Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5159

Search results for: cytotoxic activity

5159 In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities Against Human Oral Cancer and Human Laryngeal Cancer of Limonia acidissima L. Bark Extracts

Authors: Kriyapa lairungruang, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Limonia acidissima L. (LA) (Common name: wood apple, Thai name: ma-khwit) is a medicinal plant which has long been used in Thai traditional medicine. Its bark is used for treatment of diarrhea, abscess, wound healing and inflammation and it is also used in oral cancer. Thus, this research aimed to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the LA bark extracts produced by various extraction methods. Different extraction procedures were used to extract LA bark for biological activity testing: boiling in water, maceration with 95% ethanol, maceration with 50% ethanol and water boiling of each the 95% and the 50% ethanolic residues. All extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay, cytotoxic activity against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells and human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 29.76±1.88 µg/ml. For cytotoxic activity, the 50% ethanolic extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells with IC50 values of 9.55±1.68 and 18.90±0.86 µg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed moderate antioxidant activity and the 50% ethanolic extract provided potent cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells. These results confirm the traditional use of LA for the treatment of oral cancer and laryngeal cancer, and also support its ongoing use.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, Limonia acidissima L., oral epidermoid carcinoma

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5158 Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Triazolopyridazine Derivatives

Authors: Azza T. Tahera, Eman M. Ahmeda, Nadia A. Khalila, Yassin M. Nissanb

Abstract:

New 3-(pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine derivatives 2a-i, 4a,b and 6a,b were designed, synthesized and evaluated as cytotoxic agents. All compounds were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity at a single dose 10-5M concentration towards 60 cancer cell lines according to USA NCI protocol. The preliminary screening results showed that the majority of tested compounds exhibited remarkable activity against SR (leukemia) cell panel. Molecular docking for all synthesized compounds was performed on the active site of c-Met kinase. The most active compounds, 2f and 4a were further evaluated at a seven dose level screening and their IC50 as a c-Met kinase inhibitors were determined in vitro.

Keywords: triazolopyridazines, pyridazines, cytotoxic activity, cell panel

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5157 Cytotoxic Activity of Parkia javanica Merr. and Parkia speciosa Hassk. against Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Parkia javanica Merr. germinating seeds and Parkia speciosa Hassk. seeds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three different types of human cancer cell lines including colon cancer (LS174T), breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer (PC3) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The fresh plant parts were divided into 2 parts. The first part was extracted by maceration with 95% ethanol for 3 days and then filtered, and the filtrates were evaporated by rotary evaporator. The other part was squeezed and filtered. Then the filtrates were dried by freeze dryer. The screening found that the aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds exhibited more than 70% inhibition (at concentration 50 µg/ml) against all types of human cancer cells. The aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds showed the highest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 with the IC50 value as 5.63 µg/ml. The aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds also showed high cytotoxic activity against PC3 and LS174T with the IC50 values as 10.79 and 11.40 µg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, P. javanica Merr. germinating seed is a natural source of anticancer activity and further research to isolate active compounds from this plant should be undertaken.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, Parkia javanica Merr., Parkia speciosa Hassk., human cancer cell lines

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5156 Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Fruticose Lichen Roccella montagnei, and It’s in Silico Docking Study against CDK-10

Authors: Tripti Mishra, Shipra Shukla, Sanjeev Meena, , Ruchi Singh, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti, Dipak Datta

Abstract:

Roccella montagnei belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regions of India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed its anticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines such as Colon (DLD-1, SW-620), Breast (MCF-7), Head and Neck (FaDu). This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds Roccellic acid and Everninic acid have been isolated, out of which Everninic acid is reported for the first time. Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which Roccellic acid showed strong anticancer activity as compared to the Everninic acid. CDK-10 (Cyclin-dependent kinase) contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases, therefore, constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds were tested for in silico molecular docking study against CDK-10 isomer enzyme to support the cytotoxic activity.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, everninic acid, roccellic acid, R. montagnei

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5155 Cytotoxic Activity of Acetone and Ethanol Overripe Tempe Extracts against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Their Antioxidant Property

Authors: Dian Muzdalifah, Anastasia F. Devi, Zatil A. Athaillah, Linar Z. Udin

Abstract:

