Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14013

Search results for: analytical model

14013 Development of an Analytical Model for a Synchronous Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: T. Sahbani, M. Bouteraa, R. Wamkeue

Abstract:

Wind Turbine are considered to be one of the more efficient system of energy production nowadays, a reason that leads the main industrial companies in wind turbine construction and researchers in over the world to look for better performance and one of the ways for that is the use of the synchronous permanent magnet generator. In this context, this work is about developing an analytical model that could simulate different situation in which the synchronous generator may go through, and of course this model match perfectly with the numerical and experimental model.

Keywords: MATLAB, synchronous permanent magnet generator, wind turbine, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
14012 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou

Abstract:

This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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14011 Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan

Abstract:

This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.

Keywords: predicting, shear capacity, reinforced concrete, beams, strengthened, externally, CFRP composites

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14010 The Spherical Geometric Model of Absorbed Particles: Application to the Electron Transport Study

Authors: A. Bentabet, A. Aydin, N. Fenineche

Abstract:

The mean penetration depth has a most important in the absorption transport phenomena. Analytical model of light ion backscattering coefficients from solid targets have been made by Vicanek and Urbassek. In the present work, we showed a mathematical expression (deterministic model) for Z1/2. In advantage, in the best of our knowledge, relatively only one analytical model exit for electron or positron mean penetration depth in solid targets. In this work, we have presented a simple geometric spherical model of absorbed particles based on CSDA scheme. In advantage, we have showed an analytical expression of the mean penetration depth by combination between our model and the Vicanek and Urbassek theory. For this, we have used the Relativistic Partial Wave Expansion Method (RPWEM) and the optical dielectric model to calculate the elastic cross sections and the ranges respectively. Good agreement was found with the experimental and theoretical data.

Keywords: Bentabet spherical geometric model, continuous slowing down approximation, stopping powers, ranges, mean penetration depth

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14009 A Physically-Based Analytical Model for Reduced Surface Field Laterally Double Diffused MOSFETs

Authors: M. Abouelatta, A. Shaker, M. El-Banna, G. T. Sayah, C. Gontrand, A. Zekry

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for physically modeling the intrinsic MOS part and the drift region of the n-channel Laterally Double-diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) is presented. The basic physical effects like velocity saturation, mobility reduction, and nonuniform impurity concentration in the channel are taken into consideration. The analytical model is implemented using MATLAB. A comparison of the simulations from technology computer aided design (TCAD) and that from the proposed analytical model, at room temperature, shows a satisfactory accuracy which is less than 5% for the whole voltage domain.

Keywords: LDMOS, MATLAB, RESURF, modeling, TCAD

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14008 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim

Abstract:

Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
14007 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Convergent–Divergent Nozzle and Comparison against Theoretical and Experimental Results

Authors: Stewart A. Keir, Faik A. Hamad

Abstract:

This study aims to use both analytical and experimental methods of analysis to examine the accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that can then be used for more complex analyses, accurately representing more elaborate flow phenomena such as internal shockwaves and boundary layers. The geometry used in the analytical study and CFD model is taken from the experimental rig. The analytical study is undertaken using isentropic and adiabatic relationships and the output of the analytical study, the 'shockwave location tool', is created. The results from the analytical study are then used to optimize the redesign an experimental rig for more favorable placement of pressure taps and gain a much better representation of the shockwaves occurring in the divergent section of the nozzle. The CFD model is then optimized through the selection of different parameters, e.g. turbulence models (Spalart-Almaras, Realizable k-epsilon & Standard k-omega) in order to develop an accurate, robust model. The results from the CFD model can then be directly compared to experimental and analytical results in order to gauge the accuracy of each method of analysis. The CFD model will be used to visualize the variation of various parameters such as velocity/Mach number, pressure and turbulence across the shock. The CFD results will be used to investigate the interaction between the shock wave and the boundary layer. The validated model can then be used to modify the nozzle designs which may offer better performance and ease of manufacture and may present feasible improvements to existing high-speed flow applications.

