Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8010

Search results for: health outcomes

8010 Health Outcomes and Economic Growth Nexus: Testing for Long-run Relationships and Causal Links in Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Modibbo Usman, Mustapha Muktar, Nasiru Inuwa


This paper examined the long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria from 1961 to 2012. Using annual time series data, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is conducted to check the stochastic properties of the variables. Also, the long run relationship among the variables is confirmed based on Johansen Multivariate Cointegration approach whereas the long run and short run dynamics are observed using Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). In addition, VEC Granger causality test is employed to examine the direction of causality among the variables. On the whole, the results obtained revealed the existence of a long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria and that both life expectancy and crude death rate as measures of health are found to have a long run negative and statistically significant impact on the economic growth over the study period. This is further buttressed by the results of Granger causality test which indicated the existence of unidirectional causality running from life expectancy and crude death rate to economic growth. The study therefore, calls for governments at various levels to create preconditions for health improvements in Nigeria in order to boost the level of health outcomes.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, Granger causality, health outcomes, VECM

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8009 Differences Choosing Closed Approach or Open Approach in Rhinoplasty Outcomes

Authors: Alessandro Marano


Aim: The author describes a strategy for choosing between two different rhinoplasty approaches for outcomes treatment. Methods: Series of the case study. There are advantages and disadvantages on both approaches for rhinoplasty. On the side of the open approach, we are be able to better manage the techniques for shaping and restoring nasal structures in rhinoplasty outcomes; on the other side, the closed approach requires more practice and experience to achieve good results. Results: Author’s choice is the closed approach on rhinoplasty outcomes. Anyway, the open approach is most commonly preferred due to superior management and better vision on nasal structures. Conclusions: Both approaches are valid for the treatment of rhinoplasty outcomes, author's preferred approach is closed, with minimally invasive modification focused on restoring outcomes in nasal function and aesthetics.

Keywords: rhinoplasty, aesthetic, face, outcomes

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8008 Long-Term Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Following War-Related Traumatic Lower-Limb Amputation; A Study on Community Re-Integrated Army Veterans in Sri Lanka

Authors: Ashan Wijekoon, Abi Beane, Subashini Jayawardana


Background: Civil war in Sri Lanka ended a decade ago, leaving thousands of army veterans permanently disabled following lower-limb amputations. Quantifying long-term functional health and psychological wellbeing will inform the development of tailored home-based rehabilitation intervention. Objectives: To assess the long-term health and quality of life of Sri Lankan soldiers with traumatic lower-limb amputation.Methods and Materials: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Sri Lanka. Using stratified random sample technique, two groups of 85 participants were selected; group 1, community re-integrated male army veterans with unilateral lower-limb amputation, and group 2, age and sex matched normal healthy individuals. Long-term health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were assessed and compared between the two groups using self-administered Short-Form Health Survey-36 questionnaire (SF-36) previously validated for use in Sri Lanka. Results: Group 1 were active prosthetic users who had undergone amputation > ten years ago (Mean±SD: 21.7±5.9). The most prevalent comorbidities for group 1 and 2 were hypertension and diabetes (22.4% and 30.6% and 9.4% and 9.8%, respectively). In group 1, injury-associated long-term health outcomes included knee osteoarthritis (18.8%), knee pain (20.0%), and back pain (69.4%). Scores of physical health and psychological wellbeing were 53.1 (IQR 64.4- 43.8) and 63.5 (IQR 73.3- 51.4) for each group, respectively. Scores revealed the highest QoL related to social functioning (75 (IQR 87.5- 62.5)) and the poorest aspects of QoL related to general health (40 (IQR 50- 35)). Prevalence of comorbidities was significantly higher, and QoL outcomes were significantly lower among soldiers compared to normal healthy individuals (p<0.05).Conclusion: Higher prevalence of comorbidities, poor physical health, and lower QoL outcomes were more prevalent in soldiers with lower-limb amputation when compared to healthy counterparts.

