experimental Study on Fast Pyrolysis of Single Wood Particle

Authors: Hamid Rezaei, Xiaotao Bi, C. Jim Lim, Anthony Lau, Shahab Sokhansanj


A one-dimensional heat transfer model coupled with the kinetic information has been used to predict the overall pyrolysis mass loss of a single wood particle. The kinetic parameters were determined experimentally and the regime and characteristics of the conversion were evaluated in terms of the particle size and reactor temperature. The order of overall mass loss changed from n=1 at temperatures lower than 350 °C to n=0.5 at temperatures higher that 350 °C. Conversion time analysis showed that particles larger than 0.5 mm were controlled by internal thermal resistances. The valid range of particle size to use the simplified lumped model depends on the fluid temperature around the particles. The critical particle size was 0.6-0.7 mm for the fluid temperature of 500 °C and 0.9-1.0 mm for the fluid temperature of 100 °C. Experimental pyrolysis of moist particles did not show distinct drying and pyrolysis stages. The process was divided into two hypothetical drying and pyrolysis dominated zones and empirical correlations are developed to predict the rate of mass loss in each zone.

Keywords: pyrolysis, kinetics, model, single particle

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5190 The Study on Treatment Technology of Fused Carbonized Blast Furnace Slag

Authors: Jiaxu Huang


The melt carbonized blast furnace slag containing TiC was produced by carbothermal reduction of high titanium blast furnace slag. The treatment technology of melt carbonized blast furnace slag with TiC as raw material was studied, including the influence of different cooling methods, crushing atmosphere and sieving particle size on the target product TiC in the slag. The results show that air-cooling and water-cooling have little effect on TiC content of molten carbide blast furnace slag, and have great effect on crystal structure and grain size. TiC content in slag is different when carbide blast furnace slag is crushed in argon atmosphere and air atmosphere. After screening, the difference of TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with different particle size distribution is obvious. The average TiC content of 100-400 mesh carbide blast furnace slag is 14%. And the average TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with particle size less than 400 mesh is 10.5%.

Keywords: crushing atmosphere, cooling methods, sieving particle size, TiC

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5189 Preparation and Characterization of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle

Authors: Oktavia Eka Puspita


The possibility of using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for topical use is an interesting feature concerning this system has occlusive properties on the skin surface therefore enhance the penetration of drugs through the stratum corneum by increased hydration. This advantage can be used to enhance the drug penetration of topical delivery such as Diclofenac sodium for the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The purpose of this study was focused on the preparation and physical characterization of Diclofenac sodium loaded SLN (D-SLN). D loaded SLN were prepared by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication technique. Since the occlusion factor of SLN is related to its particle size the formulation of D-SLN in present study two formulations different in its surfactant contents were prepared to investigate the difference of the particle size resulted. Surfactants selected for preparation of formulation A (FA) were lecithin soya and Tween 80 whereas formulation B (FB) were lecithin soya, Tween 80, and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate. D-SLN were characterized for particle size and distribution, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential using Beckman-Coulter Delsa™ Nano. Overall, the particle size obtained from FA was larger than FB. FA has 90% of the particles were above 1000 nm, while FB has 90% were below 100 nm.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, hot homogenization technique, particle size analysis, topical administration

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5188 Synthesis, Structural and Magnetic Properties of CdFe2O4 Ferrite

Authors: Justice Zakhele Msomi


Nanoparticles of CdFe2O4 with particle size of about 10 nm have been synthesized by high energy ball milling and co-precipitation processes. The synthesis route appears to have some effects on the properties. The compounds have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer and magnetization measurements. The XRD pattern of CdFe2O4 provides information about single-phase formation of spinel structure with cubic symmetry. The FTIR measurements between 400 and 4000 cm-1 indicate intrinsic cation vibration of the spinel structure. The Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 4 K and 300 K. The hyperfine fields appear to be highly sensitive on particle size. The evolution of the properties as a function of particle size is also presented.

Keywords: ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetization, Mössbauer

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5187 Analysis of Dust Particles in Snow Cover in the Surroundings of the City of Ostrava: Particle Size Distribution, Zeta Potential and Heavy Metal Content

Authors: Roman Marsalek


In this paper, snow samples containing dust particles from several sampling points around the city of Ostrava were analyzed. The pH values of sampled snow were measured and solid particles analyzed. Particle size, zeta potential and content of selected heavy metals were determined in solid particles. The pH values of most samples lay in the slightly acid region. Mean values of particle size ranged from 290.5 to 620.5 nm. Zeta potential values varied between -5 and -26.5 mV. The following heavy metal concentration ranges were found: copper 0.08-0.75 mg/g, lead 0.05-0.9 mg/g, manganese 0.45-5.9 mg/g and iron 25.7-280.46 mg/g. The highest values of copper and lead were found in the vicinity of busy crossroads, and on the contrary, the highest levels of manganese and iron were detected close to a large steelworks. The proportion between pH values, zeta potentials, particle sizes and heavy metal contents was established. Zeta potential decreased with rising pH values and, simultaneously, heavy metal content in solid particles increased. At the same time, higher metal content corresponded to lower particle size.