Tempe is a functional food prepared from soybeans through Rhizopus spp fermentation. It is well known as functional food, originated from Indonesia. Most studies on tempe functionalities refer to ripe (48 h fermentation) tempe and only limited studies discuss overripe tempe while longer fermentation time possibly increased tempe health benefit. Hence, the present study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic activity againts MCF-7 breast cancer cells and antioxidant property of tempe prepared from 0–156 h of fermentation. Tempe samples were dried and extracted with acetone and ethanol, respectively. Their extracts were used for subsequent analysis. The cytotoxic activity was assessed on MCF 7 breast cancer cells using Alamar Blue method. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The results indicated that acetone extracts of 108 h tempe had a potent cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 2.54 ± 0,30 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts of 108 h tempe also showed the potency, but at slightly higher IC50 (5.20 ± 1.01 μg/mL). Both acetone and ethanol extracts of 108 and 120 h tempe showed high antioxidant activity expressed as percent inhibition with no significant difference. However, acetone extracts of 120 h tempe (81.31 ± 3.70 %) had better ability to inhibit oxidation reaction than that of ethanol extracts (75.77 ± 6.00 %). It can be concluded that the cytotoxic activity of tempe from 0–156 h of fermentation is positively correlated to their corresponding antioxidant property. Longer fermentation time, up to 108 h, increased the ability of tempe to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and oxidative reaction. But extended fermentation time, up to 156 h, tends to decrease its ability. Further studies are encouraged to identify the active components contained in each extract.

Keywords: antioxidant property, cytotoxic activity, extracts, overripe tempeh

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5154 Cytotoxic Activity Of Major Iridoids From Barleria Trispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl. Growing In Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hamza Assiry, Gamal A. Mohamed, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Hossam M. Abdallah

Abstract:

Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Barleria trispinosa(Forssk.) Vahl. resulted in isolation of four major iridoids that were identified as 6,8-O,O-diacetylshanhiside methyl ester (acetyl barlerin) (1), 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (barlerin) (2), shanzhiside methyl ester (3), and 6- ⍺ -L-rhamnopyranosyl-8-O-acetylshanzihiside methyl ester (4). The isolated compounds were confirmed by detailed one and two-dimensional NMR. Isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity on breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and colon cancer (LS174T) cell linesusing sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. It is noteworthy that compound 1 demonstrated a significant cytotoxic potential towards MDA-MB-231 cell line with IC5016.7 ± 2.7µg / mL compared to doxorubicin whereas compounds 2, showed moderate cytotoxic potential with IC5021.2 ± 1.9µg / mL on MCF-7. The other compounds showed moderate activity on the tested cell lines.

Keywords: acanthaceae, cytotoxicity, metabolites, barleria trispinosa

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5153 New 5’-O- and 6-Substituted Purine Nucleoside Analogs: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Meral Tuncbilek, Duygu Sac, Irem Durmaz, Rengul Cetin Atalay

Abstract:

Nucleoside analogs are a pharmacologically diverse family that includes cytotoxic compounds, antiviral agents, and immunosuppressive molecules. Purine nucleoside derivatives such as fludarabine, cladribine, and pentostatin are significant drugs used in chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In this study, we synthesized novel purine ribonucleoside analogs containing a 4-(4-substituted phenylsulfonyl) piperazine in the substituent at N6- and O-substituted sulfonyl group at 5’-position as putative cytotoxic agents. The newly obtained compounds were then characterized for their cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines. The 5’, 6-disubstituted 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives (44-67) were readily obtained from commercially available inosine in seven steps in very cost effective synthesis approach. The newly synthesized compounds were first evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against human liver (Huh7), colon (HCT116) and breast (MCF7) carcinoma cell lines. The IC50 values were in micromolar concentrations with 5’, 6-disubstituted purine nucleoside derivatives. Time-dependent IC50 values for each molecule were also calculated in comparison with known cytotoxic agents Camptothecin (CPT), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Cladribine, Pentostatine and Fludarabine. N6-(4-trifluoromethyl phenyl) / N6-(4-bromophenyl) and 5’-O-(4-methoxybenzene sulfonyl) / 5’-O-(benzenesulfonyl) derivatives 54, 64 displayed the best cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 8.8, 7 µM against MCF7 cell line. The N6-(4-methylphenyl) analog 50 was also very active (IC50= 10.7 μM) against HCT116 cell line. Furthermore, compound 64 had a better cytotoxic activity than the known cell growth inhibitors 5-FU and Fludarabine on Huh7 (1.5 vs 30.7, 29.9 μM for 5-FU and Fludarabine).

