Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: VECM

32 Forecasting Stock Prices Based on the Residual Income Valuation Model: Evidence from a Time-Series Approach

Authors: Chen-Yin Kuo, Yung-Hsin Lee

Abstract:

Previous studies applying residual income valuation (RIV) model generally use panel data and single-equation model to forecast stock prices. Unlike these, this paper uses Taiwan longitudinal data to estimate multi-equation time-series models such as Vector Autoregressive (VAR), Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), and conduct out-of-sample forecasting. Further, this work assesses their forecasting performance by two instruments. In favor of extant research, the major finding shows that VECM outperforms other three models in forecasting for three stock sectors over entire horizons. It implies that an error correction term containing long-run information contributes to improve forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the pattern of composite shows that at longer horizon, VECM produces the greater reduction in errors, and performs substantially better than VAR.

Keywords: residual income valuation model, vector error correction model, out of sample forecasting, forecasting accuracy

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31 Banking Sector Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from the State of Qatar

Authors: Fekri Shawtari

Abstract:

The banking sector plays a very crucial role in the economic development of the country. As a financial intermediary, it has assigned a great role in the economic growth and stability. This paper aims to examine the empirically the relationship between banking industry and economic growth in state of Qatar. We adopt the VAR vector error correction model (VECM) along with Granger causality to address the issue over the long-run and short-run between the banking sector and economic growth. It is expected that the results will give policy directions to the policymakers to make strategies that are conducive toward boosting development to achieve the targeted economic growth in current situation.

Keywords: economic growth, banking sector, Qatar, vector error correction model, VECM

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
30 Evaluating the Nexus between Energy Demand and Economic Growth Using the VECM Approach: Case Study of Nigeria, China, and the United States

Authors: Rita U. Onolemhemhen, Saheed L. Bello, Akin P. Iwayemi

Abstract:

The effectiveness of energy demand policy depends on identifying the key drivers of energy demand both in the short-run and the long-run. This paper examines the influence of regional differences on the link between energy demand and other explanatory variables for Nigeria, China and USA using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. This study employed annual time series data on energy consumption (ED), real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (RGDP), real energy prices (P) and urbanization (N) for a thirty-six-year sample period. The utilized time-series data are sourced from World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI, 2016) and US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results from the study, shows that all the independent variables (income, urbanization, and price) substantially affect the long-run energy consumption in Nigeria, USA and China, whereas, income has no significant effect on short-run energy demand in USA and Nigeria. In addition, the long-run effect of urbanization is relatively stronger in China. Urbanization is a key factor in energy demand, it therefore recommended that more attention should be given to the development of rural communities to reduce the inflow of migrants into urban communities which causes the increase in energy demand and energy excesses should be penalized while energy management should be incentivized.

Keywords: economic growth, energy demand, income, real GDP, urbanization, VECM

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29 The Effect of Macroeconomic Policies on Cambodia's Economy: ARDL and VECM Model

Authors: Siphat Lim

Abstract:

This study used Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration. In the long-run the general price level and exchange rate have a positively significant effect on domestic output. The estimated result further revealed that fiscal stimulus help stimulate domestic output in the long-run, but not in the short-run, while monetary expansion help to stimulate output in both short-run and long-run. The result is complied with the theory which is the macroeconomic policies, fiscal and monetary policy; help to stimulate domestic output in the long-run. The estimated result of the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) has indicated more clearly that the consumer price index has a positive effect on output with highly statistically significant. Increasing in the general price level would increase the competitiveness among producers than increase in the output. However, the exchange rate also has a positive effect and highly significant on the gross domestic product. The exchange rate depreciation might increase export since the purchasing power of foreigners has increased. More importantly, fiscal stimulus would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run since the coefficient of government expenditure is positive. In addition, monetary expansion would also help stimulate the output and the result is highly significant. Thus, fiscal stimulus and monetary expansionary would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run in Cambodia.

Keywords: fiscal policy, monetary policy, ARDL, VECM

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28 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: economic growth, monetary policy, fiscal policy, VECM

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27 Major Factors That Enhance Economic Growth in South Africa: A Re-Examination Using a Vector Error Correction Mechanism

Authors: Temitope L. A. Leshoro

Abstract:

This study explored several variables that enhance economic growth in South Africa, based on different growth theories while using the vector error correction model (VECM) technique. The impacts and contributions of each of these variables on GDP in South Africa were investigated. The motivation for this study was as a result of the weak economic growth that the country has been experiencing lately, as well as the continuous increase in unemployment rate and deteriorating health care system. Annual data spanning over the period 1974 to 2013 was employed. The results showed that the major determinants of GDP are trade openness, government spending, and health indicator; as these variables are not only economically significant but also statistically significant in explaining the changes in GDP in South Africa. Policy recommendations for economic growth enhancement are suggested based on the findings of this study.