Keywords: dust, snow, zeta potential, particles size distribution, heavy metals

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5186 Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer


In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.

Keywords: copper ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, CuFe2O4

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5185 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi


In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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5184 Advanced Particle Characterisation of Suspended Sediment in the Danube River Using Automated Imaging and Laser Diffraction

Authors: Flóra Pomázi, Sándor Baranya, Zoltán Szalai


A harmonized monitoring of the suspended sediment transport along such a large river as the world’s most international river, the Danube River, is a rather challenging task. The traditional monitoring method in Hungary is obsolete but using indirect measurement devices and techniques like optical backscatter sensors (OBS), laser diffraction or acoustic backscatter sensors (ABS) could provide a fast and efficient alternative option of direct methods. However, these methods are strongly sensitive to the particle characteristics (i.e. particle shape, particle size and mineral composition). The current method does not provide sufficient information about particle size distribution, mineral analysis is rarely done, and the shape of the suspended sediment particles have not been examined yet. The aims of the study are (1) to determine the particle characterisation of suspended sediment in the Danube River using advanced particle characterisation methods as laser diffraction and automated imaging, and (2) to perform a sensitivity analysis of the indirect methods in order to determine the impact of suspended particle characteristics. The particle size distribution is determined by laser diffraction. The particle shape and mineral composition analysis is done by the Morphologi G3ID image analyser. The investigated indirect measurement devices are the LISST-Portable|XR, the LISST-ABS (Sequoia Inc.) and the Rio Grande 1200 kHz ADCP (Teledyne Marine). The major findings of this study are (1) the statistical shape of the suspended sediment particle - this is the first research in this context, (2) the actualised particle size distribution – that can be compared to historical information, so that the morphological changes can be tracked, (3) the actual mineral composition of the suspended sediment in the Danube River, and (4) the reliability of the tested indirect methods has been increased – based on the results of the sensitivity analysis and the previous findings.

Keywords: advanced particle characterisation, automated imaging, indirect methods, laser diffraction, mineral composition, suspended sediment

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5183 Modeling of Particle Reduction and Volatile Compounds Profile during Chocolate Conching by Electronic Nose and Genetic Programming (GP) Based System

Authors: Juzhong Tan, William Kerr


Conching is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special flavors are developed, and smooth mouse feel the texture of the chocolate is developed due to particle size reduction of cocoa mass and other additives. Therefore, determination of the particle size and volatile compounds profile of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products. Currently, precise particle size measurement is usually done by laser scattering which is expensive and inaccessible to small/medium size chocolate manufacturers. Also, some other alternatives, such as micrometer and microscopy, can’t provide good measurements and provide little information. Volatile compounds analysis of cocoa during conching, has similar problems due to its high cost and limited accessibility. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was inserted to a conching machine and was used to monitoring the volatile compound profile of chocolate during the conching. A model correlated volatile compounds profiles along with factors including the content of cocoa, sugar, and the temperature during the conching to particle size of chocolate particles by genetic programming was established. The model was used to predict the particle size reduction of chocolates with different cocoa mass to sugar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1) at 8 conching time (15min, 30min, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 4h, 8h, and 24h). And the predictions were compared to laser scattering measurements of the same chocolate samples. 91.3% of the predictions were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 5% deviation. 99.3% were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 10% deviation.

Keywords: cocoa bean, conching, electronic nose, genetic programming

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5182 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel


This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: acoustic emissions, particle sizing, process monitoring, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
5181 Particle Deflection in a PDMS Microchannel Caused by a Plane Travelling Surface Acoustic Wave