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, Huh7, HCT116, MCF7, nucleoside, synthesis

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5152 Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A. Sakoff, Christopher J. Scarlett

Abstract:

Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a traditional herbal plant for the treatment of chronic ailments such as hepatitis, diabetes and cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude P. amarus extracts and fractions using MTT and CCK-8 assays for cytotoxic evaluation. The outcomes indicated that P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively) than those of P. amarus water (PAW) extract, resulting antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of PAW extract, PAM fractions and phyllanthin (a major compound in P. amarus). Cytotoxic activity of PAM extract for cancer cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was higher than those of PAW extract and PAM fractions. Therefore, we can conclude that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Phyllanthus amarus, physicochemical

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5151 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

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5150 Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaves against Women’s Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Patsorn Worawattananutai, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are vegetables which are extensively used as blood tonic and laxatives in Thai traditional medicine. They are popularly used as healthy sour soup for prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer. Therefore, the cytotoxic activity of different extracts of fresh and dried Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were investigated via the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against three types of women’s cancer cell lines, namely the human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa), the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line (SKOV-3), and the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Extraction methods were squeezing, boiling with water and maceration with 95% or 50% ethanol. The 95% ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa dry leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest cytotoxicity against all types of women’s cancer cell lines with the IC50 values in range 7.51±0.33 to 12.13±1.85 µg/ml. Its IC50 values against SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 were 7.51±0.33, 9.44±1.41 and 12.13±1.85 µg/ml, respectively. In these results, this extract can be classified as “active” according to the NCI guideline which indicated that IC50 values of the active cytotoxic plant extracts have to be beneath 20 µg/ml. Thus, HSDE95 was concluded to be a potent cytotoxic drug for all women’s cancer cells. This extract should be further investigated to isolate active compounds against women’s cancer cells.

Keywords: breast adenocarcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma, cytotoxic activity, Hibiscus sabdariffa, ovarian adenocarcinoma

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5149 Isolation of Cytotoxic Compound from Tectona grandis Stem to Be Used as Thai Medicinal Preparation for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

A Thai medicinal preparation has been used for cancer treatment more than ten years ago in Khampramong Temple. Tectona grandis stem is one ingredient of this Thai medicinal remedy. The ethanolic extract of Tectona grandis stem showed the highest cytotoxic activities against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23) (IC50 = 3.92 and 7.78 µg/ml, respectively). It was isolated by bioassay-guided isolation method. Tectoquinone, a anthraquinone compound was isolated from this plant. This compound showed high specific cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23)(IC50 =16.15 and 47.56 µg/ml or 72.67 and 214.00 µM, respectively). However, it showed less cytotoxic activity than the crude extract. In conclusion, tectoquinone as a main compound, is not the best cytotoxic compound from Tectona grandis, so there are more active cytotoxic compounds in this extract which should be isolated in the future. Moreover, tectoquinone displayed specific cytotoxicity against only human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) which is a good criterion for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Tectona grandis, SRB assay, cytotoxicity, tectoquinone

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5148 Cytotoxicity of Flavonoid Compounds from Smilax corbularia Kunth Against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Pakakrong Thongdeeying, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

The rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth have long been used as common ingredients in anticancer preparations. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate cytotoxicity of S. corbularia and its ingredients against cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-M156) by SRB assay. Ethanolic and water extracts of S. corbularia rhizomes were obtained using the procedures followed by Thai traditional doctors. Bioassay guided isolation was used to isolate cytotoxic compounds. The results revealed that the ethanolic extract of S. corbularia exhibited activity against KKU-M156 cell line with an IC50 value of 84.53±1.62 µg/ml, but the water extract showed no cytotoxic activity. Three flavonoid compounds [astilbin (1), engeletin (2), and quercetin (3)] were isolated from the ethanolic extract. Compound 3 exhibited the strongest activity against KKU-M156 cell line (IC50 = 8.14 ± 1.15 µg/ml), but 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 100 µg/ml). In conclusion, quercetin showed the highest efficacy against cholangiocarcinoma. These results support the traditional use of this plant by Thai traditional doctors for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, cytotoxicity, flavonoid, Smilax corbularia

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5147 Cytotoxic Activity against Hepatocarcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Cells of Four Cathartic Herbal Medicines

Authors: Pranporn Kuropakornpong, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Liver cancer has the highest prevalence rate in the North and Northeast of Thailand. Four Thai medicinal plants such as resin of Ferula asafoetida Regel, latex of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves, roots of Baliospermum manotanum, and latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook are used in Thai traditional medicine as cathartic drug and detoxification in liver cancer patients. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of these plants against hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M156) cells by SRB assay. These plants were macerated in 95% ethanol. The results showed that roots of Baliospermum manotanum and latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook showed the strongest cytotoxicity against HepG2 (IC50 = 3.03+0.91 and 0.62+0.01µg/ml, respectively) and KKU-M156 (IC50 = 0.978+0.663 and 0.006+0.005 µg/ml, respectively). Latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook also showed high cytotoxicity against normal cell line (IC50=8.86+0.31 µg/ml), and even though its selective values are high, dose of this herb should be limited.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, cytotoxic activity, Garcinia hanburyi Hook, hepatocarcinoma

