Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 810

Search results for: computed tomography

810 3D Printed Multi-Modal Phantom Using Computed Tomography and 3D X-Ray Images

Authors: Sung-Suk Oh, Bong-Keun Kang, Sang-Wook Park, Hui-Jin Joo, Jong-Ryul Choi, Seong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Woo Sohn


The imaging phantom is utilized for the verification, evaluation and tuning of the medical imaging device and system. Although it could be costly, 3D printing is an ideal technique for a rapid, customized, multi-modal phantom making. In this article, we propose the multi-modal phantom using 3D printing. First of all, the Dicom images for were measured by CT (Computed Tomography) and 3D X-ray systems (PET/CT and Angio X-ray system of Siemens) and then were analyzed. Finally, the 3D modeling was processed using Dicom images. The 3D printed phantom was scanned by PET/CT and MRI systems and then evaluated.

Keywords: imaging phantom, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET / CT (Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography), 3D printing

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809 Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)

Authors: Saghar Karimi, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari Khafi, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi


In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.

Keywords: anatomy, computed tomography, respiratory system, turtle

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808 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz


Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology

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807 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Mahkameh Asadi, Habibollah Dadgar


The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, amino acid positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, low and high grade glioma

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806 Efects of Data Corelation in a Sparse-View Compresive Sensing Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Sajid Abas, Jon Pyo Hong, Jung-Ryun Le, Seungryong Cho


Computed tomography and laminography are heavily investigated in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework to reduce the dose to the patients as well as to the radiosensitive devices such as multilayer microelectronic circuit boards. Nowadays researchers are actively working on optimizing the compressive sensing based iterative image reconstruction algorithm to obtain better quality images. However, the effects of the sampled data’s properties on reconstructed the image’s quality, particularly in an insufficient sampled data conditions have not been explored in computed laminography. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two data properties i.e. sampling density and data incoherence on the reconstructed image obtained by conventional computed laminography and a recently proposed method called spherical sinusoidal scanning scheme. We have found that in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework, the image quality mainly depends upon the data incoherence when the data is uniformly sampled.

Keywords: computed tomography, computed laminography, compressive sending, low-dose

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805 'Low Electronic Noise' Detector Technology in Computed Tomography

Authors: A. Ikhlef


Image noise in computed tomography, is mainly caused by the statistical noise, system noise reconstruction algorithm filters. Since last few years, low dose x-ray imaging became more and more desired and looked as a technical differentiating technology among CT manufacturers. In order to achieve this goal, several technologies and techniques are being investigated, including both hardware (integrated electronics and photon counting) and software (artificial intelligence and machine learning) based solutions. From a hardware point of view, electronic noise could indeed be a potential driver for low and ultra-low dose imaging. We demonstrated that the reduction or elimination of this term could lead to a reduction of dose without affecting image quality. Also, in this study, we will show that we can achieve this goal using conventional electronics (low cost and affordable technology), designed carefully and optimized for maximum detective quantum efficiency. We have conducted the tests using large imaging objects such as 30 cm water and 43 cm polyethylene phantoms. We compared the image quality with conventional imaging protocols with radiation as low as 10 mAs (<< 1 mGy). Clinical validation of such results has been performed as well.

Keywords: computed tomography, electronic noise, scintillation detector, x-ray detector

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804 Comparative Study of Different Enhancement Techniques for Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. G. Jinimole, A. Harsha


One of the key problems facing in the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) images is the poor contrast of the images. Image enhancement can be used to improve the visual clarity and quality of the images or to provide a better transformation representation for further processing. Contrast enhancement of images is one of the acceptable methods used for image enhancement in various applications in the medical field. This will be helpful to visualize and extract details of brain infarctions, tumors, and cancers from the CT image. This paper presents a comparison study of five contrast enhancement techniques suitable for the contrast enhancement of CT images. The types of techniques include Power Law Transformation, Logarithmic Transformation, Histogram Equalization, Contrast Stretching, and Laplacian Transformation. All these techniques are compared with each other to find out which enhancement provides better contrast of CT image. For the comparison of the techniques, the parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) are used. Logarithmic Transformation provided the clearer and best quality image compared to all other techniques studied and has got the highest value of PSNR. Comparison concludes with better approach for its future research especially for mapping abnormalities from CT images resulting from Brain Injuries.

