Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Eileen Petrie

10 A Corpus Based Study of Eileen Chang’s Self-Translating Style: A Case Study on The Rice Sprout Song

Authors: Yi-Wei Huang


Eileen Chang is a well-known writer of modern Chinese literature. She is also a translator that publishes her self-translation The Rice Sprout Song. The purpose of the study is to identify the style of Eileen Chang’s self-translations by corpora, especially in the case of The Rice Sprout Song. The Rice Sprout Song is first written in English and then translated into Chinese by the author herself. The procedure of translation is complicated due to the bilingual transition by the same person. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify Eileen Chang’s style on her self-translation by comparing her works The Old Man and the Sea, The Rice Sprout Song, and The Rouge of The North. The study uses computer-aided software like AntConc, Notepad++, StanfordCoreNLP, and Python to analyze the style of the works, especially focuses on reduplications and the composition of the sentences. Reduplications are commonly seen in Eileen Chang’s works, and they often appear with colors or onomatopoeia. With these criteria, the style of self-translating can be detected and analyzed.

Keywords: corpora, Eileen Chang, reduplications, self-translation

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9 Developing a Systemic Approach for Understanding the Factors Influencing Participation in Recreational Angling

Authors: Daniel Phillip Svozil, Eileen Petrie, Kristy Robson, Lee Baumgartner, Max Finlayson


Recreational angling is recognized for its potential to improve health and wellbeing which has translated into policy initiatives to increase participation in the sport. However, these benefits have been examined mostly among voluntary participants. Thus, there is an assumption that recreational angling is perceived equally and that these benefits may be evident even to non-anglers. This paper reviews the published benefits to health and wellbeing of recreational angling and proposes an approach to systemically analyze interactions among the perceptions, socio-economic barriers, and knowledge of these benefits among people at different levels of participation (including non-participants). The outcomes of this study will assist in identifying the feasibility of recreational angling for improving health and wellbeing outcomes among participants (i.e., fishing may not be for everyone) and designing interventions that address the perceptions and socio-economic barriers among individuals that may benefit from participation in recreational angling.

Keywords: angling, health, wellbeing, connecting with nature

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8 A Rare Case of Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis in a Filipino Female

Authors: Rene A. Amadore Jr., Ramar John Bangayan, Therese Eileen L. Natividad


This is a case of a 59-year-old female who presented with a two-year history of heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, shawl sign, V-neck sign, and muscle weakness. She was previously managed as a case of systemic lupus erythematosus, who initially responded to unrecalled corticosteroids. She was, however, admitted due to a one-month progressively enlarging sacral mass, which eventually turned out to be an abscess. While the abscess was being treated, her autoimmune condition was worked up, and she was then managed as a case of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with interstitial lung disease (ILD). She received corticosteroids and underwent the first cycle of cyclophosphamide infusion prior to discharge.

Keywords: clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis, interstitial lung disease, corticosteroids, sacral abscess

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7 A New Asset: The Role of Money in the Evolution of 20th Century Street Art

Authors: Eileen Kim


As socioeconomic disparities grew in New York during the 1970s, artists represented new values that came with the times. Street art, in particular, was birthed from a distinctly urban, fringe setting to ultimately become one of the most lucrative forms of art today. Examining the economic and psychological reasons behind the rise of street art, this paper delves into the development of the art market as a parallel insight into human behaviors and economic models such as supply and demand. The purpose of this study is to show the role of the increasingly divided socioeconomic classes and the rise of art collecting as an asset-building form. This study concludes that the iconography and market value of street art represented distinct values that came from a series of intertwined social matters such as racial tensions and revolutions in industrial innovation.

Keywords: art industry, cultural representation, ethnicity, markets, public property, social classes, street art

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6 A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Eileen K. Africa, Karel J. van Deventer


Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, children, gross motor skills, group intervention programme

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5 Verification of Low-Dose Diagnostic X-Ray as a Tool for Relating Vital Internal Organ Structures to External Body Armour Coverage

