Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3365

Search results for: meteorological variables

3365 Load Forecasting in Short-Term Including Meteorological Variables for Balearic Islands Paper

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Miguel Lopez, Antonio Gabaldon

Abstract:

This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the short-term load forecasting (STLF). Since the behavior of consumers and producers continue changing as new technologies, it is an ongoing process, and moreover, new policies become available. The results of a research study for the Spanish Transport System Operator (REE) is presented in this paper. It is presented the improvement of the forecasting accuracy in the Balearic Islands considering the introduction of meteorological variables, such as temperature to reduce forecasting error. Variables analyzed for the forecasting in terms of overall accuracy are cloudiness, solar radiation, and wind velocity. It has also been analyzed the type of days to be considered in the research.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, power demand, neural networks, load forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
3364 PM10 Prediction and Forecasting Using CART: A Case Study for Pleven, Bulgaria

Authors: Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva, Maya P. Stoimenova

Abstract:

Ambient air pollution with fine particulate matter (PM10) is a systematic permanent problem in many countries around the world. The accumulation of a large number of measurements of both the PM10 concentrations and the accompanying atmospheric factors allow for their statistical modeling to detect dependencies and forecast future pollution. This study applies the classification and regression trees (CART) method for building and analyzing PM10 models. In the empirical study, average daily air data for the city of Pleven, Bulgaria for a period of 5 years are used. Predictors in the models are seven meteorological variables, time variables, as well as lagged PM10 variables and some lagged meteorological variables, delayed by 1 or 2 days with respect to the initial time series, respectively. The degree of influence of the predictors in the models is determined. The selected best CART models are used to forecast future PM10 concentrations for two days ahead after the last date in the modeling procedure and show very accurate results.

Keywords: cross-validation, decision tree, lagged variables, short-term forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3363 Meteorological Effect on Exergetic and Exergoeconomics Parameters of a Wind Turbine

Authors: Muhammad Abid

Abstract:

In this study, we performed the comparative exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses of a wind turbine over a period of twelve months from 1st January to 30th December 2011. The turbine is part of a wind-PV hybrid system with hydrogen storage, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The rated power output from this turbine is 1.7 W with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and cut-in/cut-out wind speeds of 3/14 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine exergy efficiencies and their relation with meteorological variables, such as temperature and density. We also calculate exergoeconomic parameter R ̇_ex and its dependence on the temperature, using the average values for twelve months of the year considered for comparison purposes. The exergy efficiency changes from 0.12 to 0.31 while the density varies between 1.31 and 1.2 kg/m3 for different temperature values. The R ̇_ex has minimum and maximum values of 0.02 and 0.81, respectively, while the temperature is in the range of 8-24°C for various wind velocity values.

Keywords: exergy, efficiency, renewable energy, wind energy, meteorological variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
3362 Transport Related Air Pollution Modeling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: K. D. Sharma, M. Parida, S. S. Jain, Anju Saini, V. K. Katiyar

Abstract:

Air quality models form one of the most important components of an urban air quality management plan. Various statistical modeling techniques (regression, multiple regression and time series analysis) have been used to predict air pollution concentrations in the urban environment. These models calculate pollution concentrations due to observed traffic, meteorological and pollution data after an appropriate relationship has been obtained empirically between these parameters. Artificial neural network (ANN) is increasingly used as an alternative tool for modeling the pollutants from vehicular traffic particularly in urban areas. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to model traffic air pollution, specifically CO concentration using neural networks. In case of CO concentration, two scenarios were considered. First, with only classified traffic volume input and the second with both classified traffic volume and meteorological variables. The results showed that CO concentration can be predicted with good accuracy using artificial neural network (ANN).

Keywords: air quality management, artificial neural network, meteorological variables, statistical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
3361 The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Air Quality in the Upper Northern Thailand

Authors: Chakrit Chotamonsak

Abstract:

In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used as regional climate model to dynamically downscale the ECHAM5 Global Climate Model projection for the regional climate change impact on air quality–related meteorological conditions in the upper northern Thailand. The analyses were focused on meteorological variables that potentially impact on the regional air quality such as sea level pressure, planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), surface temperature, wind speed and ventilation. Comparisons were made between the present (1990–2009) and future (2045–2064) climate downscaling results during majority air pollution season (dry season, January-April). Analyses showed that the sea level pressure will be stronger in the future, suggesting more stable atmosphere. Increases in temperature were obvious observed throughout the region. Decreases in surface wind and PBLH were predicted during air pollution season, indicating weaker ventilation rate in this region. Consequently, air quality-related meteorological variables were predicted to change in almost part of the upper northern Thailand, yielding a favorable meteorological condition for pollutant accumulation in the future.