Keywords: computed tomography, enhancement techniques, increasing contrast, PSNR and MSE

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803 Automatic Post Stroke Detection from Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. Gopi Jinimole, A. Harsha


For detecting strokes, Computed Tomography (CT) scan is preferred for imaging the abnormalities or infarction in the brain. Because of the problems in the window settings used to evaluate brain CT images, they are very poor in the early stage infarction detection. This paper presents an automatic estimation method for the window settings of the CT images for proper contrast of the hyper infarction present in the brain. In the proposed work the window width is estimated automatically for each slice and the window centre is changed to a new value of 31HU, which is the average of the HU values of the grey matter and white matter in the brain. The automatic window width estimation is based on the average of median of statistical central moments. Thus with the new suggested window centre and estimated window width, the hyper infarction or post-stroke regions in CT brain images are properly detected. The proposed approach assists the radiologists in CT evaluation for early quantitative signs of delayed stroke, which leads to severe hemorrhage in the future can be prevented by providing timely medication to the patients.

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), hyper infarction or post stroke region, Hounsefield Unit (HU), window centre (WC), window width (WW)

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802 The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up

Authors: Okhee Woo


Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.

Keywords: computed tomography, breast cancer, effective radiation dose, cumulative organ dose

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801 Relation between Initial Stability of the Dental Implant and Bone-Implant Contact Level

Authors: Jui-Ting Hsu, Heng-Li Huang, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Kuo-Chih Su, Lih-Jyh Fuh


The objectives of this study were to measure the initial stability of the dental implant (ISQ and PTV) in the artificial foam bone block with three different quality levels. In addition, the 3D bone to implant contact percentage (BIC%) was measured based on the micro-computed tomography images. Furthermore, the relation between the initial stability of dental implant (ISQ and PTV) and BIC% were calculated. The experimental results indicated that enhanced the material property of the artificial foam bone increased the initial stability of the dental implant. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the BIC% and the two approaches (ISQ and PTV) were 0.652 and 0.745.

Keywords: dental implant, implant stability quotient, peak insertion torque, bone-implant contact, micro-computed tomography

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800 Using Scanning Electron Microscope and Computed Tomography for Concrete Diagnostics of Airfield Pavements

Authors: M. Linek


This article presents the comparison of selected evaluation methods regarding microstructure modification of hardened cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Basic test results were presented for two pavement quality concrete lots. Analysis included standard concrete used for airfield pavements and modern material solutions based on concrete composite modification. In case of basic grain size distribution of concrete cement CEM I 42,5HSR NA, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate fractions in the form of granite chippings, water and admixtures were considered. In case of grain size distribution of modified concrete, the use of modern modifier as substitute of fine aggregate was suggested. Modification influence on internal concrete structure parameters using scanning electron microscope was defined. Obtained images were compared to the results obtained using computed tomography. Opportunity to use this type of equipment for internal concrete structure diagnostics and an attempt of its parameters evaluation was presented. Obtained test results enabled to reach a conclusion that both methods can be applied for pavement quality concrete diagnostics, with particular purpose of airfield pavements.

Keywords: scanning electron microscope, computed tomography, cement concrete, airfield pavements

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799 Use of Digital Forensics for Sex Determination by Nasal Index

Authors: Ashwini Kumar, Vinod Nayak, Shankar M. Bakkannavar


The identification of humans is important in forensic investigations not only in living but also in dead, especially in cases of mass disorders. The procedure followed in dead known as post-mortem identification is a challenging task for the forensic pathologist. However, it is mandatory in terms of the law to fulfill the social norms. Many times, due to mutilation of body parts, the normal methods of identification using skeletal remains cannot be used in the process of identification. In such cases, the intact components of the skeletal remains or bony parts play an important role in identification. In these situations, digital forensics can come to our rescue. The authors hereby made a study for determination of sex based on nasal index by using (Big Bore 16 Slice) Multidetector Computed Tomography 2D Scans. The results are represented as a poster.

Keywords: sex determination, multidetector computed tomography, nasal index, digital forensic

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798 Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Mahesh Hariharan, Rajan Balasubramaniam, Sharath Kumar Shetty, Shanthala Yadavalli, Mohammed Ahetasham, Sravya Devarapalli


Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected to mandate a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis.