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5146 An Endophyte of Amphipterygium adstringens as Producer of Cytotoxic Compounds

Authors: Karol Rodriguez-Peña, Martha L. Macias-Rubalcava, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta, Sergio Sanchez

Abstract:

A bioassay-guided study for anti-cancer compounds from endophytes of the Mexican medicinal plant Amphipteryygium adstringens resulted in the isolation of a streptomycete capable of producing a group of compounds with high cytotoxic activity. Microorganisms from surface sterilized samples of various sections of the plant were isolated and all the actinomycetes found were evaluated for their potential to produce compounds with cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer) as well as the non-tumoural cell line HaCaT (keratinocyte). The most active microorganism was picked for further evaluation. The identification of the microorganism was carried out by 16S rDNA gene sequencing, finding the closest proximity to Streptomyces scabrisporus, but with the additional characteristic that the strain isolated in this study was capable of producing colorful compounds never described for this species. Crude extracts of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate showed IC50 values of 0.29 and 0.96 μg/mL for MCF7, 0.51 and 1.98 μg/mL for HeLa and 0.96 and 2.7 μg/mL for HaCaT. Scaling the fermentation to 10 L in a bioreactor generated 1 g of total crude extract, which was fractionated by silica gel open column to yield 14 fractions. Nine of the fractions showed cytotoxic activity. Fraction 4 was chosen for subsequent purification because of its high activity against cancerous cell lines, lower activity against keratinocytes. HPLC-UV-MS/ESI was used for the evaluation of this fraction, finding at least 10 different compounds with high values of m/z (≈588). Purification of the compounds was carried out by preparative thin-layer chromatography. The prevalent compound was Steffimycin B, a molecule known for its antibiotic and cytotoxic activities and also for its low solubility in aqueous solutions. Along with steffimycin B, another five compounds belonging to the steffimycin family were isolated and at this moment their structures are being elucidated, some of which display better solubility in water: an attractive property for the pharmaceutical industry. As a conclusion to this study, the isolation of endophytes resulted in the discovery of a strain capable of producing compounds with high cytotoxic activity that need to be studied for their possible utilization.

Keywords: amphipterygium adstringens, cytotoxicity, streptomyces scabrisporus, steffimycin

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5145 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi

Abstract:

The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

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5144 A contribution to Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Ailanthus Alitssima Swingle Cultivated in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Samy Elnoby

Abstract:

Ailanthus altissima native to Asia which belongs to the family Simaroubaceae was subjected to phytochemical screening and biological investigations. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, sterols, flavonoids and traces of saponins. In addition, quantitative determination of phenolics and flavonoid content were performed. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of the leaves was determined against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria in addition to fungi using a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method that was compared with standard discs ampicillin which acts as an antibacterial agent and amphotericin B which acts as an antifungal agent. A high potency was observed against gram-positive bacteria mainly staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria mainly Escherichia coli and showed no potency against fungi mainly Aspergillus flavus and candida albicans. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH). A very low potency was shown by using DPPH for the antioxidant effect so IC50 = 0 ug/ml, IC90 =0 ug /ml and remark gave 47.2 % at 100 ug/ml which is very weak. Cytotoxic activity was determined by using MTT assay (3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) against MCF7 (Human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma) cell line. A moderate potency was shown by using MCF7 cell line for cytotoxic effect so LC50= 90.2 ug/ml, LC90=139.9 ug/ml and the remark gave 55.2% at 100 ug/ml which is of moderate activity so, Ailanthus altissima can be considered to be a promising antimicrobial agent from natural origin.