Keywords: climate change, climate impact, air quality, air pollution, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
3360 A Constrained Model Predictive Control Scheme for Simultaneous Control of Temperature and Hygrometry in Greenhouses

Authors: Ayoub Moufid, Najib Bennis, Soumia El Hani

Abstract:

The objective of greenhouse climate control is to improve the culture development and to minimize the production costs. A greenhouse is an open system to external environment and the challenge is to regulate the internal climate despite the strong meteorological disturbances. The internal state of greenhouse considered in this work is defined by too relevant and coupled variables, namely inside temperature and hygrometry. These two variables are chosen to describe the internal state of greenhouses due to their importance in the development of plants and their sensitivity to external climatic conditions, sources of weather disturbances. A multivariable model is proposed and validated by considering a greenhouse as black-box system and the least square method is applied to parameters identification basing on collected experimental measures. To regulate the internal climate, we propose a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme. This one considers the measured meteorological disturbances and the physical and operational constraints on the control and state variables. A successful feasibility study of the proposed controller is presented, and simulation results show good performances despite the high interaction between internal and external variables and the strong external meteorological disturbances. The inside temperature and hygrometry are tracking nearly the desired trajectories. A comparison study with an On/Off control applied to the same greenhouse confirms the efficiency of the MPC approach to inside climate control.

Keywords: climate control, constraints, identification, greenhouse, model predictive control, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
3359 Analysing Time Series for a Forecasting Model to the Dynamics of Aedes Aegypti Population Size

Authors: Flavia Cordeiro, Fabio Silva, Alvaro Eiras, Jose Luiz Acebal

Abstract:

Aedes aegypti is present in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is a vector of several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, zika etc. The growth in the number of arboviruses cases in the last decades became a matter of great concern worldwide. Meteorological factors like mean temperature and precipitation are known to influence the infestation by the species through effects on physiology and ecology, altering the fecundity, mortality, lifespan, dispersion behaviour and abundance of the vector. Models able to describe the dynamics of the vector population size should then take into account the meteorological variables. The relationship between meteorological factors and the population dynamics of Ae. aegypti adult females are studied to provide a good set of predictors to model the dynamics of the mosquito population size. The time-series data of capture of adult females of a public health surveillance program from the city of Lavras, MG, Brazil had its association with precipitation, humidity and temperature analysed through a set of statistical methods for time series analysis commonly adopted in Signal Processing, Information Theory and Neuroscience. Cross-correlation, multicollinearity test and whitened cross-correlation were applied to determine in which time lags would occur the influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of the mosquito abundance. Among the findings, the studied case indicated strong collinearity between humidity and precipitation, and precipitation was selected to form a pair of descriptors together with temperature. In the techniques used, there were observed significant associations between infestation indicators and both temperature and precipitation in short, mid and long terms, evincing that those variables should be considered in entomological models and as public health indicators. A descriptive model used to test the results exhibits a strong correlation to data.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, cross-correlation, multicollinearity, meteorological variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
3358 Effects of Different Meteorological Variables on Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling: Application of Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

The correct estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETₒ) is required for effective irrigation water resources planning and management. However, there are some variables that must be considered while estimating and modeling ETₒ. This study therefore determines the multivariate analysis of correlated variables involved in the estimation and modeling of ETₒ at Vaalharts irrigation scheme (VIS) in South Africa using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Weather and meteorological data between 1994 and 2014 were obtained both from South African Weather Service (SAWS) and Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa for this study. Average monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m/s) were the inputs to the PCA-based model, while ETₒ is the output. PCA technique was adopted to extract the most important information from the dataset and also to analyze the relationship between the five variables and ETₒ. This is to determine the most significant variables affecting ETₒ estimation at VIS. From the model performances, two principal components with a variance of 82.7% were retained after the eigenvector extraction. The results of the two principal components were compared and the model output shows that minimum temperature, maximum temperature and windspeed are the most important variables in ETₒ estimation and modeling at VIS. In order words, ETₒ increases with temperature and windspeed. Other variables such as rainfall and relative humidity are less important and cannot be used to provide enough information about ETₒ estimation at VIS. The outcome of this study has helped to reduce input variable dimensionality from five to the three most significant variables in ETₒ modelling at VIS, South Africa.

Keywords: irrigation, principal component analysis, reference evapotranspiration, Vaalharts

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
3357 Evaluation of Turbulence Prediction over Washington, D.C.: Comparison of DCNet Observations and North American Mesoscale Model Outputs

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, LaToya Myles, William Pendergrass, Bruce Hicks, Dawson Cagle

Abstract:

Atmospheric transport of hazardous materials in urban areas is increasingly under investigation due to the potential impact on human health and the environment. In response to health and safety concerns, several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the dispersion of hazardous contaminants. The models of interest usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). However, due to the complexity of the urban environment, NWS forecasts provide an inadequate basis for dispersion computation in urban areas. A dense meteorological network in Washington, DC, called DCNet, has been operated by NOAA since 2003 to support the development of urban monitoring methodologies and provide the driving meteorological observations for atmospheric transport and dispersion models. This study focuses on the comparison of wind observations from the DCNet station on the U.S. Department of Commerce Herbert C. Hoover Building against the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model outputs for the period 2017-2019. The goal is to develop a simple methodology for modifying NAM outputs so that the dispersion requirements of the city and its urban area can be satisfied. This methodology will allow us to quantify the prediction errors of the NAM model and propose adjustments of key variables controlling dispersion model calculation.