Keywords: CFD, nozzle, fluent, gas dynamics, shock-wave

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14006 Application of an Analytical Model to Obtain Daily Flow Duration Curves for Different Hydrological Regimes in Switzerland

Authors: Ana Clara Santos, Maria Manuela Portela, Bettina Schaefli

Abstract:

This work assesses the performance of an analytical model framework to generate daily flow duration curves, FDCs, based on climatic characteristics of the catchments and on their streamflow recession coefficients. According to the analytical model framework, precipitation is considered to be a stochastic process, modeled as a marked Poisson process, and recession is considered to be deterministic, with parameters that can be computed based on different models. The analytical model framework was tested for three case studies with different hydrological regimes located in Switzerland: pluvial, snow-dominated and glacier. For that purpose, five time intervals were analyzed (the four meteorological seasons and the civil year) and two developments of the model were tested: one considering a linear recession model and the other adopting a nonlinear recession model. Those developments were combined with recession coefficients obtained from two different approaches: forward and inverse estimation. The performance of the analytical framework when considering forward parameter estimation is poor in comparison with the inverse estimation for both, linear and nonlinear models. For the pluvial catchment, the inverse estimation shows exceptional good results, especially for the nonlinear model, clearing suggesting that the model has the ability to describe FDCs. For the snow-dominated and glacier catchments the seasonal results are better than the annual ones suggesting that the model can describe streamflows in those conditions and that future efforts should focus on improving and combining seasonal curves instead of considering single annual ones.

Keywords: analytical streamflow distribution, stochastic process, linear and non-linear recession, hydrological modelling, daily discharges

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14005 Effects of Research-Based Blended Learning Model Using Adaptive Scaffolding to Enhance Graduate Students' Research Competency and Analytical Thinking Skills

Authors: Panita Wannapiroon, Prachyanun Nilsook

Abstract:

This paper is a report on the findings of a Research and Development (R&D) aiming to develop the model of Research-Based Blended Learning Model Using Adaptive Scaffolding (RBBL-AS) to enhance graduate students’ research competency and analytical thinking skills, to study the result of using such model. The sample consisted of 10 experts in the fields during the model developing stage, while there were 23 graduate students of KMUTNB for the RBBL-AS model try out stage. The research procedures included 4 phases: 1) literature review, 2) model development, 3) model experiment, and 4) model revision and confirmation. The research results were divided into 3 parts according to the procedures as described in the following session. First, the data gathering from the literature review were reported as a draft model; followed by the research finding from the experts’ interviews indicated that the model should be included 8 components to enhance graduate students’ research competency and analytical thinking skills. The 8 components were 1) cloud learning environment, 2) Ubiquitous Cloud Learning Management System (UCLMS), 3) learning courseware, 4) learning resources, 5) adaptive Scaffolding, 6) communication and collaboration tolls, 7) learning assessment, and 8) research-based blended learning activity. Second, the research finding from the experimental stage found that there were statistically significant difference of the research competency and analytical thinking skills posttest scores over the pretest scores at the .05 level. The Graduate students agreed that learning with the RBBL-AS model was at a high level of satisfaction. Third, according to the finding from the experimental stage and the comments from the experts, the developed model was revised and proposed in the report for further implication and references.

Keywords: research based learning, blended learning, adaptive scaffolding, research competency, analytical thinking skills

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14004 The Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers towards Analytical Thinking Skill Development Based on Miller’s Model

Authors: Thassanant Unnanantn, Suttipong Boonphadung

Abstract:

This research study aimed to survey and analyze the attitudes of pre-service teachers’ the analytical thinking development based on Miller’s Model. The informants of this study were 22 third year teacher students majoring in Thai. The course where the instruction was conducted was English for Academic Purposes in Thai Language 2. The instrument of this research was an open-ended questionnaire with two dimensions of questions: academic and satisfaction dimensions. The investigation revealed the positive attitudes. In the academic dimension, the majority of 12 (54.54%), the highest percentage, reflected that the method of teaching analytical thinking and language simultaneously was their new knowledge and the similar percentage also belonged to text cohesion in writing. For the satisfaction, the highest frequency count was from 17 of them (77.27%) and this majority favored the openness or friendliness of the teacher.