Authors: Natalie A. Sterk, Bernard van Vuuren, Petrie Marais, Bongani Mthombeni


Injuries to the internal structures of the thorax and abdomen remain a leading cause of death among soldiers. Body armour is a standard issue piece of military equipment designed to protect the vital organs against ballistic and stab threats. When configured for maximum protection, the excessive weight and size of the armour may limit soldier mobility and increase physical fatigue and discomfort. Providing soldiers with more armour than necessary may, therefore, hinder their ability to react rapidly in life-threatening situations. The capability to determine the optimal trade-off between the amount of essential anatomical coverage and hindrance on soldier performance may significantly enhance the design of armour systems. The current study aimed to develop and pilot a methodology for relating internal anatomical structures with actual armour plate coverage in real-time using low-dose diagnostic X-ray scanning. Several pilot scanning sessions were held at Lodox Systems (Pty) Ltd head-office in South Africa. Testing involved using the Lodox eXero-dr to scan dummy trunk rigs at various degrees and heights of measurement; as well as human participants, wearing correctly fitted body armour while positioned in supine, prone shooting, seated and kneeling shooting postures. The verification of sizing and metrics obtained from the Lodox eXero-dr were then confirmed through a verification board with known dimensions. Results indicated that the low-dose diagnostic X-ray has the capability to clearly identify the vital internal structures of the aortic arch, heart, and lungs in relation to the position of the external armour plates. Further testing is still required in order to fully and accurately identify the inferior liver boundary, inferior vena cava, and spleen. The scans produced in the supine, prone, and seated postures provided superior image quality over the kneeling posture. The X-ray-source and-detector distance from the object must be standardised to control for possible magnification changes and for comparison purposes. To account for this, specific scanning heights and angles were identified to allow for parallel scanning of relevant areas. The low-dose diagnostic X-ray provides a non-invasive, safe, and rapid technique for relating vital internal structures with external structures. This capability can be used for the re-evaluation of anatomical coverage required for essential protection while optimising armour design and fit for soldier performance.

Keywords: body armour, low-dose diagnostic X-ray, scanning, vital organ coverage

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4 Local People’s Livelihoods and Coping Strategies in the Wake of a Co-management System in the Campo Ma'an National Park, Cameroon

Authors: Nchanji Yvonne Kiki, Mala William Armand, Nchanji Eileen Bogweh, Ramcilovik-Suominen Sabaheta, Kotilainen Juha


The Campo Ma'an National Park was created as part of an environmental and biodiversity compensation for the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project, which was meant to help alleviate poverty and boost the livelihood of rural communities around the area. This paper examines different strategies and coping mechanisms employed by the indigenous people and local communities to deal with the national and internationally driven conservation policies and initiatives in the case of the Campo Ma'an National Park. While most literature on park management/co-management/nature conservation has focused on the negative implications for local peoples’ livelihoods, fewer studies have investigated the strategies of local people to respond to these policies and renegotiate their position in a way that enables them to continue their traditional livelihoods using the existing local knowledge systems. This study contributes to the current literature by zooming into not only the impacts of nature conservation policies but also the local individual and collective strategies and responses to such policies and initiatives. We employ a qualitative research approach using ethnomethodology and a convivial lens to analyze data collected from October to November 2018. We find that conservation policies have worsened some existing livelihoods on the one hand and constrained livelihood improvement of indigenous people and local communities (IPLC) on the other hand. Nonetheless, the IPLC has devised individual and collective coping mechanisms to deal with these conservation interventions and the negative effects they have caused. Upon exploring these mechanisms and their effectiveness, this study proposes a management approach to conservation centered on both people and nature, based on indigenous and local people's knowledge and practices, promoting nature for and by humans and strengthening both livelihood and conservation. We take inspiration from the convivial conservation approach and thinking by Bucher and Fletcher.

Keywords: conservation policies, national park management, indigenous and local people’s experiences, livelihoods, local knowledge, coping strategies, conviviality

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3 Establishing a Communication Framework in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Tertiary Government Hospital in the Philippines

Authors: Nicole Marella G. Tan, Al Joseph R. Molina, Raisa Celine R. Rosete, Soraya Elisse E. Escandor, Blythe N. Ke, Veronica Marie E. Ramos, Apolinario Ericson B. Berberabe, Jose Jonas D. del Rosario, Regina Pascua-Berba, Eileen Liesl A. Cubillan, Winlove P. Mojica


Emergency risk and health communications play a vital role in any pandemic response. However, the Philippine General Hospital (PGH) lacked a system of information delivery that could effectively fulfill the hospital’s communication needs as a COVID-19 referral hospital. This study aimed to describe the establishment of a communication framework for information dissemination within a tertiary government hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluated the perceived usefulness of its outputs. This is a mixed quantitative-qualitative study with two phases. Phase 1 documented the formation and responsibilities of the Information Education Communication (IEC) Committee. Phase 2 evaluated its output and outcomes through a hospital-wide survey of 528 healthcare workers (HCWs) using a pre-tested questionnaire. In-depth explanations were obtained from five focused group discussions (FGD) amongst various HCW subgroups. Descriptive analysis was done using STATA 16 while qualitative data were synthesized thematically. Communication practices in PGH were loosely structured at the beginning of the pandemic until the establishment of the IEC Committee. The IEC Committee was well-represented by concerned stakeholders. Nine types of infographics tackled different aspects of the hospital’s health operations after thorough inputs from concerned offices. Internal and external feedback mechanisms ensured accurate infographics. Majority of the survey respondents (98.67%) perceived these as useful in their work or daily lives. FGD participants cited the relevance of infographics to their occupations, suggested improvements, and hoped that these efforts would be continued in the future. Sustainability and comprehensive reach were the main concerns in this undertaking. The PGH COVID-19 IEC framework was developed through trial and testing as there were no existing formal structures to communicate health risks and to properly direct the HCWs in the chaotic time of a pandemic. It is a continuously evolving framework which is perceived as useful by HCWs and is hoped to be sustained in the future.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, health communication, infographics, social media