Keywords: acute abdomen, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, plain radiographs, ultrasound

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797 Using Discrete Event Simulation Approach to Reduce Waiting Times in Computed Tomography Radiology Department

Authors: Mwafak Shakoor


The purpose of this study was to reduce patient waiting times, improve system throughput and improve resources utilization in radiology department. A discrete event simulation model was developed using Arena simulation software to investigate different alternatives to improve the overall system delivery based on adding resource scenarios due to the linkage between patient waiting times and resource availability. The study revealed that there is no addition investment need to procure additional scanner but hospital management deploy managerial tactics to enhance machine utilization and reduce the long waiting time in the department.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, radiology department, arena, waiting time, healthcare modeling, computed tomography

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796 Measurement of Nasal Septal Cartilage in Adult Filipinos Using Computed Tomography

Authors: Miguel Limbert Ramos, Joseph Amado Galvez


Background: The nasal septal cartilage is an autologous graft that is widely used in different otolaryngologic procedures of the different subspecialties, such as in septorhinoplasty and ear rehabilitation procedures. The cartilage can be easily accessed and harvested to be utilized for such procedures. However, the dimension of the nasal septal cartilage differs, corresponding to race, gender, and age. Measurements can be done via direct measurement of harvested septal cartilage in cadavers or utilizing radiographic imaging studies giving baseline measurement of the nasal septal cartilage distinct to every race. A preliminary baseline measurement of the dimensions of Filipino nasal septal cartilage was previously established by measuring harvested nasal septal cartilage in Filipino Malay cadavers. This study intends to reinforce this baseline measurement by utilizing computed tomography (CT) scans of adult Filipinos in a tertiary government hospital in the City of Manila, Philippines, which will cover a larger sampling population. Methods: The unit of observation and analysis will be the computed tomography (CT) scans of patients ≥ 18years old who underwent cranial, facial, orbital, paranasal sinus, and temporal bone studies for the year 2019. The measurements will be done in a generated best midsagittal image (155 subjects) which is a view through the midline of the cerebrum that is simultaneously viewed with its coronal and axial views for proper orientation. The view should reveal important structures that will be used to plot the anatomic boundaries, which will be measured by a DICOM image viewing software (RadiAnt). The measured area of nasal septal cartilage will be compared by gender and age. Results: The total area of the nasal septal cartilage is larger in males compared to females, with a mean value of 6.52 cm² and 5.71 cm², respectively. The harvestable nasal septal cartilage area is also larger in males with a mean value of 3.57 cm² compared to females with only a measured mean value of 3.13 cm². The total and harvestable area of the nasal septal cartilage is largest in the 18-30 year-old age group with a mean value of 6.47 cm² and 3.60 cm² respectively and tends to decrease with the advancement of age, which can be attributed to continuous ossification changes. Conclusion: The best time to perform septorhinoplasty and other otolaryngologic procedures which utilize the nasal septal cartilage as graft material is during post-pubertal age, hence surgeries should be avoided or delayed to allow growth and maturation of the cartilage. A computed tomography scan is a cost-effective and non-invasive tool that can provide information on septal cartilage areas prior to these procedures.

Keywords: autologous graft, computed tomography, nasal septal cartilage, septorhinoplasty

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795 Procedural Protocol for Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) Inversion

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S. Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar, V. C. Vani, Priya Jagia, Sanjiv Sharma, Susama Rani Mandal, R. Lakshmy


The dual energy computed tomography (DECT) aims at noting the HU(V) values for the sample at two different voltages V=V1, V2 and thus obtain the electron densities (ρe) and effective atomic number (Zeff) of the substance. In the present paper, we aim to obtain a numerical algorithm by which (ρe, Zeff) can be obtained from the HU(100) and HU(140) data, where V=100, 140 kVp. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques.With the idea to develop the inversion algorithm for low Zeff materials, as is the case with non calcified coronary artery plaque, we prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρe, Zeff) lie in the range (2.65×1023≤ ρe≤ 3.64×1023 per cc ) and (6.80≤ Zeff ≤ 8.90). We fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(100) and HU(140) for the same pixels. Knowing that the HU(V) values are related to the attenuation coefficient of the system, we present an algorithm by which the (ρe, Zeff) is calibrated with respect to (HU(100), HU(140)). The calibration is done with a known set of 20 samples; its accuracy is checked with a different set of 23 known samples. We find that the calibration gives the ρe with an accuracy of ± 4% while Zeff is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%.In this inversion method (ρe, Zeff) of the scanned sample can be found by eliminating the effects of the CT machine and also by ensuring that the determination of the two unknowns (ρe, Zeff) does not interfere with each other. It is found that this algorithm can be used for prediction of chemical characteristic (ρe, Zeff) of unknown scanned materials with 95% confidence level, by inversion of the DECT data.