Keywords: analytical thinking development, Miller’s Model, attitudes, pre-service teachers

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14003 Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above-mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these two sections there are some significant discrepancies between numerical and analytical results mainly originated from model geometry and high overburden. SGR and the analytical and numerical calculations, confirm the high concentration of seepage inflow in fault zones. Maximum seepage flow into tunnel has been estimated 0.425 lit/sec/m using analytical method and 0.628 lit/sec/m using numerical method occurred in crashed zone. Based on SGR method, six sections of 14 sections in Amirkabir tunnel axis are found to be in "No Risk" class that is supported by the analytical and numerical seepage value of less than 0.04 lit/sec/m.

Keywords: water Seepage, Amirkabir Tunnel, analytical method, DEM, SGR

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14002 Lie Symmetry Treatment for Pricing Options with Transactions Costs under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model

Authors: B. F. Nteumagne, E. Pindza, E. Mare

Abstract:

We apply Lie symmetries analysis to price and hedge options in the fractional Brownian framework. The reputation of Lie groups is well spread in the area of Mathematical sciences and lately, in Finance. In the presence of transactions costs and under fractional Brownian motions, analytical solutions become difficult to obtain. Lie symmetries analysis allows us to simplify the problem and obtain new analytical solution. In this paper, we investigate the use of symmetries to reduce the partial differential equation obtained and obtain the analytical solution. We then proposed a hedging procedure and calibration technique for these types of options, and test the model on real market data. We show the robustness of our methodology by its application to the pricing of digital options.

Keywords: fractional brownian model, symmetry, transaction cost, option pricing

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14001 A Novel Model for Saturation Velocity Region of Graphene Nanoribbon Transistor

Authors: Mohsen Khaledian, Razali Ismail, Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry

Abstract:

A semi-analytical model for impact ionization coefficient of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is presented. The model is derived by calculating probability of electrons reaching ionization threshold energy Et and the distance traveled by electron gaining Et. In addition, ionization threshold energy is semi-analytically modeled for GNR. We justify our assumptions using analytic modeling and comparison with simulation results. Gaussian simulator together with analytical modeling is used in order to calculate ionization threshold energy and Kinetic Monte Carlo is employed to calculate ionization coefficient and verify the analytical results. Finally, the profile of ionization is presented using the proposed models and simulation and the results are compared with that of silicon.

Keywords: nanostructures, electronic transport, semiconductor modeling, systems engineering

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14000 Parametric Study of Vertical Diffusion Stills for Water Desalination

Authors: A. Seleem, M. Mortada, M. El-Morsi, M. Younan

Abstract:

Diffusion stills have been effective in water desalination. The present work represents a model of the distillation process by using vertical single-effect diffusion stills. A semi-analytical model has been developed to model the process. A software computer code using Engineering Equation Solver EES software has been developed to solve the equations of the developed model. An experimental setup has been constructed, and used for the validation of the model. The model is also validated against former literature results. The results obtained from the present experimental test rig, and the data from the literature, have been compared with the results of the code to find its best range of validity. In addition, a parametric analysis of the system has been developed using the model to determine the effect of operating conditions on the system's performance. The dominant parameters that affect the productivity of the still are the hot plate temperature that ranges from (55-90 °C) and feed flow rate in range of (0.00694-0.0211 kg/m2-s).

Keywords: analytical model, solar distillation, sustainable water systems, vertical diffusion still

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13999 Convective Brinkman-Forchiemer Extended Flow through Channel Filled with Porous Material: An Approximate Analytical Approach

Authors: Basant K. Jha, M. L. Kaurangini

Abstract:

An approximate analytical solution is presented for convective flow in a horizontal channel filled with porous material. The Brinkman-Forchheimer extension of Darcy equation is utilized to model the fluid flow while the energy equation is utilized to model temperature distribution in the channel. The solutions were obtained utilizing the newly suggested technique and compared with those obtained from an implicit finite-difference solution.