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2 The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Extent and Quality: The Case of Jordan

Authors: Hani Alkayed, Belal Omar, Eileen Roddy


This study focuses on investigating the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD) extent and quality in Jordan. The study examines factors that influence CSR disclosure extent and quality, such as corporate characteristics (size, gearing, firm’s age, and industry type), corporate governance (board size, number of meetings, non-executive directors, female directors in the board, family directors in the board, foreign members, audit committee, type of external auditors, and CEO duality) and ownership structure (government ownership, institutional ownership, and ownership concentration). Legitimacy theory is utilised as the main theory for our theoretical framework. A quantitative approach is adopted for this research and content analysis technique is used to gather CSR disclosure extent and quality from the annual reports. The sample is withdrawn from the annual reports of 118 Jordanian companies over the period of 2010-2015. A CSRD index is constructed, and includes the disclosures of the following categories; environmental, human resources, product and consumers, and community involvement. A 7 point-scale measurement was developed to examine the quality of disclosure, were 0= No Disclosures, 1= General disclosures, (Non-monetary), 2= General disclosures, (Non-monetary) with pictures, charts, and graphs 3= Descriptive/ qualitative disclosures, specific details (Non-monetary), 4= Descriptive/ qualitative disclosures, specific details with pictures, charts, and graphs, 5= Numeric disclosures, full descriptions with supporting numbers, 6= Numeric disclosures, full descriptions with supporting numbers, pictures, and Charts. This study fills the gap in the literature regarding CSRD in Jordan, and the fact that all the previous studies have ignored a clear categorisation as a measurement of quality. The result shows that the extent of CSRD is higher than the quality in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of CSR disclosures, the followings were found to have a significant relationship with both extent and quality of CSRD except non-executives, were the significant relationship was found just with the extent of CSRD: board size, non-executive directors, firm’s age, foreign members on the board, number of boards meetings, the presence of audit committees, big 4, government ownership, firm’s size, industry type.

Keywords: content analysis, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility disclosure, Jordan, quality of disclosure

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1 Understanding Stock-Out of Pharmaceuticals in Timor-Leste: A Case Study in Identifying Factors Impacting on Pharmaceutical Quantification in Timor-Leste

Authors: Lourenco Camnahas, Eileen Willis, Greg Fisher, Jessie Gunson, Pascale Dettwiller, Charlene Thornton


Stock-out of pharmaceuticals is a common issue at all level of health services in Timor-Leste, a small post-conflict country. This lead to the research questions: what are the current methods used to quantify pharmaceutical supplies; what factors contribute to the on-going pharmaceutical stock-out? The study examined factors that influence the pharmaceutical supply chain system. Methodology: Privett and Goncalvez dependency model has been adopted for the design of the qualitative interviews. The model examines pharmaceutical supply chain management at three management levels: management of individual pharmaceutical items, health facilities, and health systems. The interviews were conducted in order to collect information on inventory management, logistics management information system (LMIS) and the provision of pharmaceuticals. Andersen' behavioural model for healthcare utilization also informed the interview schedule, specifically factors linked to environment (healthcare system and external environment) and the population (enabling factors). Forty health professionals (bureaucrats, clinicians) and six senior officers from a United Nations Agency, a global multilateral agency and a local non-governmental organization were interviewed on their perceptions of factors (healthcare system/supply chain and wider environment) impacting on stock out. Additionally, policy documents for the entire healthcare system, along with population data were collected. Findings: An analysis using Pozzebon’s critical interpretation identified a range of difficulties within the system from poor coordination to failure to adhere to policy guidelines along with major difficulties with inventory management, quantification, forecasting, and budgetary constraints. Weak logistics management information system, lack of capacity in inventory management, monitoring and supervision are additional organizational factors that also contributed to the issue. There were various methods of quantification of pharmaceuticals applied in the government sector, and non-governmental organizations. Lack of reliable data is one of the major problems in the pharmaceutical provision. Global Fund has the best quantification methods fed by consumption data and malaria cases. There are other issues that worsen stock-out: political intervention, work ethic and basic infrastructure such as unreliable internet connectivity. Major issues impacting on pharmaceutical quantification have been identified. However, current data collection identified limitations within the Andersen model; specifically, a failure to take account of predictors in the healthcare system and the environment (culture/politics/social. The next step is to (a) compare models used by three non-governmental agencies with the government model; (b) to run the Andersen explanatory model for pharmaceutical expenditure for 2 to 5 drug items used by these three development partners in order to see how it correlates with the present model in terms of quantification and forecasting the needs; (c) to repeat objectives (a) and (b) using the government model; (d) to draw a conclusion about the strength.

Keywords: inventory management, pharmaceutical forecasting and quantification, pharmaceutical stock-out, pharmaceutical supply chain management

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