Keywords: chemical composition, dual-energy computed tomography, inversion algorithm

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794 A Questionnaire Survey Reviewing Radiographers' Knowledge of Computed Tomography Exposure Parameters

Authors: Mohammad Rawashdeh, Mark McEntee, Maha Zaitoun, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Patrick Brennan, Haytham Alewaidat, Sarah Lewis, Charbel Saade


Despite the tremendous advancements that have been generated by Computed Tomography (CT) in the field of diagnosis, concerns have been raised about the potential cancer induction risk from CT because of the exponentially increased use of it in medicine. This study aims at investigating the application and knowledge of practicing radiographers in Jordan about CT radiation. In order to collect the primary data of this study, a questionnaire was designed and distributed by social media using a snow-balling sampling method. The respondents (n=54) have answered 36 questions including the questions about their demographic information, knowledge about Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), CT exposure and adaptation of pediatric patients exposure. The educational level of the respondents was either at a diploma degree (35.2%) or bachelor (64.8%). The results of this study have indicated a good level of general knowledge between radiographers about the relationship between image quality, exposure parameters, and patient dose. The level of knowledge related to DRL was poor where less than 7.4 percent of the sample members were able to give specific values for a number of common anatomical fields, including abdomen, brain, and chest. Overall, Jordanian radiographers need to gain more knowledge about the expected levels of the dose when applying good practice. Additional education on DRL or DRL inclusion in educational programs is highlighted.

Keywords: computed tomography, CT scan, DRLs, exposure parameters, image quality, radiation dose

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793 Liver Tumor Detection by Classification through FD Enhancement of CT Image

Authors: N. Ghatwary, A. Ahmed, H. Jalab


In this paper, an approach for the liver tumor detection in computed tomography (CT) images is represented. The detection process is based on classifying the features of target liver cell to either tumor or non-tumor. Fractional differential (FD) is applied for enhancement of Liver CT images, with the aim of enhancing texture and edge features. Later on, a fusion method is applied to merge between the various enhanced images and produce a variety of feature improvement, which will increase the accuracy of classification. Each image is divided into NxN non-overlapping blocks, to extract the desired features. Support vector machines (SVM) classifier is trained later on a supplied dataset different from the tested one. Finally, the block cells are identified whether they are classified as tumor or not. Our approach is validated on a group of patients’ CT liver tumor datasets. The experiment results demonstrated the efficiency of detection in the proposed technique.

Keywords: fractional differential (FD), computed tomography (CT), fusion, aplha, texture features.

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792 Comparison of the Classification of Cystic Renal Lesions Using the Bosniak Classification System with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography: A Prospective Study

Authors: Dechen Tshering Vogel, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Bernard Kiss, Spyridon Arampatzis


In addition to computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being increasingly used for imaging of renal lesions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the classification of complex cystic renal lesions using the Bosniak classification with CEUS and MRI to CT. Forty-eight patients with 65 cystic renal lesions were included in this study. All participants signed written informed consent. The agreement between the Bosniak classifications of complex renal lesions ( ≥ BII-F) on CEUS and MRI were compared to that of CT and were tested using Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy of CEUS and MRI compared to CT in the detection of complex renal lesions were calculated. Twenty-nine (45%) out of 65 cystic renal lesions were classified as complex using CT. The agreement between CEUS and CT in the classification of complex cysts was fair (agreement 50.8%, Kappa 0.31), and was excellent between MRI and CT (agreement 93.9%, Kappa 0.88). Compared to CT, MRI had a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 91.7%, a PPV of 54.7%, and an NPV of 54.7% with an accuracy of 63.1%. The corresponding values for CEUS were sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 33.3%, PPV 90.3%, and NPV 97.1% with an accuracy 93.8%. The classification of complex renal cysts based on MRI and CT scans correlated well, and MRI can be used instead of CT for this purpose. CEUS can exclude complex lesions, but due to higher sensitivity, cystic lesions tend to be upgraded. However, it is useful for initial imaging, for follow up of lesions and in those patients with contraindications to CT and MRI.