Keywords: approximate analytical, convective flow, porous material, Brinkman-Forchiemer

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13998 Evaluating the Feasibility of Magnetic Induction to Cross an Air-Water Boundary

Authors: Mark Watson, J.-F. Bousquet, Adam Forget

Abstract:

A magnetic induction based underwater communication link is evaluated using an analytical model and a custom Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation tool. The analytical model is based on the Sommerfeld integral, and a full-wave simulation tool evaluates Maxwell’s equations using the FDTD method in cylindrical coordinates. The analytical model and FDTD simulation tool are then compared and used to predict the system performance for various transmitter depths and optimum frequencies of operation. To this end, the system bandwidth, signal to noise ratio, and the magnitude of the induced voltage are used to estimate the expected channel capacity. The models show that in seawater, a relatively low-power and small coils may be capable of obtaining a throughput of 40 to 300 kbps, for the case where a transmitter is at depths of 1 to 3 m and a receiver is at a height of 1 m.

Keywords: magnetic induction, FDTD, underwater communication, Sommerfeld

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13997 Analytical Terahertz Characterization of In0.53Ga0.47As Transistors and Homogenous Diodes

Authors: Abdelmadjid Mammeri, Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani, H. Marinchoi

Abstract:

We propose an analytical model for the admittance and the noise calculations of the InGaAs transistor and diode. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The frequency-dependent of the small-signal admittance response is determined by the total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals. The noise is evaluated by using the real part of the transistor/diode admittance under a small-signal perturbation. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand; to control the appearance of the plasma resonances, and on other hand; can give significant information about the noise frequency dependence in the InGaAs transistor and diode.

Keywords: InGaAs transistors, InGaAs diode, admittance, resonant peaks, plasma waves, analytical model

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13996 Thermal Analysis of Induction Machine Stator

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher

Abstract:

The thermal analysis is of equal importance as the electromagnetic one during the design process of electrical machines. This paper introduces a thermal modeling method for the prediction of the temperature in an induction machine stator with three-phase winding connected in a series using a lumped-parameter thermal model. The parameters of the model are calculated based on an analytical approach and experiments performed on test bench. The analytical approach study is carried out by means of numerical modeling and verified by the finite element method. For validating the numerical model, experimental results are presented and compared with the simulated ones.

Keywords: lumped thermal model, thermal analysis, numerical analysis, finite element method, induction machine

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13995 Experimental and Semi-Analytical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff, R. Rousta, R. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

Vertical slotted walls can be used as permeable breakwaters to provide economical and environmental protection from undesirable waves and currents inside the port. The permeable breakwaters are partially protection and have been suggested to overcome the environmental disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. For regular waves a semi-analytical model is based on an eigenfunction expansion method and utilizes a boundary condition at the surface of each wall are developed to detect the energy dissipation through the slots. Extensive laboratory tests are carried out to validate the semi-analytic models. The structure of the physical model contains two walls and it consists of impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is based a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at a distant of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 times of the water depth from the first one. A comparison of the theoretical results with previous studies and experimental measurements of the present study show a good agreement and that, the semi-analytical model is able to adequately reproduce most the important features of the experiment.

Keywords: permeable breakwater, double vertical slotted walls, semi-analytical model, transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, energy dissipation coefficient

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13994 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong

Abstract:

Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

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13993 3D Model of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Inclined Cable

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Rain–wind induced vibration of inclined cable is a special aerodynamic phenomenon because it is easily influenced by many factors, especially the distribution of rivulet and wind velocity. This paper proposes a new 3D model of inclined cable, based on single degree-of-freedom model. Aerodynamic forces are firstly established and verified with the existing results from a 2D model. The 3D model of inclined cable is developed. The 3D model is then applied to assess the effects of wind velocity distribution and the continuity of rivulets on the cable. Finally, an inclined cable model with small sag is investigated.

Keywords: 3D model, rain - wind induced vibration, rivulet, analytical model

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13992 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

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13991 Analytical Response Characterization of High Mobility Transistor Channels

Authors: F. Z. Mahi, H. Marinchio, C. Palermo, L. Varani

Abstract:

We propose an analytical approach for the admittance response calculation of the high mobility InGaAs channel transistors. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals determine the frequency-dependent small-signal admittance response. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand, to control the appearance of plasma resonances, and on the other hand, can give significant information about the admittance phase frequency dependence.