Keywords: meteorological data, Washington D.C., DCNet data, NAM model

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3356 A Risk Assessment for the Small Hive Beetle Based on Meteorological Standard Measurements

Authors: J. Junk, M. Eickermann

Abstract:

The Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a parasite for honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, and was recently introduced to the European continent, accidentally. Based on the literature, a model was developed by using regional meteorological variables (daily values of minimum, maximum and mean air temperature as well as mean soil temperature at 50 mm depth) to calculate the time-point of hive invasion by A. tumida in springtime, the development duration of pupae as well as the number of generations of A. tumida per year. Luxembourg was used as a test region for our model for 2005 to 2013. The model output indicates a successful surviving of the Small Hive Beetle in Luxembourg with two up to three generations per year. Additionally, based on our meteorological data sets a first migration of SHB to apiaries can be expected from mid of March up to April. Our approach can be transferred easily to other countries to estimate the risk potential for a successful introduction and spreading of A. tumida in Western Europe.

Keywords: Aethina tumida, air temperature, larval development, soil temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
3355 Impact of Climate Variability on Dispersal and Distribution of Airborne Pollen and Fungal Spores in Nsukka, South-East Nigeria: Implication on Public Health

Authors: Dimphna Ezikanyi, Gloria Sakwari

Abstract:

Airborne pollen and fungal spores are major triggers of allergies, and their abundance and seasonality depend on plant responses to climatic and meteorological variables. A survey of seasonal prevalence of airborne pollen and fungal spores in Nsukka, Enugu, South- East Nigeria and relationship to climatic variables were carried out from Jan-June, 2017. The aim of the study was to access climate change and variability over time in the area and their accrued influence on modern pollen and spores rain. Decadal change in climate was accessed from variables collected from meteorological centre in the study area. Airborne samples were collected monthly using a modified Tauber-like pollen samplers raised 5 ft above ground level. Aerosamples collected were subjected to acetolysis. Dominant pollen recorded were those of Poaceae, Elaeis guinensis Jacq. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. Change in weather brought by onset of rainfall evoked sporulation and dispersal of diverse spores into ambient air especially potent allergenic spores with the spores of Ovularia, Bispora, Curvularia, Nigrospora, Helminthosporium preponderant; these 'hydrophilic fungi' were abundant in the rainy season though in varying quantities. Total fungal spores correlated positively with monthly rainfall and humidity but negatively with temperature. There was a negative though not significant correlation between total pollen count and rainfall. The study revealed a strong influence of climatic variables on abundance and spatial distribution of pollen and fungal spores in the ambient atmosphere.

Keywords: allergy, fungal spores, pollen, weather parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3354 Forecasting of Scaffolding Work Comfort Parameters Based on Data from Meteorological Stations

Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, M. Pieńko, A. Robak, P. Jamińska-Gadomska

Abstract:

Work at height, such as construction works on scaffoldings, is associated with a considerable risk. Scaffolding workers are usually exposed to changing weather conditions what can additionally increase the risk of dangerous situations. Therefore, it is very important to foresee the risk of adverse conditions to which the worker may be exposed. The data from meteorological stations may be used to asses this risk. However, the dependency between weather conditions on a scaffolding and in the vicinity of meteorological station, should be determined. The paper presents an analysis of two selected environmental parameters which have influence on the behavior of workers – air temperature and wind speed. Measurements of these parameters were made between April and November of 2016 on ten scaffoldings located in different parts of Poland. They were compared with the results taken from the meteorological stations located closest to the studied scaffolding. The results gathered from the construction sites and meteorological stations were not the same, but statistical analyses have shown that they were correlated.

Keywords: scaffolding, health and safety at work, temperature, wind velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
3353 Introducing Thermodynamic Variables through Scientific Inquiry for Engineering Students

Authors: Paola Utreras, Yazmina Olmos, Loreto Sanhueza

Abstract:

This work shows how the learning of physics is enriched with scientific inquiry practices, achieving learning that results in the use of higher-level cognitive skills. The activities, which were carried out with students of the 3rd semester of the courses of the Faculty of Sciences of the Engineering of the Austral University of Chile, focused on the understanding of the nature of the thermodynamic variables and how they relate to each other. This, through the analysis of atmospheric data obtained in the meteorological station Miraflores, located on the campus. The proposed activities consisted of the elaboration of time series, linear analysis of variables, as well as the analysis of frequencies and periods. From their results, the students reached conclusions associated with the nature of the thermodynamic variables studied and the relationships between them, to finally make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards. It is observed that introducing topics that are close to them, interesting and which affect their daily lives allows a better understanding of the subjects, which is reflected in higher levels of approval and motivation for the subject.