Keywords: Ailanthus altissima, TLC, HPLC, anti-microbial activity, antifungal activity, antioxidant, cytotoxic activity

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5143 Cytotoxic Activity of Marine-derived Fungi Trichoderma Longibrachiatum Against PANC-1 Cell Lines

Authors: Elin Julianti, Marlia Singgih, Masayoshi Arai, Jianyu Lin, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra, Muhammad Azhari, Agnia S. Muharam

Abstract:

The search for a source of new medicinal compounds with anticancer activity from natural products has become important to resolve the ineffectiveness problem of pancreatic cancer therapy. Fungal marine microorganisms are prolific sources of bioactive natural products. In this present study, the ethyl acetate extract of cultured broth of Trichoderma longibrachiatum marine sponge-derived fungi exhibited selective cytotoxicity against human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells cultured under glucose-deficient conditions (IC50 = 98,4 µg/mL). The T. longibrachiatum was fermented by the static method at room temperature for 60 days. The culture broth was extracted using ethyl acetate by liquid-liquid extraction method. The liquid-liquid extraction was conducted toward the ethyl extract by using 90% MeOH-H₂O and n-|Hexane as a solvent. The extract of 90% MeOH-H₂O was fractionated by liquid extraction using by C₁₈ reversed-phase vacuum flash chromatography using mixtures of MeOH-H₂O, from 50:50 to 100:0, and 1% TFA MeOH as the eluents to yield six fractions. The fraction 2 (MeOH-H2O, 70:30) and fraction 3 (MeOH-H2O, 80:20) showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 119.3 and 274.7 µg/mL, respectively. Fraction 4 (MeOH-H₂O, 90:10) showed the highest cytotoxicity activity with IC₅₀value of < 10 µg/mL. The chemical compounds of the fractions that are responsible for cytotoxic activity are potent for further investigation.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, trichoderma longibrachiatum, marine-derived fungi, PANC-1 cell line

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5142 Cytotoxic Effect of Purified and Crude Hyaluronidase Enzyme on Hep G2 Cell Line

Authors: Furqan M. Kadhum, Asmaa A. Hussein, Maysaa Ch. Hatem

Abstract:

Hyaluronidase enzyme was purified from the clinical isolate Staphyloccus aureus in three purification steps, first by precipitation with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose, and gel filtration chromatography throughout Sephacryl S-300. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was reached 930 U/mg protein with 7.4 folds of purification and 46.5% recovery. The enzyme has an average molecular weight of about 69 kDa, with an optimum pH of enzyme activity and stability at pH 7, also the optimum temperature for activity was 37oC. The enzyme was stable with full activity at a temperature ranged between 30-40 oC. Metal ions showed variable inhibitory degree with the strongest effect for Fe+3, however, the chelating and reducing agents had no or little effects. Cytotoxic studies for purified and crude hyaluronidase against cancer cell Hep G2 type at different enzyme concentrations and exposure times showed that the inhibition effect of both crude and purified enzyme increased by increasing the enzyme concentration with no change was observed at 24hr, while at 48 and 72 hrs the same inhibition rate were observed for purified enzyme and differ for the crude filtrate.

Keywords: hyaluronidase, S. aureus, metal ions, cytotoxicity

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5141 Chemical Analysis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Asphodelus Aestivus Brot. Flowers

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Mona El-Shabrawy, Sameh R. Hussein, Ahmed Elkhateeb, El-Said S. Abdel-Hameed, Mona M. Marzouk

Abstract:

Asphodelus aestivus Brot. Is a wild plant distributed in Egypt and is considered one of the five Asphodelus spp. from the family Asphodelaceae; it grows in dry grasslands and on rocky or sandy soil. The chemical components of A. aestivus flowers extract were analyzed using different chromatographic and spectral techniques and led to the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as emodin and emodin-O-glucoside. In addition to, five flavonoid compounds;kaempferol,Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside,Apigenin-6-C-glucoside-7-O-glucoside (Saponarine), luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, Isoorientin-O-malic acid which is a new compound in nature. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the flower extract of A. aestivus led to the identification of twenty- two compounds characterized by the presence of flavones, flavonols, and flavone C-glycosides. While GC/MS analysis led to the identification of 24 compounds comprising 98.32% of the oil, the major components of the oil were 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrieoic acid methyl ester 28.72%, and 9, 12-Octadecadieroic acid (Z, Z)-methyl ester 19.96%. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of A. aestivus flowers against HEPG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, and A549 culture was examined and showed moderate inhibition (62.3±1.1)% on HEPG2 cell line followed by (36.8±0.2)% inhibition on HCT-116 and a weak inhibition (5.7± 0.0.2) on MCF-7 cell line followed by (4.5± 0.4) % inhibition on A549 cell line and this is considered the first cytotoxic report of A. aestivus flowers.