Keywords: Bosniak classification, computed tomography, contrast enhanced ultrasound, cystic renal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging

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791 Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Useful Diagnostic Tool to Determine Root Canal Morphology in a Sample of Egyptian Population

Authors: H. El-Messiry, M. El-Zainy, D. Abdelkhalek


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-quality 3-dimensional images of dental structures because of its high spatial resolution. The study of dental morphology is important in research as it provides information about diversities within a population. Many studies have shown different shapes and numbers of roots canals among different races, especially in molars. The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of root canals of mandibular first and third molars in a sample of Egyptian population using CBCT scanning. Fifty mandibular first Molars (M1) and fifty mandibular third (M3) extracted molars were collected. Thick rectangular molds were made using pink wax to hold the samples. Molars were embedded in the wax mold by aligning them in rows leaving arbitrary 0.5cm space between them. The molds with the samples in were submitted for CBCT scan. The number and morphology of root canals were assessed and classified according to Vertucci's classification. The mesial and the distal roots were examined separately. Finally, data was analyzed using Fisher exact test. The most prevalent mesial root canal frequency in M1 was type IV (60%) and type II (40 %), while M3 showed prevalence of type I (40%) and II (40%). Distal root canal morphology showed prevalence of type I in both M1 (66%) and M3 (86%). So, it can be concluded that CBCT scanning provides supplemental information about the root canal configurations of mandibular molars in a sample of Egyptian population. This study may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of mandibular molars.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular first molar, mandibular third molar, root canal morphology

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790 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra


Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

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789 Radiation Dose and Associated Exposure Parameters in Selected MDCT Scanners in Multiphase Scan of Abdomen-Pelvic Region: A Clinical Study

Authors: P. Sathyathas, H. M. I. S. W. Herath, T. Amalraj, U. J. M. A. L. Jayasinghe


Over two thirds of medical radiation can now be attributed to Computed Tomography (CT). There is little information on amount of radiation received from multiphase CT scan of abdomen- pelvic region in clinical practice. We sought to estimate the radiation dose and associated exposure parameters in the multiphase abdomen - pelvic scan of Multideteror Computed Tomography (MDCT) studies in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cross sectional studies describing radiation dose associated with main exposure parameters in diagnostic multiphase abdomen - pelvic scans performed on 152 consecutive patients by two different sixteen slice CT scanners. Patient information, exposure parameters of CTDI (volume), DLP, kVp, mAs and pitch were recorded for every phases of abdomen- a pelvic study from dose report of MDCT scanners (MDCTs). Age of patients range from 14 years to 87 years in both MDCT scanners. Overall CTDI (volume) median was 63.8 (±10.4) mGy for a multiphase abdominal-pelvic scan with scanner A while it was 35.4 (±15.6) mGy for scanner B. Patients' effective dose for multiphase abdomen - pelvic CT scan range from 8.2 mSv to 58 mSv. Median effective dose for patients, who underwent multiphase abdomen- pelvis scan with scanner A and B were 38.5 (± 8.2) mSv and 21.3 (± 8.6) mSv respectively. Median value of exposure parameters of mAs, kVp and pitch, were 150 (±29.7), 130 (±15.3) and 1.3 (±0.1) respectively in scanner A. In scanner B; they were 60 (±14.5), 120 and 1. The median effective dose for patients between multiphase abdomen-pelvic scan of both MDCT, a significant different (P<0.05) was observed. Multiphase abdomen – pelvic scan of clinical study shows significant different of effective dose with reference level of phantom studies (8-14mSv) and it depends on the type of vendors.

Keywords: abdomen-pelvic region, computed tomography, exposure parameters, radiation dose

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788 Sparse-View CT Reconstruction Based on Nonconvex L1 − L2 Regularizations

Authors: Ali Pour Yazdanpanah, Farideh Foroozandeh Shahraki, Emma Regentova


The reconstruction from sparse-view projections is one of important problems in computed tomography (CT) limited by the availability or feasibility of obtaining of a large number of projections. Traditionally, convex regularizers have been exploited to improve the reconstruction quality in sparse-view CT, and the convex constraint in those problems leads to an easy optimization process. However, convex regularizers often result in a biased approximation and inaccurate reconstruction in CT problems. Here, we present a nonconvex, Lipschitz continuous and non-smooth regularization model. The CT reconstruction is formulated as a nonconvex constrained L1 − L2 minimization problem and solved through a difference of convex algorithm and alternating direction of multiplier method which generates a better result than L0 or L1 regularizers in the CT reconstruction. We compare our method with previously reported high performance methods which use convex regularizers such as TV, wavelet, curvelet, and curvelet+TV (CTV) on the test phantom images. The results show that there are benefits in using the nonconvex regularizer in the sparse-view CT reconstruction.