Keywords: small-signal admittance, Poisson equation, currents and potentials matrix, the drain and the gate terminals, analytical model

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13990 Current Situation and Need in Learning Management for Developing the Analytical Thinking of Teachers in Basic Education of Thailand

Authors: S. Art-in

Abstract:

This research was a survey research. The objective of this study was to study current situation and need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking of teachers in basic education of Thailand. The target group consisted of 400 teachers teaching in basic education level. They were selected by multi-stage random sampling. The instrument used in this study was the questionnaire asking current situation and need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking, 5 level rating scale. Data were analyzed by calculating the frequency, mean, standard deviation, percentage and content analysis. The research found that: 1) For current situation, the teachers provided learning management for developing analytical thinking, in overall, in “high” level. The issue with lowest level of practice: the teachers had competency in designing and establishing the learning management plan for developing the students’ analytical thinking. Considering each aspect it was found that: 1.1) the teacher aspect; the issue with lowest level of practice was: the teachers had competency in designing and establishing the learning management plan for developing the students’ analytical thinking, and 1.2) the learning management aspect for developing the students’ analytical thinking, the issue with lowest level of practice was: the learning activities provided opportunity for students to evaluate their analytical thinking process in each learning session. 2) The teachers showed their need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking, in overall, in “the highest” level. The issue with highest level of the need was: to obtain knowledge and competency in model, technique, and method for learning management or steps of learning management for developing the students’ analytical thinking. Considering each aspect it was found that: 2.1) teacher aspect; the issue with highest level of the need was: to obtain knowledge and comprehension in model, technique, and method for learning management or steps of learning management for developing the students’ analytical thinking, and 2.2) learning management aspect for developing the analytical thinking, the issue with highest level of need consisted of the determination of learning activities as problem situation, and the opportunity for students to comprehend the problem situation as well as practice their analytical thinking in order to find the answer.

Keywords: current situation and need, learning management, analytical thinking, teachers in basic education level, Thailand

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13989 Vertical and Lateral Vibration Analysis of Conventional Elevator

Authors: Mohammadreza Saviz, Sina Najafian

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical study of vibration moving elevator and shows the elevator 2D dynamic model to evaluate the vertical and lateral motion. Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counterweight. The elasticity of these ropes and springs of sets that connect cabin to ropes make the elevator car to vibrate. A two-dimensional model is derived to calculate vibrations and displacements. The simulation results were validated by the results of similar works.

Keywords: elevator, vibration, simulation, analytical solution, 2D modeling

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13988 Serviceability of Fabric-Formed Concrete Structures

Authors: Yadgar Tayfur, Antony Darby, Tim Ibell, Mark Evernden, John Orr

Abstract:

Fabric form-work is a technique to cast concrete structures with a great advantage of saving concrete material of up to 40%. This technique is particularly associated with the optimized concrete structures that usually have smaller cross-section dimensions than equivalent prismatic members. However, this can make the structural system produced from these members prone to smaller serviceability safety margins. Therefore, it is very important to understand the serviceability issue of non-prismatic concrete structures. In this paper, an analytical computer-based model to optimize concrete beams and to predict load-deflection behaviour of both prismatic and non-prismatic concrete beams is presented. The model was developed based on the method of sectional analysis and integration of curvatures. Results from the analytical model were compared to load-deflection behaviour of a number of beams with different geometric and material properties from other researchers. The results of the comparison show that the analytical program can accurately predict the load-deflection response of concrete beams with medium reinforcement ratios. However, it over-estimates deflection values for lightly reinforced specimens. Finally, the analytical program acceptably predicted load-deflection behaviour of on-prismatic concrete beams.