Keywords: Anthraquinones, Asphodelus aestivus, Cytotoxic activity, Flavonoids, LC-ESI-MS/MS

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5140 Cytotoxic Metabolites from Tagetes minuta L. Growing in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali A. A. Alqarni, Gamal A. Mohamed, Hossam M. Abdallah, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Tagetes minuta L. (Family: Asteraceae) using different chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of five compounds; ecliptal (1), scopoletin (2), P-hydroxy benzoic acid (3), patuletin (4), and patuletin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) (Figure 1). Their structures were established based on physical, chemical, and spectral data [Ultraviolet (UV), Proton ¹H, Carbon thirteen ¹³C, and Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) NMR], as well as Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (ESIMS) and comparison with literature data. Their cytotoxic activity was assessed towards human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human breast cancer (MCF-7), and human colon cancer (HCT116) cancer cell lines using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. It is noteworthy that compound 1 demonstrated a significant cytotoxic potential towards HepG2, MCF7, and HCT116 cells with IC₅₀s ranging from 2.74 to 7.01 μM, compared to doxorubicin (IC₅₀ 0.18, 0.60, and 0.20 μM, respectively), whereas compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed moderate cytotoxic potential with IC50s ranging from 11.71 to 35.64 μM. However, 3 was inactive up to a concentration of 100 μM towards the three tested cancer cell lines.

Keywords: Asteraceae, cytotoxicity, metabolites, Tagetes minuta

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5139 Assessment of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effect of Tartrazine in Both Male and Female Albino Rats

Authors: Alaa F. A. Bakr, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Osama. S. EL-Tawil, Adel M. Bakeer

Abstract:

Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of tartrazine in both male and female albino rats. Methodology: Forty adult male (20) and female (20) Sprague Dawley albino rats (120 - 150g) were obtained and distributed into four experimental groups; Group I; 10 untreated males, Group II; 10 untreated females, Group III; 10 treated males, and Group IV; 10 treated females. Body weight was recorded weekly, reduced glutathione (RGH), lipid peroxidation (SOD), and superoxide dismutase activity (MDA) in liver tissue were carried out, histopathological studies of brain, liver, and kidneys were performed, COMET assay was performed, all values were statistically analyzed. Results: Decrease in the activity of RGH and SOD in the treated groups were reported, but there was a more significant decrease in the female treated group. MDA was increased in treated groups with tartrazine, moreover, it was more significant in the female treated group. Multiple histological lesions were developed in brain, liver, and kidneys. COMET showed positive results. Conclusion: Our study concluded that Tartrazine has a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on albino rats and it was more significant in females than males.

Keywords: tartrazine, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, histopathology, albino rats

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5138 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: cytotoxic, genotoxic, microbiological analysis, PM10, PM2.5

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5137 Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Products: Potential Probiotic Bacteria with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Genesis Julyus T. Agcaoili, Esperanza C. Cabrera

Abstract:

Thirty (30) isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditionally-prepared fermented products specifically fermented soy-bean paste, fermented mustard and fermented rice-fish mixture were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Seventeen (17) isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, while 13 isolates were identified as Enterococcus spp using 16s rDNA sequences. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of LAB against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), while the modified agar overlay method was used to determine the antifungal activity of LAB isolates on the yeast Candida albicans, and the dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The filter-sterilized LAB supernatants were evaluated for their cytotoxicity to mammalian colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and normal human dermal fibrolasts (HDFn) using resazurin assay (PrestoBlueTM). Colchicine was the positive control. No antimicrobial activity was observed against the bacterial test organisms and the yeast Candida albicans. On the other hand, all of the tested LAB strains were fungicidal for all the test dermatophytes. Cytotoxicity index profiles of the supernatants of the 15 randomly picked LABs and negative control (brain heart infussion broth) suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to colchicine, whereas all LAB supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. Results provide strong support for the role of the lactic acid bacteria studied in antimicrobial treatment and anticancer therapy.

Keywords: antimicrobial, fermented products, fungicidal activity, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics

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5136 Comparative in vitro Anticancer Activity of Two Siddha Formulations: Neeradi Muthu Vallathymezugu and Thamira Kattu Chendooram

Authors: Vasudha Devi, Arul Amuthan, K. Narayanan, Praveen KS, Venkata Rao J

Abstract:

Background: Siddha Medicine is one of the Indian traditional medical systems, in which the cancer disease is mentioned as 'putrunoi' which literally means the disease of growth like termite mound. There are number of formulations available for the treatment of cancer disease. Neeradi muthu vallathymezugu (NMV) and thamira kattu chendooram (TKC) are two drugs commonly prescribed by Siddha physicians. These drugs have been clinically reported to be safe and effective when given orally. Though these formulations are in practice for centuries, no efforts have been made to standardize them and explore their anti-cancer potential systematically. Objective: To compare the cytotoxic activity of NMV and TKC with doxorubicin using cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: For this study, ethanol extract of NMV was taken, whereas TKC was used as such. In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine (SRB) assay against human hepatic cancer cells (HepG2), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human cervical cancer cells [KeLa]. Doxorubicin was used as the standard. The SRB assay is based on the ability of cellular proteins to bind with sulphorhodamine-B. The number of live cells in drug treated cell lines directly affects the color formation in the assay, which is estimated calorimetrically by measuring the absorbance at 540 nm to calculate the cytotoxicity (inhibitory concentration - IC50 value) of the drug. Results: The IC50values of NMV, TKC and doxorubicin against HepG2 were 3.08 µg/ml, 20.21 µg/ml and 1.21µg/ml respectively. In MCF-7, it was 11.75 µg/ml, 17.67 µg/ml and 2.8µg/ml. In HeLa, the values were 24.76 µg/ml, 73.35 µg/ml and 1.12µg/ml. Conclusions: The study proves the possible anti-cancer potential of these two formulations. Compared to TKC, NMV showed good cytotoxic effect even at low dose. Human hepatic cancer cells responded well even at very low dose, when compared to other cancer cells. Though, cytotoxic potential of these compounds was found to be less compared to doxorubicin, the isolated lead compound may have the potential to be used as an anticancer drug clinically.

Keywords: Neeradi muthu vallathymezugu (Hydnocarpus laurifolia), thamira kattu chendooram, cytotoxicity, in-vitro, Siddha Medicine

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5135 Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Culturable Unusual Actinomycetes from Solomon Islands Marine Sediments: Isolation and Characterisation of Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Ahilya Singh, Brad Carte, Ramesh Subramani, William Aalbersberg

Abstract:

A total of 37 actinomycete strains were purified from 25 Solomon Islands marine sediments using four different types of isolation media. Among them, 54% of the strains had obligate requirement of seawater for growth. The ethyl acetate extract of 100 ml fermentation product of each strain was screened for antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant human pathogens and cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps. A total of 67% of the ethyl acetate extracts showed antimicrobial and/or cytotoxic activities. A strain F-1915 was selected for isolation and evaluation of bioactive compound(s) based on its bioactive properties and chemical profile analysis using the LC-MS. The strain F-1915 was identified to have 96% sequence similarity to Streptomyces violaceusniger on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences using BLAST analysis. The 16S rDNA revealed that the strain F-1915 is a new member of MAR4 clade of actinomycetes. The MAR4 clade is an interesting clade of actinomycetes known for the production of pharmaceutically important hybrid isoprenoid compounds. The ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation product of this strain was purified by silica gel column chromatography and afforded the isolation of one bioactive pure compound. Based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data of compound 1 it was identified as a new mono-brominated phenazinone, Marinophenazimycin A, a structure which has already been studied by external collaborators at Scripps Institution of Oceanography but is yet to be published. Compound 1 displayed significant antimicrobial activity against drug resistant human pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of compound 1 was against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was about 1.9 μg/ml and MIC recorded against Amphotericin Resistant Candida albicans (ARCA) was about 0.24 μg/ml. The bioactivity of compound 1 against ARCA was found to be better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. Compound 1 however did not show any cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps.

Keywords: actinomycetes, antimicrobial activity, brominated phenazine, MAR4 clade, marine natural products, multidrug resistent, 1D and 2D NMR

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5134 Mentha crispa Essential Oil and Rotundifolone Analogues: Cytotoxic Effect on Glioblastoma

Authors: Damião Sousa, Hasan Turkez, Ozlem Tozlu, Tamires Lima

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer from the brain and with high prevalence and significant morbimortality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate new therapeutic options against this pathology. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity from Mentha crispa essential oil (MCEO), its major constituent rotundifolone (ROT) and a series of six analogues on human U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The antitumor effects of the compounds on human U87MG-GBM cell line were assessed using in vitro cell viability assays. In addition, biosafety tests were performed on cultured human blood cells. The data show that MCEO, 1,2-perillaldehyde epoxide (EPER1) and perillaldehyde (PALD) were the most cytotoxic compounds against the U87MG cells, with IC50 values of 16.263, 15.087 and 14.888 μg/mL, respectively. The treatment with MCEO, EPER1 and PALD did not lead to damage in blood cells. These chemical analogues may be useful as prototypes for development of novel antitumor drugs due to their promising activities and toxicological safety.