Authors: Florian Keipert, Hagen Schmitd


The size selective separation of different species in a microfluidic system is an actual task in biological or medical research. Former works dealt with the utilisation of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) caused by a plane travelling Surface Acoustic Wave (tSAW). In literature the ARF is described by a dimensionless parameter κ, depending on the wavelength and the particle diameter. To our knowledge research was done for values 0.2 < κ < 5.8 showing that the ARF is dominating the acoustic streaming force (ASF) for κ > 1.2. As a consequence the particle separation is limited by κ. In addition the dependence on the electrical power level was examined but only for κ > 1 pointing out an increased particle deflection for higher electrical power levels. Nevertheless a detailed study on the ASF and ARF especially for κ < 1 is still missing. In our setup we used a tSAW with a wavelength λ = 90 µm and 3 µm PS particles corresponding to κ = 0.3. Herewith the influence of the applied electrical power level on the particle deflection in a polydimethylsiloxan micro channel was investigated. Our results show an increased particle deflection for an increased electrical power level, which coincides with the reported results for κ > 1. Therefore particle separation is in contrast to literature also possible for lower κ values. Thereby the experimental setup can be generally simplified by a coordinated electrical power level for the specific particle size. Furthermore this raises the question of whether this particle deflection is caused only by the ARF as adopted so far or by the ASF or the sum of both forces. To investigate this fact a 0% - 24% saline solution was used and thus the mismatch between the compressibility of the PS particle and the working fluid could be changed. Therefore it is possible to change the relative strength between ARF and ASF and consequently the particle deflection. We observed a decreasing in the particle deflection for an increased NaCl content up to a 12% saline solution and subsequently an increasing of the particle deflection. Our observation could be explained by the acoustic contrast factor Φ, which depends on the compressibility mismatch. The compressibility of water is increased by the NaCl and the range of a 0% - 24% saline solution covers the PS particle compressibility. Hence the particle deflection reaches a minimum value for the accordance between compressibility of PS particle and saline solution. This minimum value can be estimated as the particle deflection only caused by the ASF. Knowing the particle deflection due to the ASF the particle deflection caused by the ARF can be calculated and thus finally the relation between both forces. Concluding, the particle deflection and therefore the size selective particle separation generated by a tSAW can be achieved for values κ < 1, simplifying actual setups by adjusting the electrical power level. Beyond we studied for the first time the relative strength between ARF and ASF to characterise the particle deflection in a microchannel.

Keywords: ARF, ASF, particle separation, saline solution, tSAW

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5180 Estimation of Particle Size Distribution Using Magnetization Data

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Magnetic nanoparticles possess fascinating properties which make their behavior unique in comparison to corresponding bulk materials. Superparamagnetism is one such interesting phenomenon exhibited only by small particles of magnetic materials. In this state, the thermal energy of particles become more than their magnetic anisotropy energy, and so particle magnetic moment vectors fluctuate between states of minimum energy. This situation is similar to paramagnetism of non-interacting ions and termed as superparamagnetism. The magnetization of such systems has been described by Langevin function. But, the estimated fit parameters, in this case, are found to be unphysical. It is due to non-consideration of particle size distribution. In this work, analysis of magnetization data on NiO nanoparticles is presented considering the effect of particle size distribution. Nanoparticles of NiO of two different sizes are prepared by heating freshly synthesized Ni(OH)₂ at different temperatures. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single phase of NiO. The diffraction lines are seen to be quite broad indicating the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The average crystallite size are estimated to be about 6 and 8 nm. The samples are also characterized by transmission electron microscope. Magnetization of both sample is measured as function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization are measured as a function of temperature to determine the bifurcation temperature. The magnetization is also measured at several temperatures in superparamagnetic region. The data are fitted to an appropriate expression considering a distribution in particle size following a least square fit procedure. The computer codes are written in PYTHON. The presented analysis is found to be very useful for estimating the particle size distribution present in the samples. The estimated distributions are compared with those determined from transmission electron micrographs.

Keywords: anisotropy, magnetization, nanoparticles, superparamagnetism

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5179 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: N. A. Zainuddin, I. Norhuda, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo


Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, RESS, solid oil particle, supercritical carbon dioxide,

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5178 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor


Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

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5177 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hollow Silica Particle through DODAB Vesicle Templating

Authors: Eun Ju Park, Wendy Rusli, He Tao, Alexander M. Van Herk, Sanggu Kim


Hollow micro-/nano- structured materials have proven to be promising in wide range of applications, such as catalysis, drug delivery and controlled release, biotechnology, and personal and consumer care. Hollow sphere structures can be obtained through various templating approaches; colloid templates, emulsion templates, multi-surfactant templates, and single crystal templates. Vesicles are generally the self-directed assemblies of amphiphilic molecules including cationic, anionic, and cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions. The directed silica capsule formations were performed at the surface of dioctadecyldimethylammoniumbromide(DODAB) bilayer vesicles as soft template. The size of DODAB bilayer vesicles could be tuned by extrusion of a preheated dispersion of DODAB. The synthesized hollow silica particles were characterized by conventional TEM, cryo-TEM and SEM to determine the morphology and structure of particles and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to measure the particle size and particle size distribution.