Keywords: basic sciences, inquiry-based learning, scientific inquiry, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
3352 A Descriptive Study of Turkish Straits System on Dynamics of Environmental Factors Causing Maritime Accidents

Authors: Gizem Kodak, Alper Unal, Birsen Koldemir, Tayfun Acarer

Abstract:

Turkish Straits System which consists of Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus), Canakkale Strait (Dardanelles) and the Marmara Sea has a strategical location on international maritime as it is a unique waterway between the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. Thus, this area has great importance since it is the only waterway between Black Sea countries and the rest of the World. Turkish Straits System has dangerous environmental factors hosts more vessel every day through developing World trade and this situation results in expanding accident risks day by day. Today, a lot of precautions have been taken to ensure safe navigation and to prevent maritime accidents, and international standards are followed to avoid maritime accidents. Despite this, the environmental factors that affect this area, trigger the maritime accidents and threaten the vessels with new accidents risks in different months with different hazards. This descriptive study consists of temporal and spatial analyses of environmental factors causing maritime accidents. This study also aims at contributing to safety navigation including monthly and regionally characteristics of variables. In this context, two different data sets are created consisting of environmental factors and accidents. This descriptive study on the accidents between 2001 and 2017 the mentioned region also studies the months and places of the accidents with environmental factor variables. Environmental factor variables are categorized as dynamic and static factors. Dynamic factors are appointed as meteorological and oceanographical while static factors are appointed as geological factors that threaten safety navigation with geometrical restricts. The variables that form dynamic factors are approached meteorological as wind direction, wind speed, wave altitude and visibility. The circulations and properties of the water mass on the system are studied as oceanographical properties. At the end of the study, the efficient meteorological and oceanographical parameters on the region are presented monthly and regionally. By this way, we acquired the monthly, seasonal and regional distributions of the accidents. Upon the analyses that are done; The Turkish Straits System that connects the Black Sea countries with the other countries and which is one of the most important parts of the world trade; is analyzed on temporal and spatial dimensions on the reasons of the accidents and have been presented as environmental factor dynamics causing maritime accidents.

Keywords: descriptive study, environmental factors, maritime accidents, statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3351 Discovering the Effects of Meteorological Variables on the Air Quality of Bogota, Colombia, by Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Fabiana Franceschi, Martha Cobo, Manuel Figueredo

Abstract:

Bogotá, the capital of Colombia, is its largest city and one of the most polluted in Latin America due to the fast economic growth over the last ten years. Bogotá has been affected by high pollution events which led to the high concentration of PM10 and NO2, exceeding the local 24-hour legal limits (100 and 150 g/m3 each). The most important pollutants in the city are PM10 and PM2.5 (which are associated with respiratory and cardiovascular problems) and it is known that their concentrations in the atmosphere depend on the local meteorological factors. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a relationship between the meteorological variables and the concentrations of the atmospheric pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3. This study aims to determine the interrelations between meteorological variables and air pollutants in Bogotá, using data mining techniques. Data from 13 monitoring stations were collected from the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network within the period 2010-2015. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm was applied to obtain primary relations between all the parameters, and afterwards, the K-means clustering technique was implemented to corroborate those relations found previously and to find patterns in the data. PCA was also used on a per shift basis (morning, afternoon, night and early morning) to validate possible variation of the previous trends and a per year basis to verify that the identified trends have remained throughout the study time. Results demonstrated that wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and NO2 are the most influencing factors on PM10 concentrations. Furthermore, it was confirmed that high humidity episodes increased PM2,5 levels. It was also found that there are direct proportional relationships between O3 levels and wind speed and radiation, while there is an inverse relationship between O3 levels and humidity. Concentrations of SO2 increases with the presence of PM10 and decreases with the wind speed and wind direction. They proved as well that there is a decreasing trend of pollutant concentrations over the last five years. Also, in rainy periods (March-June and September-December) some trends regarding precipitations were stronger. Results obtained with K-means demonstrated that it was possible to find patterns on the data, and they also showed similar conditions and data distribution among Carvajal, Tunal and Puente Aranda stations, and also between Parque Simon Bolivar and las Ferias. It was verified that the aforementioned trends prevailed during the study period by applying the same technique per year. It was concluded that PCA algorithm is useful to establish preliminary relationships among variables, and K-means clustering to find patterns in the data and understanding its distribution. The discovery of patterns in the data allows using these clusters as an input to an Artificial Neural Network prediction model.

Keywords: air pollution, air quality modelling, data mining, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
3350 Catchment Yield Prediction in an Ungauged Basin Using PyTOPKAPI

Authors: B. S. Fatoyinbo, D. Stretch, O. T. Amoo, D. Allopi

Abstract:

This study extends the use of the Drainage Area Regionalization (DAR) method in generating synthetic data and calibrating PyTOPKAPI stream yield for an ungauged basin at a daily time scale. The generation of runoff in determining a river yield has been subjected to various topographic and spatial meteorological variables, which integers form the Catchment Characteristics Model (CCM). Many of the conventional CCM models adapted in Africa have been challenged with a paucity of adequate, relevance and accurate data to parameterize and validate the potential. The purpose of generating synthetic flow is to test a hydrological model, which will not suffer from the impact of very low flows or very high flows, thus allowing to check whether the model is structurally sound enough or not. The employed physically-based, watershed-scale hydrologic model (PyTOPKAPI) was parameterized with GIS-pre-processing parameters and remote sensing hydro-meteorological variables. The validation with mean annual runoff ratio proposes a decent graphical understanding between observed and the simulated discharge. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination (R²) values of 0.704 and 0.739 proves strong model efficiency. Given the current climate variability impact, water planner can now assert a tool for flow quantification and sustainable planning purposes.