Keywords: community-based, disability, health outcomes, quality of life, soldiers

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8007 Delays for Emergency Cesarean Sections and Neonatal Outcomes in Three Rural District Hospitals in Rwanda: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: J. Niyitegeka, G. Nshimirimana, A. Silverstein, J. Odhiambo, Y. Lin, T. Nkurunziza, R. Riviello, S. Rulisa, P. Banguti, H. Magge, M. Macharia, J. P. Dushime, R. Habimana, B. Hedt-Gauthier


In low-resource settings, women needing an emergency cesarean section experiences various delays in both reaching and receiving care that is often linked to poor neonatal outcomes. In this study, we quantified different measures of delays and assessed the association between these delays and neonatal outcomes at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective study included 441 neonates and their mothers who underwent emergency cesarean sections in 2015 at Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals. Four possible delays were measured: Time from start of labor to district hospital admission, travel time from a health center to the district hospital, time from admission to surgical incision, and time from the decision for the emergency cesarean section to surgical incision. Neonatal outcomes were categorized as unfavorable (APGAR < 7 or death) and favorable (APGAR ≥ 7). We assessed the relationship between each type of delay and neonatal outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. In our study, 38.7% (108 out of 279) of neonates’ mothers labored for 12 to 24 hours before hospital admission and 44.7% (159 of 356) of mothers were transferred from health centers that required 30 to 60 minutes of travel time to reach the district hospital. 48.1% (178 of 370) of caesarean sections started within five hours after admission and 85.2% (288 of 338) started more than thirty minutes after the decision for the emergency cesarean section was made. Neonatal outcomes were significantly worse among mothers with more than 90 minutes of travel time from the health center to the district hospital compared to health centers attached to the hospital (OR = 5.12, p = 0.02). Neonatal outcomes were also significantly different depending on decision to incision intervals; neonates with cesarean deliveries starting more than thirty minutes after decision had better outcomes than those started immediately (OR = 0.32, p = 0.04). Interventions that decrease barriers to access to maternal health care services can improve neonatal outcome after emergency cesarean section. Triaging could explain the inverse relationship between time from decision to incision and neonatal outcome; this must be studied more in the future.

Keywords: Africa, emergency obstetric care, rural health delivery, maternal and child health

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8006 Community‐Based Participatory Research in Elderly Health Care of Paisanee Ramintra 65 Community, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: A. Kulprasutidilok


In order to address the social factors of elderly health care, researcher and community members have turned to more inclusive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received increased attention as the academic and public health communities struggle to address the persistent problems of disparities in the use of health care and health outcomes for several over the past decade. As Thailand becomes an ageing society, health services and proper care systems specifically for the elderly group need to be prepared and well established. The purpose of this assignment was to study the health problems and was to explore the process of community participation in elderly health care. Participants in this study were member of elderly group of Paisanee Ramintra 65 community in Bangkok, Thailand. The results indicated two important components of community participation process in elderly health care: 1) a process to develop community participation in elderly health care, and 2) outcomes resulting from such process. The development of community participation consisted of four processes. As for the outcomes of the community participation development process, they consisted of elderly in the community got jointly and formulated a group, which strengthened the project because of collaborative supervision among themselves. Moreover, inactive health care services have changed to being energetic and focus on health promotion rather than medical achievement and elderly association of community can perform health care activities for chronically illness through the achievement of this development; consequently, they increasingly gained access to physical, cognitive, and social activity.

Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, heath care, Thailand.

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8005 An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective

Authors: Radesh Palakurthi


The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.

Keywords: hospitality competencies, hospitality education, Kolb’s learning style inventory, learning outcomes, study abroad

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8004 An Expert System for Assessment of Learning Outcomes for ABET Accreditation

Authors: M. H. Imam, Imran A. Tasadduq, Abdul-Rahim Ahmad, Fahd M. Aldosari


Learning outcomes of a course (CLOs) and the abilities at the time of graduation referred to as Student Outcomes (SOs) are required to be assessed for ABET accreditation. A question in an assessment must target a CLO as well as an SO and must represent a required level of competence. This paper presents the idea of an Expert System (ES) to select a proper question to satisfy ABET accreditation requirements. For ES implementation, seven attributes of a question are considered including the learning outcomes and Bloom’s Taxonomy level. A database contains all the data about a course including course content topics, course learning outcomes and the CLO-SO relationship matrix. The knowledge base of the presented ES contains a pool of questions each with tags of the specified attributes. Questions and the attributes represent expert opinions. With implicit rule base the inference engine finds the best possible question satisfying the required attributes. It is shown that the novel idea of such an ES can be implemented and applied to a course with success. An application example is presented to demonstrate the working of the proposed ES.