Keywords: computed tomography, non-convex, sparse-view reconstruction, L1-L2 minimization, difference of convex functions

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787 Anomalous Course of Left Ovarian Vein Associated with Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

Authors: Viyango Pandian, Kumaresh Athiyappan


Pelvic congestion Syndrome (PCS) is usually seen in multiparous women who give history of chronic dull-aching pelvic pain. We report a case of a 17 year old unmarried female, who presented with acute onset of chronic dull-aching abdominal pain in the left iliac fossa, which particularly increased during menstruation and was finally diagnosed to be pelvic congestion syndrome. On ultrasonography, multiple tortuous and dilated veins were observed in the left adnexa. Both ovaries appeared normal in size, volume and echotexture. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed to precisely delineate the venous pathway and to assess any associated abnormality; which showed a dilated and tortuous left ovarian vein with an anomalous course around the left kidney and draining into the left renal vein. Clinical parameters and hormonal levels were within normal limits. This is a rare case of anomalous course of left ovarian vein associated with pelvic congestion syndrome.

Keywords: anomalous course of ovarian vein, computed tomography, pelvic congestion syndrome, ultrasonography

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786 Iterative Reconstruction Techniques as a Dose Reduction Tool in Pediatric Computed Tomography Imaging: A Phantom Study

Authors: Ajit Brindhaban


Background and Purpose: Computed Tomography (CT) scans have become the largest source of radiation in radiological imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of pediatric Computed Tomography (CT) images reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP) with images reconstructed using different strengths of Iterative Reconstruction (IR) technique, and to perform a feasibility study to assess the use of IR techniques as a dose reduction tool. Materials and Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom representing a 5-year old child was scanned, in two stages, using a Siemens Somatom CT unit. In stage one, scans of the head, chest and abdomen were performed using standard protocols recommended by the scanner manufacturer. Images were reconstructed using FBP and 5 different strengths of IR. Contrast-to-Noise Ratios (CNR) were calculated from average CT number and its standard deviation measured in regions of interest created in the lungs, bone, and soft tissues regions of the phantom. Paired t-test and the one-way ANOVA were used to compare the CNR from FBP images with IR images, at p = 0.05 level. The lowest strength value of IR that produced the highest CNR was identified. In the second stage, scans of the head was performed with decreased mA(s) values relative to the increase in CNR compared to the standard FBP protocol. CNR values were compared in this stage using Paired t-test at p = 0.05 level. Results: Images reconstructed using IR technique had higher CNR values (p < 0.01.) in all regions compared to the FBP images, at all strengths of IR. The CNR increased with increasing IR strength of up to 3, in the head and chest images. Increases beyond this strength were insignificant. In abdomen images, CNR continued to increase up to strength 5. The results also indicated that, IR techniques improve CNR by a up to factor of 1.5. Based on the CNR values at strength 3 of IR images and CNR values of FBP images, a reduction in mA(s) of about 20% was identified. The images of the head acquired at 20% reduced mA(s) and reconstructed using IR at strength 3, had similar CNR as FBP images at standard mA(s). In the head scans of the phantom used in this study, it was demonstrated that similar CNR can be achieved even when the mA(s) is reduced by about 20% if IR technique with strength of 3 is used for reconstruction. Conclusions: The IR technique produced better image quality at all strengths of IR in comparison to FBP. IR technique can provide approximately 20% dose reduction in pediatric head CT while maintaining the same image quality as FBP technique.