Keywords: catchment characteristics model, GIS, synthetic data, ungauged basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3349 Impact of Meteorological Factors on Influenza Activity in Pakistan; A Tale of Two Cities

Authors: Nadia Nisar

Abstract:

Background: In the temperate regions Influenza activities occur sporadically all year round with peaks coinciding during cold months. Meteorological and environmental conditions play significant role in the transmission of influenza globally. In this study, we assessed the relationship between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in two geographical areas of Pakistan. Methods: Influenza data were collected from Islamabad (north) and Multan (south) regions of national influenza surveillance system during 2010-2015. Meteorological database was obtained from National Climatic Data Center (Pakistan). Logistic regression model with a stepwise approach was used to explore the relationship between meteorological parameters with influenza peaks. In statistical model, we used the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples to represent Influenza activity with metrological parameters as the covariates (temperature, humidity and precipitation). We also evaluate the link between environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: 'cold-dry' and 'humid-rainy'. Results: We found that temperature and humidity was positively associated with influenza in north and south both locations (OR = 0.927 (0.88-0.97)) & (OR = 0.1.078 (1.027-1.132)) and (OR = 1.023 (1.008-1.037)) & (OR = 0.978 (0.964-0.992)) respectively, whilst precipitation was negatively associated with influenza (OR = 1.054 (1.039-1.070)) & (OR = 0.949 (0.935-0.963)). In both regions, temperature and humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to the precipitation. We revealed that the p-value for all of climate parameters is <0.05 by Independent-sample t-test. These results demonstrate that there were significant relationships between climate factors and influenza infection with correlation coefficients: 0.52-0.90. The total contribution of these three climatic variables accounted for 89.04%. The reported number of influenza cases increased sharply during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measures of temperature, humidity and cold-dry season (winter) can be used as indicators to forecast influenza infections. Therefore integrating meteorological parameters for influenza forecasting in the surveillance system may benefit the public health efforts in reducing the burden of seasonal influenza. More studies are necessary to understand the role of these parameters in the viral transmission and host susceptibility process.

Keywords: influenza, climate, metrological, environmental

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
3348 Comparative Analysis of the Third Generation of Research Data for Evaluation of Solar Energy Potential

Authors: Claudineia Brazil, Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Luciane Teresa Salvi, Rafael Haag

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources are dependent on climatic variability, so for adequate energy planning, observations of the meteorological variables are required, preferably representing long-period series. Despite the scientific and technological advances that meteorological measurement systems have undergone in the last decades, there is still a considerable lack of meteorological observations that form series of long periods. The reanalysis is a system of assimilation of data prepared using general atmospheric circulation models, based on the combination of data collected at surface stations, ocean buoys, satellites and radiosondes, allowing the production of long period data, for a wide gamma. The third generation of reanalysis data emerged in 2010, among them is the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), these data have a spatial resolution of 0.50 x 0.50. In order to overcome these difficulties, it aims to evaluate the performance of solar radiation estimation through alternative data bases, such as data from Reanalysis and from meteorological satellites that satisfactorily meet the absence of observations of solar radiation at global and/or regional level. The results of the analysis of the solar radiation data indicated that the reanalysis data of the CFSR model presented a good performance in relation to the observed data, with determination coefficient around 0.90. Therefore, it is concluded that these data have the potential to be used as an alternative source in locations with no seasons or long series of solar radiation, important for the evaluation of solar energy potential.

Keywords: climate, reanalysis, renewable energy, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
3347 Extreme Rainfall Frequency Analysis For Meteorological Sub-Division 4 Of India Using L-Moments.

Authors: Arti Devi, Parthasarthi Choudhury

Abstract:

Extreme rainfall frequency analysis for Meteorological Sub-Division 4 of India was analysed using L-moments approach. Serial Correlation and Mann Kendall tests were conducted for checking serially independent and stationarity of the observations. The discordancy measure for the sites was conducted to detect the discordant sites. The regional homogeneity was tested by comparing with 500 generated homogeneous regions using a 4 parameter Kappa distribution. The best fit distribution was selected based on ZDIST statistics and L-moments ratio diagram from the five extreme value distributions GPD, GLO, GEV, P3 and LP3. The LN3 distribution was selected and regional rainfall frequency relationship was established using index-rainfall procedure. A regional mean rainfall relationship was developed using multiple linear regression with latitude and longitude of the sites as variables.