Keywords: expert system, student outcomes, course learning outcomes, question attributes

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8003 Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention on Health Screening Outcomes for Singaporean Employees: A Worksite Based Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Elaine Wong


This research protocol aims to explore and justify the need for nutrition and physical activity intervention to improve health outcomes among SME (Small Medium Enterprise) employees. It was found that the worksite is an ideal and convenient setting for employees to take charge of their health thru active participation in health programmes since they spent a great deal of time at their workplace. This study will examine the impact of both general or/and targeted health interventions in both SME and non-SME companies utilizing the Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) grant over a 12 months period and assessed the improvement in chronic health disease outcomes in Singapore. Random sampling of both non-SME and SME companies will be conducted to undergo health intervention and statistical packages such as Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 25 will be used to examine the impact of both general and targeted interventions on employees who participate and those who do not participate in the intervention and their effects on blood glucose (BG), blood lipid, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. Using focus groups and interviews, the data results will be transcribed to investigate enablers and barriers to workplace health intervention revealed by employees and WHP coordinators that could explain the variation in the health screening results across the organisations. Dietary habits and physical activity levels of the employees participating and not participating in the intervention will be collected before and after intervention to assess any changes in their lifestyle practices. It makes economic sense to study the impact of these interventions on health screening outcomes across various organizations that are existing grant recipients to justify the sustainability of these programmes by the local government. Healthcare policy makers and employers can then tailor appropriate and relevant programmes to manage these escalating chronic health disease conditions which is integral to the competitiveness and productivity of the nation’s workforce.

Keywords: chronic diseases, health screening, nutrition and fitness intervention , workplace health

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8002 Pregnancy Outcomes among Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Women: A Comparative Study

Authors: Karimeh Alnuaimi, Manal Kassab, Reem Ali, Khitam Mohammad, Kholoud Shattnawi


Aim: To compare pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugee women and Jordanian women. Background and introduction: The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Jordan. Pregnant refugee women are therefore facing many difficulties are known to increase the prevalence of poor reproductive health outcomes and antenatal complications. However, there is very little awareness of whether Syrian refugee women have different risks of pregnancy outcomes than Jordanian women. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for Syrian refugee (N = 616) and Jordanian women (N = 644) giving birth at two governmental Hospitals in the north of Jordan, between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. A checklist of 13 variables was utilized. The primary outcome measures were delivery by Caesarean section, maternal complications, low birth weight (< 2500 g), Apgar score and preterm delivery (< 37 weeks' gestational age). Results: Statistical analysis revealed that refugee mothers had a significant increase in the rate of cesarean section and the higher rate of anemia, a lower neonates’ weight, and Apgar scores when compared to their Jordanian counterparts. Discussion and Conclusion: Results were congruent with findings from other studies in the region and worldwide. Minimizing inequalities in pregnancy outcomes between Syrian refugees and Jordan women is a healthcare priority. Implications for nursing and health policy: The findings could guide the planning and development of health policies in Jordan that would help to alleviate the situation regarding refugee populations. The action is required by the policy makers, specifically targeting public and primary health care services, to address the problem of adequately meeting the need for antenatal care of this vulnerable population.

Keywords: pregnancy, Syrian refugee, Jordanian women, comparative study

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8001 The Promise of Social Enterprise to Improve Health Outcomes in Trafficking Survivors: A Quantitative Case Study

Authors: Sean Roy, Mercedes Miller


A study was conducted to assess the positive outcomes related to Filipino human trafficking survivors working at a social enterprise. As most existing research on human survivors pertains to the adverse outcomes of victims, the researchers were seeking to fill the dearth of existing data related to positive outcomes. A quantitative study was conducted using a convenience sample of 41 participants within three staggered cohorts of the social enterprise. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted and indicated that participants in the third cohort (who were employed at the social enterprise the longest) had significantly lower anxiety scores than participants in other cohorts. This study indicates that social enterprises hold the promise of positively impacting anxiety of human trafficking survivors and provides a starting point for researchers looking to assess ways to positively influence the lives of survivors.

Keywords: human trafficking, Philippines, quantitative analysis, self-identity

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8000 Program Level Learning Outcomes in Music and Technology: Toward Improved Assessment and Better Communication

Authors: Susan Lewis


The assessment of learning outcomes at the program level has attracted much international interest from the perspectives of quality assurance and ongoing curricular redesign and renewal. This paper examines program-level learning outcomes in the field of music and technology, an area of study that has seen an explosion in program development over the past fifteen years. The Audio Engineering Society (AES) maintains an online directory of educational institutions worldwide, yielding the most comprehensive inventory of programs and courses in music and technology. The inventory includes courses, programs, and degrees in music and technology, music and computer science, music production, and the music industry. This paper focuses on published student learning outcomes for undergraduate degrees in music and technology and analyses commonalities at institutions in North America, the United Kingdom, and Europe. The results of a survey of student learning outcomes at twenty institutions indicates a focus on three distinct student learning outcomes: (1) cross-disciplinary knowledge in the fields of music and technology; (2) the practical application of training through the professional industry; and (3) the acquisition of skills in communication and collaboration. The paper then analyses assessment mechanisms for tracking student learning and achievement of learning outcomes at these institutions. The results indicate highly variable assessment practices. Conclusions offer recommendations for enhancing assessment techniques and better communicating learning outcomes to students.