Keywords: antitumor activity, cancer, natural products, terpenes

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5133 Studying the Anti-Cancer Effects of Thymoquinone on Tumor Cells Through Natural Killer Cells Activity

Authors: Nouf A. Aldarmahi, Nesrin I. Tarbiah, Nuha A. Alkhattabi, Huda F. Alshaibi

Abstract:

Nigella sativa which is known as dark cumin is a well-known example for a widely applicable herbal medicine. Nigella sativa can be effective in a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, bronchitis, gastrointestinal upset, and cancer. The anticancer effect of Nigella sativa appeared to be mediated by immune-modulatory effect through stimulating human natural killer (NK) cells. This is a type of lymphocytes which is part of the innate immunity, also known as the first line of defense in the body against pathogens. This study investigated the effect of thymoquinone as a major component of Nigella sativa on the molecular cytotoxic pathway of NK cell and the role of thymoquinone therapeutic effect on NK cells. NK cells were cultured with breast tumor cells in different ways and cultured media was collected and the concentration of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-α were measured by ELISA. The cytotoxic effect of NK cells on breast tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of thymoquinone, with increased activity of perforin in NK cells. This improved anticancer effect of thymoquinone on breast cancer cells.

Keywords: breast cancer, cancer cells, natural killer cells, thymoquinone

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5132 Xanthotoxin: A Plant Derived Furanocoumarin with Antipathogenic and Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Razavi Khosroshahi

Abstract:

In recent years a great deal of efforts has been made to find natural derivative compounds to replace it's with synthetic drugs, herbicides or pesticides for management of human health and agroecosystem programs. This process can lead to a reduction in environmental harmful effects of synthetic chemicals. Xanthotoxin, as a furanocoumarin compound, found in some genera of the Apiaceae family of plants. The current work focuses on some xanthotoxin cytotoxicity and antipathogenic activities. The results indicated that xanthotoxin showed strong cytotoxic effects against LNCaP cell line with the IC₅₀ value of 0.207 mg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. After treatments of the cell line with 0.1 mg/ml of the compound, the viability of the cells was reached to zero. The current study revealed that xanthotoxin displayed strong antifungal activity against human or plant pathogen fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspegillusn flavus and Fusarum graminearum with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 52-68 µg/ml. The compound exhibited antibacterial effects on some Erwinia and Xanthomonas species of bacteria, as well

Keywords: Xanthomonas, cytotoxic, antipathogen, LNCaP, Aspergillus fumigatus, spegillusn flavus

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5131 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: antitumor activity, cytotoxicity, flavonoids, Polygonum L., secondary metabolites

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5130 Cytotoxic Drugs: Handling Practices and Clinical Manifestations among Hospital Staff

Authors: Boularas El-Alia, Arbi Raja, Bachir Bouiadjra Sara, Rezk-Kallah Haciba, Rezkkallah Baghdad

Abstract:

Objectives : To determine the handling practices of cytotoxic drugs and to describe clinical manifestations expressed by hospital personnel of Sidi Bel Abbes during the year 2014. Methods: Sectional descriptive study conducted in 3 center university hospital units (Hematology, Oncology and Urology) and Gynecology of EHS Sidi Bel Abbes. A questionnaire was administered to hospital workers regulary exposed to cytotoxic drugs. A work-place visit was performed to have an overview about working conditions. The Cytotoxic Contact Index (CCI) was calculated for each nurse on a period of 15 working days. Treatment of the results was done using SPSS software. Results: The survey reveals that 22 men and 58 women are exposed to cytotoxic drugs for an average of 7 years. Many symptoms such as ocular irritation (38,75%), throat irritation (56,25%), headache (68,75%), dizziness (43,75%), nausea (37,5%), metallic taste (30%), were reported with high frequency. Are noted in the offspring, 3 congenital anomalies,2 diaphragmatic hernia and a cleft palate. The Cytotoxic Contact Index (CCI) was higher than 3 among Oncology nurses and higher than 1 for most of the nurses of Hematology and Gynecology service. The wearing of personal protective clothing was not respected by all workers: (22/23) wear gloves and (20/23) wear a mask,(5/23) wear a cap, (2/23) wear glasses. Only 3 nurses have benefited from continuous training on handling cytotoxic drugs. Conclusion: This study shows a high occupational exposure risk to cytotoxic drugs among persons handling these drugs and the necessity to apply rigorously all measures related to personal protection awareness and training of personnel to minimize these exposure.

Keywords: cytotoxic drugs, handling, clinical manifestations, hospital staff

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