Keywords: L-moments, ZDIST statistics, serial correlation, Mann Kendall test

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
3346 The Culex Pipiens Niche: Assessment with Climatic and Physiographic Variables via a Geographic Information System

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Maria T. Rebelo, Marília Antunes, Maria J. Alves, Hugo Osório, Sofia Cunha, João Casaca

Abstract:

Using a geographic information system (GIS), the relations between a georeferenced data set of Culex pipiens sl. mosquitoes collected in Portugal mainland during seven years (2006-2012) and meteorological and physiographic parameters such as: air relative humidity, air temperature (minima, maxima and mean daily temperatures), daily total rainfall, altitude, land use/land cover and proximity to water bodies are evaluated. Focus is on the mosquito females; the characterization of its habitat is the key for the planning of chirurgical non-aggressive prophylactic countermeasures to avoid ambient degradation. The GIS allow for the spatial determination of the zones were the mosquito mean captures has been above average; using the meteorological values at these coordinates, the limits of each parameter are identified/computed. The meteorological parameters measured at the net of weather stations all over the country are averaged by month and interpolated to produce raster maps that can be segmented according to the thresholds obtained for each parameter. The intersection of the maps obtained for each month show the evolution of the area favorable to the species through the mosquito season, which is from May to October at these latitudes. In parallel, mean and above average captures were related to the physiographic parameters. Three levels of risk could be identified for each parameter, using above average captures as an index. The results were applied to the suitability meteorological maps of each month. The Culex pipiens critical niche is delimited, reflecting the critical areas and the level of risk for transmission of the pathogens to which they are competent vectors (West Nile virus, iridoviruses, rheoviruses and parvoviruses).

Keywords: Culex pipiens, ecological niche, risk assessment, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
3345 Evaluation of Weather Risk Insurance for Agricultural Products Using a 3-Factor Pricing Model

Authors: O. Benabdeljelil, A. Karioun, S. Amami, R. Rouger, M. Hamidine

Abstract:

A model for preventing the risks related to climate conditions in the agricultural sector is presented. It will determine the yearly optimum premium to be paid by a producer in order to reach his required turnover. The model is based on both climatic stability and 'soft' responses of usually grown species to average climate variations at the same place and inside a safety ball which can be determined from past meteorological data. This allows the use of linear regression expression for dependence of production result in terms of driving meteorological parameters, the main ones of which are daily average sunlight, rainfall and temperature. By simple best parameter fit from the expert table drawn with professionals, optimal representation of yearly production is determined from records of previous years, and yearly payback is evaluated from minimum yearly produced turnover. The model also requires accurate pricing of commodity at N+1. Therefore, a pricing model is developed using 3 state variables, namely the spot price, the difference between the mean-term and the long-term forward price, and the long-term structure of the model. The use of historical data enables to calibrate the parameters of state variables, and allows the pricing of commodity. Application to beet sugar underlines pricer precision. Indeed, the percentage of accuracy between computed result and real world is 99,5%. Optimal premium is then deduced and gives the producer a useful bound for negotiating an offer by insurance companies to effectively protect its harvest. The application to beet production in French Oise department illustrates the reliability of present model with as low as 6% difference between predicted and real data. The model can be adapted to almost any agricultural field by changing state parameters and calibrating their associated coefficients.

Keywords: agriculture, production model, optimal price, meteorological factors, 3-factor model, parameter calibration, forward price

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
3344 Suitability of Satellite-Based Data for Groundwater Modelling in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: O. O. Aiyelokun, O. A. Agbede

Abstract:

Numerical modelling of groundwater flow can be susceptible to calibration errors due to lack of adequate ground-based hydro-metrological stations in river basins. Groundwater resources management in Southwest Nigeria is currently challenged by overexploitation, lack of planning and monitoring, urbanization and climate change; hence to adopt models as decision support tools for sustainable management of groundwater; they must be adequately calibrated. Since river basins in Southwest Nigeria are characterized by missing data, and lack of adequate ground-based hydro-meteorological stations; the need for adopting satellite-based data for constructing distributed models is crucial. This study seeks to evaluate the suitability of satellite-based data as substitute for ground-based, for computing boundary conditions; by determining if ground and satellite based meteorological data fit well in Ogun and Oshun River basins. The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) global meteorological dataset was firstly obtained in daily form and converted to monthly form for the period of 432 months (January 1979 to June, 2014). Afterwards, ground-based meteorological data for Ikeja (1981-2010), Abeokuta (1983-2010), and Oshogbo (1981-2010) were compared with CFSR data using Goodness of Fit (GOF) statistics. The study revealed that based on mean absolute error (MEA), coefficient of correlation, (r) and coefficient of determination (R²); all meteorological variables except wind speed fit well. It was further revealed that maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall had high range of index of agreement (d) and ratio of standard deviation (rSD), implying that CFSR dataset could be used to compute boundary conditions such as groundwater recharge and potential evapotranspiration. The study concluded that satellite-based data such as the CFSR should be used as input when constructing groundwater flow models in river basins in Southwest Nigeria, where majority of the river basins are partially gaged and characterized with long missing hydro-metrological data.