Keywords: quality assurance, student learning; learning outcomes, music and technology

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7999 The Twain Shall Meet: First Year Writing Skills in Senior Year Project Design

Authors: Sana Sayed


The words objectives, outcomes, and assessment are commonplace in academia. Educators, especially those who use their emotional intelligence as a useful teaching tool, strive to find creative and innovative ways to connect to their students while meeting the objectives, outcomes, and assessment measures for their respective courses. However, what happens to these outcomes once the objectives have been met, students have completed a specific course, and generic letter grades have been generated? How can their knowledge and acquired skills be assessed over the course of semesters, throughout their years of study, and until their final year right before they graduate? Considering the courses students complete for different departments in various disciplines, how can these outcomes be measured, or at least maintained, across the curriculum? This research-driven paper uses the key course outcomes of first year, required writing courses and traces them in two senior level, required civil engineering design courses at the American University of Sharjah, which is located in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of this research is two-fold: (1) to assess specific learning outcomes using a case study that focuses on courses from two different disciplines during two very distinctive years of study, and (2) to demonstrate how learning across the curriculum fosters life-long proficiencies among graduating students that are aligned with a university’s mission statement.

Keywords: assessment, learning across the curriculum, objectives, outcomes

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7998 The Long-Run Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Malaria: Evidence from the Brazilian Eradication Campaign

Authors: Henrique Veras De Paiva Fonseca


This paper investigates the long-term relationship between early life exposure to malaria and adult socioeconomic outcomes in Brazil. The identification strategy relies on exogenous variation in the risk of malaria outbreaks in different states and seasons of the year to identify early life exposure according to the timing and location of birth. Furthermore, Brazil has undergone a successful campaign of malaria eradication during the late 1950s, which allows for comparing outcomes of birth cohorts born just prior to and just after eradication to identify the extent of in utero exposure. Instrumental variables estimates find consistent negative treatment effects of in utero exposure to malaria on socioeconomic outcomes, such as educational attainment and health status. The effects are stronger for exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy than during other periods of gestation. Additionally, consistent with previous findings, men are more likely to exhibit larger long-term effects.

Keywords: malaria, exposure, eradication, instrumental variables, education, health

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7997 Developing a Systemic Approach for Understanding the Factors Influencing Participation in Recreational Angling

Authors: Daniel Phillip Svozil, Eileen Petrie, Kristy Robson, Lee Baumgartner, Max Finlayson


Recreational angling is recognized for its potential to improve health and wellbeing which has translated into policy initiatives to increase participation in the sport. However, these benefits have been examined mostly among voluntary participants. Thus, there is an assumption that recreational angling is perceived equally and that these benefits may be evident even to non-anglers. This paper reviews the published benefits to health and wellbeing of recreational angling and proposes an approach to systemically analyze interactions among the perceptions, socio-economic barriers, and knowledge of these benefits among people at different levels of participation (including non-participants). The outcomes of this study will assist in identifying the feasibility of recreational angling for improving health and wellbeing outcomes among participants (i.e., fishing may not be for everyone) and designing interventions that address the perceptions and socio-economic barriers among individuals that may benefit from participation in recreational angling.

Keywords: angling, health, wellbeing, connecting with nature

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7996 Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Tunisia: Risk and Protective Factor

Authors: Ahmed Sami Hammami, Mohamed Jellazi


Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the magnitude of different psychological outcomes among Tunisian health care professionals (HCP) during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the associated factors. Methods: HCP completed a cross-sectional questionnaire from April 4th to April, 28th 2020. The survey collected demographic information, factors that may interfere with the psychological outcomes, behavior changes and mental health measurements. The latter was assessed through 3 scales; the 7-item questions Insomnia Severity Index, the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with psychological outcomes. Results: A total of 503 HCP successfully completed the survey; among those, n=493 consented to enroll in the study, 411 [83.4%] were physicians, 323 [64.2%] were women and 271 [55%] had a second-line working position. A significant proportion of HCP had anxiety 35.7%, depression 35.1% and insomnia 23.7%. Females, those with psychiatric history and those using public transport exhibited the highest proportions for overall symptoms compared to other groups e.g., depression among females vs. males: 44,9% vs. 18,2%, P=0.00. Those with a previous medical history and nurses, had more anxiety and insomnia compared to other groups e.g. anxiety among nurses vs. interns/residents vs. attending 45,1% vs 36,1% vs 27,5%; p=0.04. Multivariable logistic regression showed that female gender was a risk factor for all psychological outcomes e.g. female sex increased the odds of anxiety by 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1, 78-4, 60; P=0.00, whereas having a psychiatric history was a risk factor for both anxiety and insomnia. (e.g. for insomnia OR=2,86; 95% [CI], 1,78-4,60; P=0.00), Having protective equipment was associated with lower risk for depression (OR=0,41; 95% CI, 0,27-0,62; P=0.00) and anxiety. Physical activity was also protective against depression and anxiety (OR=0,41, 95% CI, 0,25-0,67, P=0.00). Conclusion: Psychological symptoms are usually undervalued among HCP, though the COVID-19 pandemic played a major role in exacerbating this burden. Prompt psychological support should be endorsed and simple measures such as physical activity and ensuring the necessary protection are paramount to improve mental health outcomes and the quality of care provided to patients.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, health care professionals, mental health, protective factors, psychological symptoms, risk factors