Keywords: filtered back projection, image quality, iterative reconstruction, pediatric computed tomography imaging

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785 Defect Correlation of Computed Tomography and Serial Sectioning in Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Bryce R. Jolley, Michael Uchic


This study presents initial results toward the correlative characterization of inherent defects of Ti-6Al-4V additive manufacture (AM). X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) defect data are compared and correlated with microscopic photographs obtained via automated serial sectioning. The metal AM specimen was manufactured out of Ti-6Al-4V virgin powder to specified dimensions. A post-contour was applied during the fabrication process with a speed of 1050 mm/s, power of 260 W, and a width of 140 µm. The specimen was stress relief heat-treated at 16°F for 3 hours. Microfocus CT imaging was accomplished on the specimen within a predetermined region of the build. Microfocus CT imaging was conducted with parameters optimized for Ti-6Al-4V additive manufacture. After CT imaging, a modified RoboMet. 3D version 2 was employed for serial sectioning and optical microscopy characterization of the same predetermined region. Automated montage capture with sub-micron resolution, bright-field reflection, 12-bit monochrome optical images were performed in an automated fashion. These optical images were post-processed to produce 2D and 3D data sets. This processing included thresholding and segmentation to improve visualization of defect features. The defects observed from optical imaging were compared and correlated with the defects observed from CT imaging over the same predetermined region of the specimen. Quantitative results of area fraction and equivalent pore diameters obtained via each method are presented for this correlation. It is shown that Microfocus CT imaging does not capture all inherent defects within this Ti-6Al-4V AM sample. Best practices for this correlative effort are also presented as well as the future direction of research resultant from this current study.

Keywords: additive manufacture, automated serial sectioning, computed tomography, nondestructive evaluation

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784 Calculation of Organ Dose for Adult and Pediatric Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Examinations: A Software Comparison

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Naima Oubenali, Safoin Aktaou, Thibault Julien, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul


Introduction: The increased number of performed 'Computed Tomography (CT)' examinations raise public concerns regarding associated stochastic risk to patients. In its Publication 102, the ‘International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)’ emphasized the importance of managing patient dose, particularly from repeated or multiple examinations. We developed a Dose Archiving and Communication System that gives multiple dose indexes (organ dose, effective dose, and skin-dose mapping) for patients undergoing radiological imaging exams. The aim of this study is to compare the organ dose values given by our software for patients undergoing CT exams with those of another software named "VirtualDose". Materials and methods: Our software uses Monte Carlo simulations to calculate organ doses for patients undergoing computed tomography examinations. The general calculation principle consists to simulate: (1) the scanner machine with all its technical specifications and associated irradiation cases (kVp, field collimation, mAs, pitch ...) (2) detailed geometric and compositional information of dozens of well identified organs of computational hybrid phantoms that contain the necessary anatomical data. The mass as well as the elemental composition of the tissues and organs that constitute our phantoms correspond to the recommendations of the international organizations (namely the ICRP and the ICRU). Their body dimensions correspond to reference data developed in the United States. Simulated data was verified by clinical measurement. To perform the comparison, 270 adult patients and 150 pediatric patients were used, whose data corresponds to exams carried out in France hospital centers. The comparison dataset of adult patients includes adult males and females for three different scanner machines and three different acquisition protocols (Head, Chest, and Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis). The comparison sample of pediatric patients includes the exams of thirty patients for each of the following age groups: new born, 1-2 years, 3-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13-16 years. The comparison for pediatric patients were performed on the “Head” protocol. The percentage of the dose difference were calculated for organs receiving a significant dose according to the acquisition protocol (80% of the maximal dose). Results: Adult patients: for organs that are completely covered by the scan range, the maximum percentage of dose difference between the two software is 27 %. However, there are three organs situated at the edges of the scan range that show a slightly higher dose difference. Pediatric patients: the percentage of dose difference between the two software does not exceed 30%. These dose differences may be due to the use of two different generations of hybrid phantoms by the two software. Conclusion: This study shows that our software provides a reliable dosimetric information for patients undergoing Computed Tomography exams.