Keywords: boundary condition, goodness of fit, groundwater, satellite-based data

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
3343 Satellite-Based Drought Monitoring in Korea: Methodologies and Merits

Authors: Joo-Heon Lee, Seo-Yeon Park, Chanyang Sur, Ho-Won Jang

Abstract:

Satellite-based remote sensing technique has been widely used in the area of drought and environmental monitoring to overcome the weakness of in-situ based monitoring. There are many advantages of remote sensing for drought watch in terms of data accessibility, monitoring resolution and types of available hydro-meteorological data including environmental areas. This study was focused on the applicability of drought monitoring based on satellite imageries by applying to the historical drought events, which had a huge impact on meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought. Satellite-based drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM); Vegetation Health Index (VHI) using MODIS based Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) were evaluated to assess its capability to analyze the complex topography of the Korean peninsula. While the VHI was accurate when capturing moderate drought conditions in agricultural drought-damaged areas, the SDCI was relatively well monitored in hydrological drought-damaged areas. In addition, this study found correlations among various drought indices and applicability using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) method, which will expand our understanding of the relationships between hydro-meteorological variables and drought events at global scale. The results of this research are expected to assist decision makers in taking timely and appropriate action in order to save millions of lives in drought-damaged areas.

Keywords: drought monitoring, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), remote sensing, receiver operating characteristic (ROC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
3342 Rainfall Estimation Using Himawari-8 Meteorological Satellite Imagery in Central Taiwan

Authors: Chiang Wei, Hui-Chung Yeh, Yen-Chang Chen

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to estimate the rainfall using the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite with multi-band, high-bit format, and high spatiotemporal resolution, ground rainfall data at the Chen-Yu-Lan watershed of Joushuei River Basin (443.6 square kilometers) in Central Taiwan. Accurate and fine-scale rainfall information is essential for rugged terrain with high local variation for early warning of flood, landslide, and debris flow disasters. 10-minute and 2 km pixel-based rainfall of Typhoon Megi of 2016 and meiyu on June 1-4 of 2017 were tested to demonstrate the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite can capture rainfall variation in the rugged mountainous area both at fine-scale and watershed scale. The results provide the valuable rainfall information for early warning of future disasters.

Keywords: estimation, Himawari-8, rainfall, satellite imagery

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3341 Childhood Obesity: Future Direction and Education Priorities

Authors: Zahra Ranjbar

Abstract:

Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific variables, which define a problem or an issue. In this study most important variables that have critical role in children obesity problem were introduce by ISM questionnaire technique and their relationships were determine. Our findings suggested that sedentary activities are top level variables and school teachers and administrators, public education and scientific collaborations are bottom level variables in children obesity problem. Control of dietary, Physical education program, parents, government and motivation strategies variables are depend to other variables. They are very sensitive to external variables. Also, physical education program, parents, government, motivation, school teachers and administrators, public education and collaboration variables have strong driving power. They are linkage factors; it means that they can be effective on children obesity problem directly.

Keywords: ISM, variable, obesity, physical education, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
3340 Numerical Modelling of the Influence of Meteorological Forcing on Water-Level in the Head Bay of Bengal

Authors: Linta Rose, Prasad K. Bhaskaran

Abstract:

Water-level information along the coast is very important for disaster management, navigation, planning shoreline management, coastal engineering and protection works, port and harbour activities, and for a better understanding of near-shore ocean dynamics. The water-level variation along a coast attributes from various factors like astronomical tides, meteorological and hydrological forcing. The study area is the Head Bay of Bengal which is highly vulnerable to flooding events caused by monsoons, cyclones and sea-level rise. The study aims to explore the extent to which wind and surface pressure can influence water-level elevation, in view of the low-lying topography of the coastal zones in the region. The ADCIRC hydrodynamic model has been customized for the Head Bay of Bengal, discretized using flexible finite elements and validated against tide gauge observations. Monthly mean climatological wind and mean sea level pressure fields of ERA Interim reanalysis data was used as input forcing to simulate water-level variation in the Head Bay of Bengal, in addition to tidal forcing. The output water-level was compared against that produced using tidal forcing alone, so as to quantify the contribution of meteorological forcing to water-level. The average contribution of meteorological fields to water-level in January is 5.5% at a deep-water location and 13.3% at a coastal location. During the month of July, when the monsoon winds are strongest in this region, this increases to 10.7% and 43.1% respectively at the deep-water and coastal locations. The model output was tested by varying the input conditions of the meteorological fields in an attempt to quantify the relative significance of wind speed and wind direction on water-level. Under uniform wind conditions, the results showed a higher contribution of meteorological fields for south-west winds than north-east winds, when the wind speed was higher. A comparison of the spectral characteristics of output water-level with that generated due to tidal forcing alone showed additional modes with seasonal and annual signatures. Moreover, non-linear monthly mode was found to be weaker than during tidal simulation, all of which point out that meteorological fields do not cause much effect on the water-level at periods less than a day and that it induces non-linear interactions between existing modes of oscillations. The study signifies the role of meteorological forcing under fair weather conditions and points out that a combination of multiple forcing fields including tides, wind, atmospheric pressure, waves, precipitation and river discharge is essential for efficient and effective forecast modelling, especially during extreme weather events.