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7995 Impact of a Home-Based Health Intervention on Older Adults at Risk of Chronic Diseases: A Study Protocol

Authors: Elaine Wong Yee-Sing


Older adults are at high risk of chronic health conditions in Singapore. A closer examination at all facets of their aging process has revealed that they may not be necessary aging well. This demands for an increasing healthcare services brought to their home environment due to limited mobility and in the interest of time management. The home environment is an ideal setting to implement self-directed health promoting activities at their convenience and enable family’s support and motivation. This research protocol aims to explore their healthcare concerns, and creation of age appropriate interventions targeted to improve their chronic disease biomarkers. Convenience sampling of 130 families residing in private housing within five major districts in Singapore will be selected to participate in the health intervention. Statistical Package for Social Science 25 will be used to examine the pre and post screening results of their lipid, glycaemia and anthropometric outcomes. Using focus interviews, data results will be translated and transcribed to investigate on enablers, barriers and improvement on these services. Both qualitative and quantitative research outcomes are crucial to examine the impact of these services for these older adults living in private housing as they are not exposed to government subsidized community health programs. It is hypothesized that provision of relevant yet engaging health programs at their homes may mitigate the rising burden of chronic health conditions and result in successful aging outcomes among older Singaporeans.

Keywords: chronic diseases, health program, older adults, residential homes

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7994 Predictive Value of Coagulopathy in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort of Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqas, Shahan Waheed, Mohsin Qadeer, Ehsan Bari, Salman Ahmed, Iqra Patoli


Objective: To determine the value of aPTT, platelets and INR as the predictor of unfavorable outcomes in patients with blunt isolated traumatic brain injury. Methods: This was an observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012. All the patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of injury were included in the study. Coagulation parameters at presentation were recorded and Glasgow Outcome Scale calculated on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Relationship of coagulopathy with GOS and unfavorable outcomes was calculated using Spearman`s correlation and area under curve ROC analysis. Results: 121 patients were included in the study. The incidence of coagulopathy was found to be 6 %. aPTT was found to a significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes with an AUC = 0.702 (95%CI = 0.602-0.802). Predictive value of platelets and INR was not found to be significant. Conclusion: Incidence of coagulopathy was found to be low in current population compared to data from the West. aPTT was found to be a good predictor of unfavorable outcomes compared with other parameters of coagulation.

Keywords: aPTT, coagulopathy, unfavorable outcomes, parameters

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7993 Caring for the Carers: A Qualitative Study to Evaluate the Perspective of Mental Health Carers on the Effectiveness of Community Services in the Illawarra Region (NSW)

Authors: Mona Nikidehaghani, Freda Hui


In Australia, one-third of mental health carers provide 40 hours or more of unpaid care per week. These hidden workers contribute significantly to the Australian mental health workforce by providing unpaid services both direct and indirect to people in their care. However, carers are often neglected in the healthcare system because Government services focus on those with a mental health condition rather than those supporting them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of mental health carers on the effectiveness of community services designed for carers and how these services could be improved. We collaborated with One Door Mental Health, a community organisation that supports mental health carers. Through semi-structured interviews with 27 mental health carers residing in the Illawarra region (NSW), we documented their daily challenges and evaluated outcomes of the current programs for carers. Our findings demonstrate that services such as education programs enable capacity building and improve the social life and mental health of carers. Drawing on the perceptions of mental health carers, this study maps pathways for making meaningful changes in the lives of carers and proposes an outcome framework to evaluate the impact of a community organisation on the lives of their clients. The framework prepared by this project would be replicable, allowing other community organisations to measure the outcomes and improve their services.