Keywords: characterization, DODAB, hollow silica particle, synthesis, vesicle

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5176 Synthesis and Characterization of LiCoO2 Cathode Material by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Nur Azilina Abdul Aziz, Tuti Katrina Abdullah, Ahmad Azmin Mohamad


Lithium-transition metals and some of their oxides, such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O2, LiFePO4, and LiNiO2 have been used as cathode materials in high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Among the cathode materials, LiCoO2 has potential to been widely used as a lithium-ion battery because of its layered crystalline structure, good capacity, high cell voltage, high specific energy density, high power rate, low self-discharge, and excellent cycle life. This cathode material has been widely used in commercial lithium-ion batteries due to its low irreversible capacity loss and good cycling performance. However, there are several problems that interfere with the production of material that has good electrochemical properties, including the crystallinity, the average particle size and particle size distribution. In recent years, synthesis of nanoparticles has been intensively investigated. Powders prepared by the traditional solid-state reaction have a large particle size and broad size distribution. On the other hand, solution method can reduce the particle size to nanometer range and control the particle size distribution. In this study, LiCoO2 was synthesized using the sol–gel preparation method, which Lithium acetate and Cobalt acetate were used as reactants. The stoichiometric amounts of the reactants were dissolved in deionized water. The solutions were stirred for 30 hours using magnetic stirrer, followed by heating at 80°C under vigorous stirring until a viscous gel was formed. The as-formed gel was calcined at 700°C for 7 h under a room atmosphere. The structural and morphological analysis of LiCoO2 was characterized using X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern of material can be indexed based on the α-NaFeO2 structure. The clear splitting of the hexagonal doublet of (006)/(102) and (108)/(110) in this patterns indicates materials are formed in a well-ordered hexagonal structure. No impurity phase can be seen in this range probably due to the homogeneous mixing of the cations in the precursor. Furthermore, SEM micrograph of the LiCoO2 shows the particle size distribution is almost uniform while particle size is between 0.3-0.5 microns. In conclusion, LiCoO2 powder was successfully synthesized using the sol–gel method. LiCoO2 showed a hexagonal crystal structure. The sample has been prepared clearly indicate the pure phase of LiCoO2. Meanwhile, the morphology of the sample showed that the particle size and size distribution of particles is almost uniform.

Keywords: cathode material, LiCoO2, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, Sol-Gel method

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5175 Coarse-Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method Modelling of the Multiphase Flow in Hydrocyclones

Authors: Li Ji, Kaiwei Chu, Shibo Kuang, Aibing Yu


Hydrocyclones are widely used to classify particles by size in industries such as mineral processing and chemical processing. The particles to be handled usually have a broad range of size distributions and sometimes density distributions, which has to be properly considered, causing challenges in the modelling of hydrocyclone. The combined approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) offers convenience to model particle size/density distribution. However, its direct application to hydrocyclones is computationally prohibitive because there are billions of particles involved. In this work, a CFD-DEM model with the concept of the coarse-grained (CG) model is developed to model the solid-fluid flow in a hydrocyclone. The DEM is used to model the motion of discrete particles by applying Newton’s laws of motion. Here, a particle assembly containing a certain number of particles with same properties is treated as one CG particle. The CFD is used to model the liquid flow by numerically solving the local-averaged Navier-Stokes equations facilitated with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model to capture air-core. The results are analyzed in terms of fluid and solid flow structures, and particle-fluid, particle-particle and particle-wall interaction forces. Furthermore, the calculated separation performance is compared with the measurements. The results obtained from the present study indicate that this approach can offer an alternative way to examine the flow and performance of hydrocyclones

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, hydrocyclone, multiphase flow

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5174 The Effect of Magnetite Particle Size on Methane Production by Fresh and Degassed Anaerobic Sludge

Authors: E. Al-Essa, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham


Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-supplementation (7 mM) on methane production from digested sludge undergoing two different microbial growth phases, namely fresh sludge (exponential growth phase) and degassed sludge (endogenous decay phase). Three different particle sizes were assessed: small (50 - 150 nm), medium (168 – 490 nm) and large (800 nm - 4.5 µm) particles. Results show that, in the case of the fresh sludge, magnetite significantly enhanced the methane production rate (up to 32%) and reduced the lag phase (by 15% - 41%) as compared to the control, regardless of the particle size used. However, the cumulative methane produced at the end of the incubation was comparable in all treatment and control bottles. In the case of the degassed sludge, only the medium-sized magnetite particles increased significantly the methane production rate (12% higher) as compared to the control. Small and large particles had little effect on the methane production rate but did result in an extended lag phase which led to significantly lower cumulative methane production at the end of the incubation period. These results suggest that magnetite produces a clear and positive effect on methane production only when an active and balanced microbial community is present in the anaerobic digester. It is concluded that, (i) the effect of magnetite particle size on increasing the methane production rate and reducing lag phase duration is strongly influenced by the initial metabolic state of the microbial consortium, and (ii) the particle size would positively affect the methane production if it is provided within the nanometer size range.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, iron oxide, methanogenesis, nanoparticle

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5173 Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Farjad Falahati, Larry W. Kostiuk, Jason S. Olfert


This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.

Keywords: laminar premixed flame, methane pyrolysis, nanoparticle physical characteristics, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD)

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