Keywords: adult and pediatric patients, computed tomography, organ dose calculation, software comparison

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783 Multiscale Simulation of Absolute Permeability in Carbonate Samples Using 3D X-Ray Micro Computed Tomography Images Textures

Authors: M. S. Jouini, A. Al-Sumaiti, M. Tembely, K. Rahimov


Characterizing rock properties of carbonate reservoirs is highly challenging because of rock heterogeneities revealed at several length scales. In the last two decades, the Digital Rock Physics (DRP) approach was implemented successfully in sandstone rocks reservoirs in order to understand rock properties behaviour at the pore scale. This approach uses 3D X-ray Microtomography images to characterize pore network and also simulate rock properties from these images. Even though, DRP is able to predict realistic rock properties results in sandstone reservoirs it is still suffering from a lack of clear workflow in carbonate rocks. The main challenge is the integration of properties simulated at different scales in order to obtain the effective rock property of core plugs. In this paper, we propose several approaches to characterize absolute permeability in some carbonate core plugs samples using multi-scale numerical simulation workflow. In this study, we propose a procedure to simulate porosity and absolute permeability of a carbonate rock sample using textures of Micro-Computed Tomography images. First, we discretize X-Ray Micro-CT image into a regular grid. Then, we use a textural parametric model to classify each cell of the grid using supervised classification. The main parameters are first and second order statistics such as mean, variance, range and autocorrelations computed from sub-bands obtained after wavelet decomposition. Furthermore, we fill permeability property in each cell using two strategies based on numerical simulation values obtained locally on subsets. Finally, we simulate numerically the effective permeability using Darcy’s law simulator. Results obtained for studied carbonate sample shows good agreement with the experimental property.

Keywords: multiscale modeling, permeability, texture, micro-tomography images

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782 Multifunctional Bismuth-Based Nanoparticles as Theranostic Agent for Imaging and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Azimeh Rajaee, Lingyun Zhao, Shi Wang, Yaqiang Liu


In recent years many studies have been focused on bismuth-based nanoparticles as radiosensitizer and contrast agent in radiation therapy and imaging due to the high atomic number (Z = 82), high photoelectric absorption, low cost, and low toxicity. This study aims to introduce a new multifunctional bismuth-based nanoparticle as a theranostic agent for radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We synthesized bismuth ferrite (BFO, BiFeO3) nanoparticles by sol-gel method and surface of the nanoparticles were modified by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). After proved biocompatibility of the nanoparticles, the ability of them as contract agent in Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated. The relaxation time rate (R2) in MRI and Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT imaging were increased with the concentration of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on dose enhancement in low energy was investigated by clonogenic assay. According to clonogenic assay, sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) were obtained as 1.35 and 1.76 for nanoparticle concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoparticles have the ability to employ as multimodal imaging and therapy to enhance theranostic efficacy.

Keywords: molecular imaging, nanomedicine, radiotherapy, theranostics

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781 Comparison Of Virtual Non-Contrast To True Non-Contrast Images Using Dual Layer Spectral Computed Tomography

Authors: O’Day Luke


Purpose: To validate virtual non-contrast reconstructions generated from dual-layer spectral computed tomography (DL-CT) data as an alternative for the acquisition of a dedicated true non-contrast dataset during multiphase contrast studies. Material and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent a routine multiphase clinical CT examination, using Dual-Layer Spectral CT, from March to August 2021. True non-contrast (TNC) and virtual non-contrast (VNC) datasets, generated from both portal venous and arterial phase imaging were evaluated. For every patient in both true and virtual non-contrast datasets, a region-of-interest (ROI) was defined in aorta, liver, fluid (i.e. gallbladder, urinary bladder), kidney, muscle, fat and spongious bone, resulting in 693 ROIs. Differences in attenuation for VNC and TNV images were compared, both separately and combined. Consistency between VNC reconstructions obtained from the arterial and portal venous phase was evaluated. Results: Comparison of CT density (HU) on the VNC and TNC images showed a high correlation. The mean difference between TNC and VNC images (excluding bone results) was 5.5 ± 9.1 HU and > 90% of all comparisons showed a difference of less than 15 HU. For all tissues but spongious bone, the mean absolute difference between TNC and VNC images was below 10 HU. VNC images derived from the arterial and the portal venous phase showed a good correlation in most tissue types. The aortic attenuation was somewhat dependent however on which dataset was used for reconstruction. Bone evaluation with VNC datasets continues to be a problem, as spectral CT algorithms are currently poor in differentiating bone and iodine. Conclusion: Given the increasing availability of DL-CT and proven accuracy of virtual non-contrast processing, VNC is a promising tool for generating additional data during routine contrast-enhanced studies. This study shows the utility of virtual non-contrast scans as an alternative for true non-contrast studies during multiphase CT, with potential for dose reduction, without loss of diagnostic information.

Keywords: dual-layer spectral computed tomography, virtual non-contrast, true non-contrast, clinical comparison

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