Keywords: capacity building, community development, community service, mental health carers

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7992 Willingness to Use Mobile Telephone Technology to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes among Women in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: O. Onigbogi, M. Onigbogi Jr., O. Ojo


Background: The advances in mobile telephone technology has led to a rise in its use globally which has improved service delivery, empowered businesses and changed the way people access information. The practice of many health professionals has also been affected by the information and communications technology (ICT) revolution because they have better access to information. This study was conducted to assess the willingness to participate in mobile technology interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 238 respondents completed self-administered questionnaires. SPSS version 18 data editor was used to analyze data. Univariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95 % CI) were used to evaluate the correlates of Willingness to Use (WTU) mobile phones to receive health messages during pregnancy. Results: A total of 107 women (45% of the respondents) reported that they will be willing to receive health-related information on their phones during pregnancy. Greater willingness was associated with higher education (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53), involvement with community volunteer organizations (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.05–1.52), monetary incentives (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14–1.45) and nulliparity (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02–1.42). Decreased willingness was associated with concerns about wrong interpretation of information (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.54), poor mobile telephone service by providers (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.52–0.78), increase in number of messages (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53–0.76). Conclusion: The level of WTU recorded indicates that much work still needs to be done before this novel approach could be used adopted in delivering health-related information. Incentives for would-be subjects should also be a part of the planning to encourage greater participation.

Keywords: mobile, outcomes, pregnancy, technology, telephone

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7991 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek


This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

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7990 Influence of Spirituality on Health Outcomes and General Well-Being in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: Ali A Alshraifeen, Josie Evans, Kathleen Stoddart


End-stage renal disease (ESRD) introduces physical, psychological, social, emotional and spiritual challenges into patients’ lives. Spirituality has been found to contribute to improved health outcomes, mainly in the areas of quality of life (QOL) and well-being. No studies exist to explore the influence of spirituality on the health outcomes and general well-being in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis (HD) treatment in Scotland. This study was conducted to explore spirituality in the daily lives of among these patients and how it may influence their QOL and general well-being. The study employed a qualitative method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 21 patients. A thematic approach using Framework Analysis informed the qualitative data analysis. Participants were recruited from 11 dialysis units across four Health Boards in Scotland. The participants were regular patients attending the dialysis units three times per week. Four main themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: ‘Emotional and Psychological Turmoil’, ‘Life is Restricted’, ‘Spirituality’ and ‘Other Coping Strategies’. The findings suggest that patients’ QOL might be affected because of the physical challenges such as unremitting fatigue, disease unpredictability and being tied down to a dialysis machine, or the emotional and psychological challenges imposed by the disease into their lives such as wholesale changes, dialysis as a forced choice and having a sense of indebtedness. The findings also revealed that spirituality was an important coping strategy for the majority of participants who took part in the qualitative component (n=16). Different meanings of spirituality were identified including connection with God or Supernatural Being, connection with the self, others and nature/environment. Spirituality encouraged participants to accept their disease and offered them a sense of protection, instilled hope in them and helped them to maintain a positive attitude to carry on with their daily lives, which may have had a positive influence on their health outcomes and general well-being. The findings also revealed that humor was another coping strategy that helped to diffuse stress and anxiety for some participants and encouraged them to carry on with their lives. The findings from this study provide a significant contribution to a very limited body of work. The study contributes to our understanding of spirituality and how people receiving dialysis treatment use it to manage their daily lives. Spirituality is of particular interest due to its connection with health outcomes in patients with chronic illnesses. The link between spirituality and many chronic illnesses has gained some recognition, yet the identification of its influence on the health outcomes and well-being in patients with ESRD is still evolving. There is a need to understand patients’ experiences and examine the factors that influence their QOL and well-being to ensure that the services available are adequately tailored to them. Hence, further research is required to obtain a better understanding of the influence of spirituality on the health outcomes and general well-being of patients with ESRD.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease, general well-being, quality of life, spirituality

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7989 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge


Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
7988 A Systematic Review on Lifelong Learning Programs for Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Authors: Xi Vivien Wu, Emily Neo Kim Ang, Yi Jung Tung, Wenru Wang