Keywords: fabric-formed concrete, continuous beams, optimisation, serviceability

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13987 Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff

Abstract:

Recently, permeable breakwaters have been suggested to overcome the disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. These protection structures have minor impacts on the coastal environment and neighboring beaches where they provide a more economical protection from waves and currents. For regular waves, a numerical model is used (FLOW-3D, VOF) to investigate the hydraulic performance of a permeable breakwater. The model of permeable breakwater consists of a pair of identical vertical slotted walls with an impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at distant of 0.5 and 1.5 of the water depth from the first one. The numerical model is validated by comparisons with previous laboratory data and semi-analytical results of the same model. A good agreement between the numerical results and both laboratory data and semi-analytical results has been shown and the results indicate the applicability of the numerical model to reproduce most of the important features of the interaction. Through the numerical investigation, the friction factor of the model is carefully discussed.

Keywords: coastal structures, permeable breakwater, slotted wall, numerical model, energy dissipation coefficient

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13986 Eco Scale: A Tool for Assessing the Greenness of Pharmaceuticals Analysis

Authors: Heba M. Mohamed

Abstract:

Owing to scientific and public concern about health and environment and seeking for a better quality of life; “Green”, “Environmentally” and “Eco” friendly practices have been presented and implemented in different research areas. Subsequently, researchers’ attention is drawn in the direction of greening the analytical methodologies and taking the Green Analytical Chemistry principles (GAC) into consideration. It is of high importance to appraise the environmental impact of each of the implemented green approaches. Compared to the other traditional green metrics (E-factor, Atom economy and the process profile), the eco scale is the optimum choice to assess the environmental impact of the analytical procedures used for pharmaceuticals analysis. For analytical methodologies, Eco-Scale is calculated by allotting penalty points to any factor of the used analytical procedure which disagree and not match with the model green analysis, where the perfect green analysis has its Eco-Scale value of 100. In this work, calculation and comparison of the Eco-Scale for some of the reported green analytical methods was done, to accentuate their greening potentials. Where the different scores can reveal how green the method is, compared to the ideal value. The study emphasizes that greenness measurement is not only about the waste quantity determination but also dictates a holistic scheme, considering all factors.

Keywords: eco scale, green analysis, environmentally friendly, pharmaceuticals analysis

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13985 Stability Analysis of SEIR Epidemic Model with Treatment Function

Authors: Sasiporn Rattanasupha, Settapat Chinviriyasit

Abstract:

The treatment function adopts a continuous and differentiable function which can describe the effect of delayed treatment when the number of infected individuals increases and the medical condition is limited. In this paper, the SEIR epidemic model with treatment function is studied to investigate the dynamics of the model due to the effect of treatment. It is assumed that the treatment rate is proportional to the number of infective patients. The stability of the model is analyzed. The model is simulated to illustrate the analytical results and to investigate the effects of treatment on the spread of infection.

Keywords: basic reproduction number, local stability, SEIR epidemic model, treatment function

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13984 A Modified Periodic 2D Cellular Re-Entrant Honeycomb Model to Enhance the Auxetic Elastic Properties

Authors: Sohaib Z. Khan, Farrukh Mustahsan, Essam R. I. Mahmoud, S. H. Masood

Abstract:

Materials or structures that contract laterally on the application of a compressive load and vice versa are said to be Auxetic materials which exhibit Negative Poisson’s Ratio (NPR). Numerous auxetic structures are proposed in the literature. One of the most studied periodic auxetic structure is the re-entrant honeycomb model. In this paper, a modified re-entrant model is proposed to enhance the auxetic behavior. The paper aimed to investigate the elastic behaviour of the proposed model to improve Young’s modulus and NPR by evaluating the analytical model. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is also conducted to support the analytical results. A significant increment in Young’s modulus and NPR can be achieved in one of the two orthogonal directions of the loading at the cost of compromising these values in other direction. The proposed modification resulted in lower relative densities when compared to the existing re-entrant honeycomb structure. A trade-off in the elastic properties in one direction at low relative density makes the proposed model suitable for uni-direction applications where higher stiffness and NPR is required, and strength to weight ratio is important.

Keywords: 2D model, auxetic materials, re-entrant honeycomb, negative Poisson's ratio

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