Keywords: ADCIRC, head Bay of Bengal, mean sea level pressure, meteorological forcing, water-level, wind

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
3339 The Challenge of Characterising Drought Risk in Data Scarce Regions: The Case of the South of Angola

Authors: Natalia Limones, Javier Marzo, Marcus Wijnen, Aleix Serrat-Capdevila

Abstract:

In this research we developed a structured approach for the detection of areas under the highest levels of drought risk that is suitable for data-scarce environments. The methodology is based on recent scientific outcomes and methods and can be easily adapted to different contexts in successive exercises. The research reviews the history of drought in the south of Angola and characterizes the experienced hazard in the episode from 2012, focusing on the meteorological and the hydrological drought types. Only global open data information coming from modeling or remote sensing was used for the description of the hydroclimatological variables since there is almost no ground data in this part of the country. Also, the study intends to portray the socioeconomic vulnerabilities and the exposure to the phenomenon in the region to fully understand the risk. As a result, a map of the areas under the highest risk in the south of the country is produced, which is one of the main outputs of this work. It was also possible to confirm that the set of indicators used revealed different drought vulnerability profiles in the South of Angola and, as a result, several varieties of priority areas prone to distinctive impacts were recognized. The results demonstrated that most of the region experienced a severe multi-year meteorological drought that triggered an unprecedent exhaustion of the surface water resources, and that the majority of their socioeconomic impacts started soon after the identified onset of these processes.

Keywords: drought risk, exposure, hazard, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
3338 Improving the Prediction of Hazardous Material Dispersion in Washington, D.C: A Study With Hysplit Model

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, LaToya Myles, William Pendergrass, Bruce Hicks, Dawson Cagle

Abstract:

Concerns about the consequences of intentional and adversarial releases of hazardous materials and the emissions from industrialization and traffic have resulted in a growing level of research focused on dispersion in urban areas. Several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous contaminants, and they usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). In this context, it has been shown that classical meteorological models from the NWS provide an inadequate basis for atmospheric dispersion forecasts in Washington, D.C. In recognition of this deficiency, a program called DCNetwas established by NOAA in 2003 to collect a large database of meteorological measurements in Washington, D.C. The goal of DCNet has been the provision of real-time meteorological observations over Washington, D.C., to support the use of atmospheric transport and diffusion models as well as to improve the prediction of the weather affecting residents. The DCNet data represent a large, relatively uniform urban city covering a broad spectrum of weather conditions, which permits an unparalleled description of atmospheric flow behavior over this type of terrain. DCNet data have been compared against NWS model outputs to produce adjustments of the basic physics and approximation parameters controlling dispersion model calculations. In this study, HYSPLIT dispersion model has been chosen as a test model with which to analyze the contribution of these adjustments to the production of greatly improved dispersion forecasts. HYSPLIT is one of the most extensively used transport and dispersion models in the global atmospheric sciences community. In general, the proposed adjustments could also be used for many different conventional dispersion forecasting systems in Washington, D.C., to determine impacts from the airborne release of chemicals and other contaminants.

Keywords: atmospheric dispersion, urban environment, hysplit, dncet network

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
3337 Generalized Extreme Value Regression with Binary Dependent Variable: An Application for Predicting Meteorological Drought Probabilities

Authors: Retius Chifurira

Abstract:

Logistic regression model is the most used regression model to predict meteorological drought probabilities. When the dependent variable is extreme, the logistic model fails to adequately capture drought probabilities. In order to adequately predict drought probabilities, we use the generalized linear model (GLM) with the quantile function of the generalized extreme value distribution (GEVD) as the link function. The method maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized extreme value (GEV) regression model. We compare the performance of the logistic and the GEV regression models in predicting drought probabilities for Zimbabwe. The performance of the regression models are assessed using the goodness-of-fit tests, namely; relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and relative mean absolute error (RMAE). Results show that the GEV regression model performs better than the logistic model, thereby providing a good alternative candidate for predicting drought probabilities. This paper provides the first application of GLM derived from extreme value theory to predict drought probabilities for a drought-prone country such as Zimbabwe.

Keywords: generalized extreme value distribution, general linear model, mean annual rainfall, meteorological drought probabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
3336 Temporal Variation of Reference Evapotranspiration in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Meteorological Drought Analysis via Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index Method

Authors: Alper Serdar Anli

Abstract:

Analysis of temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important in arid and semi-arid regions where water resources are limited. In this study, temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and meteorological drought analysis through SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) method have been carried out in provinces of Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Reference evapotranspiration of concerning provinces in the region has been estimated using Penman-Monteith method and one calendar year has been split up four periods as r1, r2, r3 and r4. Temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration according to four periods has been analyzed through parametric Dickey-Fuller test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. As a result, significant increasing trends for reference evapotranspiration have been detected and according to SPEI method used for estimating meteorological drought in provinces, mild drought has been experienced in general, and however there have been also a significant amount of events where moderate and severely droughts occurred.

Keywords: central Anatolia region, drought index, Penman-Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, temporal variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 205