Background and Objective: The increase in life expectancy and emphasis on self-reliance for the older adults are global phenomena. As such, lifelong learning in the community is considered a viable means of promoting successful and active aging. This systematic review aims to examine various lifelong learning programs for community-dwelling older adults and to synthesize the contents and outcomes of these lifelong learning programs. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in July to December 2016. Two reviewers were engaged in the process to ensure creditability of the selection process. Narrative description and analysis were applied with the support of a tabulation of key data including study design, interventions, and outcomes. Results: Eleven articles, which consisted of five randomized controlled trials and six quasi-experimental studies, were included in this review. Interventions included e-health literacy programs with the aid of computers and the Internet (n=4), computer and Internet training (n=3), physical fitness programs (n=2), music program (n=1), and intergenerational program (n=1). All studies used objective measurement tools to evaluate the outcomes of the study. Conclusion: The systematic review indicated lifelong learning programs resulted in positive outcomes in terms of physical health, mental health, social behavior, social support, self-efficacy and confidence in computer usage, and increased e-health literacy efficacy. However, the lifelong learning programs face challenges such as funding shortages, program cuts, and increasing costs. A comprehensive lifelong learning program could be developed to enhance the well-being of the older adults at a more holistic level. Empirical research can be done to explore the effectiveness of this comprehensive lifelong learning program.

Keywords: community-dwelling older adults, e-health literacy program, lifelong learning program, the wellbeing of the older adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
7987 An Exploratory Research on Childhood Sexual Victimization and Its Psychological Impacts

Authors: Urwah Ali


The aim of this study is to carry out a meta-analysis in order to establish an overall international figure and to summarize the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child sexual abuse and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the HEC Digital Library, Pub Med, PsycINFO and SAHIL databases published after 2010 containing empirical data pertaining to CSA. Out of 124 articles assessed for eligibility, 32 studies provided evidence of a relationship between sexual child maltreatment and various health outcomes for use in subsequent meta-analyses. Statistical significance associations were observed between childhood sexual victimization and psychological problems in their adulthood [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95%Cl 3.07–4.43]. For most studies included for meta-analysis, the odds ratio falls above 1.00, indicating that patients having history of childhood sexual victimization were more likely to develop psychological disorders.

Keywords: abuse, sexual abuse, childhood sexual abuse, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
7986 Exploring Students’ Self-Evaluation on Their Learning Outcomes through an Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average Reporting Mechanism

Authors: Suriyani Ariffin, Nor Aziah Alias, Khairil Iskandar Othman, Haslinda Yusoff


An Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average (iCGPA) is a mechanism and strategy to ensure the curriculum of an academic programme is constructively aligned to the expected learning outcomes and student performance based on the attainment of those learning outcomes that is reported objectively in a spider web. Much effort and time has been spent to develop a viable mechanism and trains academics to utilize the platform for reporting. The question is: How well do learners conceive the idea of their achievement via iCGPA and whether quality learner attributes have been nurtured through the iCGPA mechanism? This paper presents the architecture of an integrated CGPA mechanism purported to address a holistic evaluation from the evaluation of courses learning outcomes to aligned programme learning outcomes attainment. The paper then discusses the students’ understanding of the mechanism and evaluation of their achievement from the generated spider web. A set of questionnaires were distributed to a group of students with iCGPA reporting and frequency analysis was used to compare the perspectives of students on their performance. In addition, the questionnaire also explored how they conceive the idea of an integrated, holistic reporting and how it generates their motivation to improve. The iCGPA group was found to be receptive to what they have achieved throughout their study period. They agreed that the achievement level generated from their spider web allows them to develop intervention and enhance the programme learning outcomes before they graduate.

Keywords: learning outcomes attainment, iCGPA, programme learning outcomes, spider web, iCGPA reporting skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
7985 Scheduling Flexibility and Employee Health Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Nicole V. Shifrin


Scheduling flexibility is becoming an increasingly available option for employees struggling to balance their work and life responsibilities, allowing employees to coordinate work schedules with their additional roles. The goal of such opportunities is to help employees manage the demands they face across domains of life by allowing employees to work from home, design their own work hours, take time off when necessary, along with various other scheduling accommodations. Organizations are also turning to utilizing scheduling flexibility to facilitate employee health and wellbeing through the reduction of stress and maximization of efficiency. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of scheduling flexibility on employee health-related behaviors and outcomes through a synthesis of research. The current meta-analytic review of 19 samples within 16 studies with a total sample size of 20,707 employees examines the relationship between the degree of scheduling flexibility available to employees and the resulting health outcomes and exercise habits. The results demonstrate that reduced scheduling flexibility is associated with poorer health status, suggesting that schedule inflexibility can hinder employees’ ability to maintain and support their health. These findings hold practical implications for developing work schedules to promote employee health and health-related behaviors, such as eating well and exercising. Additionally, there was a positive association between increased scheduling flexibility and engagement in exercise, suggesting that employees with more flexible schedules exercise more frequently than those with less flexible schedules. A potential explanation for the resulting relationship is that flexible schedules leave employees more time due to shorter work days, shorter or eliminated commutes, etc. with which they can use to engage in healthy behaviors. These findings stress the importance of promoting job designs that facilitate employee engagement in healthy behaviors, which directly impact their overall health status. Implications for practice are discussed as well as future directions in examining the link between job design and employee health and well-being.

Keywords: exercise, health, meta-analysis, job design, scheduling flexibility

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7984 Perspectives and Outcomes of a Long and Shorter Community Mental Health Program

Authors: Danielle Klassen, Reiko Yeap, Margo Schmitt-Boshnick, Scott Oddie


The development of the 7-week Alberta Happiness Basics program was initiated in 2010 in response to the need for community mental health programming. This provincial wide program aims to increase overall happiness and reduce negative thoughts and feelings through a positive psychology intervention. While the 7-week program has proven effective, a shortened 4-week program has additionally been developed to address client needs. In this study, participants were interviewed to determine if the 4- and 7-week programs had similar success of producing lasting behavior change at 3, 6, and 9 months post-program. A health quality of life (HQOL) measure was also used to compare the two programs and examine patient outcomes. Quantitative and qualitative analysis showed significant improvements in HQOL and sustainable behavior change for both programs. Findings indicate that the shorter, patient-centered program was effective in increasing happiness and reducing negative thoughts and feelings.

Keywords: primary care, mental health, depression, short duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7983 Associations between Parental Marital Quality and Sexual Behaviors among 50,000 Chinese University Students

Authors: Jiashu Shen


With the increase in the prevalence of divorce, the impact of divorce on children’s sexual and reproductive health has received wide attention, while few studies have investigated parent marital relationship. This study aims to study the relation of both parent divorce and perceived parental marital relationship with children’s sexual behaviors among Chinese university or vocational college students. The study used data from “National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019”, an internet-based survey conducted from November 2019 to February 2020, in 241 universities or vocational colleges in China. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of perceived parental marital relationship and parents’ divorce of distinct occurrence time with sexual intercourse, risky sexual behaviors, unintended health outcomes and sexual abuse. Among 51,124 university or vocational college students, those whose parents had divorced accounted for 10.72%. Better perceived parental relationship was associated with a lower likelihood to have sexual intercourse (male: OR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.80-0.86; female: OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.70-0.75), sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. Divorce was also found to be associated with higher risk of sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. The findings highlight the importance of parental marital relationship and divorce in risky sexual behavior among young adults. The findings may provide implications on intervention programs targeting at children with divorced parents from an early stage.

Keywords: college students, divorce, family relationship, sexual behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7982 Integrative Review: Impact of Transitional Care on Self-Management of Chronic Conditions in Un/Underinsured Populations

Authors: Ashleigh Medina


Chronic conditions account for the majority of total health care spending both in the United States and globally. Encouraging self-management to improve chronic conditions, which in turn could decrease the strain placed on hospitals, requires resources to address the patient’s social concerns in addition to their medical concerns. Transitional care has been identified as a possible bridge between acutely managing conditions at the hospital to chronically managing conditions in a community setting. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the impact of transitional care on self-management outcomes of chronic conditions in un/underinsured populations. Both transitional care, by assisting with resources such as funding sources for healthcare and medications or identifying a healthcare provider for continued care, and self-management, by increasing responsibility for one’s care through goal setting and taking action, can impact health outcomes while providing health care cost-savings.

Keywords: chronic conditions, self-management, transitional care, uninsured

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
7981 Food Effects and Food Choices: Aligning the Two for Better Health

Authors: John Monro, Suman Mishra


Choosing foods for health benefits requires information that accurately represents the relative effectiveness of foods with respect to specific health end points, or with respect to responses leading to health outcomes. At present consumers must rely on nutrient composition data, and on health claims to guide them to healthy food choices. Nutrient information may be of limited usefulness because it does not reflect the effect of food structure and food component interactions – that is, whole food effects. Health claims demand stringent criteria that exclude most foods, even though most foods have properties through which they may contribute to positive health outcomes in a diet. In this presentation, we show how the functional efficacy of foods may be expressed in the same format as nutrients, with weight units, as virtual food components that allow a nutrition information panel to show not only what a food is, but also what it does. In the presentation, two body responses linked to well-being are considered – glycaemic response and colonic bulk – in order to illustrate the concept. We show how the nutrient information on available carbohydrates and dietary fibre values obtained by food analysis methods fail to provide information of the glycaemic potency or the colonic bulking potential of foods, because of failings in the methods and approach taken to food analysis. It is concluded that a category of food values that represent the functional efficacy of foods is required to accurately guide food choices for health.

Keywords: dietary fibre, glycaemic response, food values, food effects, health

Procedia PDF Downloads 429