Keywords: economic growth, GDP, investment, health indicator, VECM

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26 The Effect Analysis of Monetary Instruments through Islamic Banking Financing Channel toward Economic Growth in Indonesia, Period January 2008-December 2015

Authors: Sobar M. Johari, Ida Putri Anjarsari

Abstract:

In the transmission of monetary instrument towards real sector of the economy, Bank Indonesia as monetary authority has developed Islamic Bank Indonesia Certificate (abbreviated as SBIS) as an instrument in Islamic open market operation. One of the monetary transmission channels could take place through financing channel from which the fund is used as the source of banking financing. This study aims to analyse the impact of Islamic monetary instrument towards output or economic growth. Data used in this research is taken from Bank Indonesia and Central Board of Statistics for the period of January 2008 until December 2015. The study employs Granger Causality Test, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Impulse Response Function (IRF) technique and Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) as its analytical methods. The results show that, first, the transmission mechanism of banking financing channel are not linked to output. Second, estimation results of VECM show that SBIS, PUAS, and FIN have significant impact in the long term towards output. When there is monetary shock, output or economic growth could be recovered and stabilized in the short term. FEVD results show that Islamic banking financing contributes 1.33 percent to increase economic growth.

Keywords: Islamic monetary instrument, Islamic banking financing channel, economic growth, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

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25 Energy Use, Emissions, Economic Growth and Trade: Evidence from Mauritius

Authors: B. Seetanah, H. Neeliah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship among energy, emissions and economic growth in Mauritius in the presence of trade activities, with capital and labour as other control variables. Using annual data from 1960 to 2011, it is found that the variables are non-stationary and cointegrated. The relationship among the various variables are thus examined in a dynamic VECM framework. Our empirical results comply with the growth hypothesis. Output elasticities of 0.17, 0.25 and 0.43 show that increases in energy consumption cause increases in economic growth, capital accumulation and trade in the long run. We also found that CO2 negatively affects output, but has no significant effect on trade. Findings for the long-run generally tend to tally with those in the short-run. Interestingly we found that energy consumption has a significant impact on CO2 emissions. Our results tend to suggest that implementing energy conservation strategies to mitigate the negative impact of CO2 emissions can dent economic growth, and that promoting cleaner energy production could be a better alternative for Mauritius.

Keywords: energy, emissions, economic growth, export, VECM

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24 A Study of Islamic Stock Indices and Macroeconomic Variables

Authors: Mohammad Irfan

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among the key macroeconomic variables and Islamic stock market in India. This study is based on the time series data of financial years 2009-2015 to explore the consistency of relationship between macroeconomic variables and Shariah Indices. The ADF (Augmented Dickey–Fuller Test Statistic) and PP (Phillips–Perron Test Statistic) tests are employed to check stationarity of the data. The study depicts the long run relationship between Shariah indices and macroeconomic variables by using the Johansen Co-integration test. BSE Shariah and Nifty Shariah have uni-direct Granger causality. The outcome of VECM is significantly confirming the applicability of best fitted model. Thus, Islamic stock indices are proficiently working for the development of Indian economy. It suggests that by keeping eyes on Islamic stock market which will be more interactive in the future with other macroeconomic variables.

Keywords: Indian Shariah Indices, macroeconomic variables, co-integration, Granger causality, vector error correction model (VECM)

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23 Granger Causal Nexus between Financial Development and Energy Consumption: Evidence from Cross Country Panel Data

Authors: Rudra P. Pradhan

Abstract:

This paper examines the Granger causal nexus between financial development and energy consumption in the group of 35 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Countries over the period 1988-2012. The study uses two financial development indicators such as private sector credit and stock market capitalization and seven energy consumption indicators such as coal, oil, gas, electricity, hydro-electrical, nuclear and biomass. Using panel cointegration tests, the study finds that financial development and energy consumption are cointegrated, indicating the presence of a long-run relationship between the two. Using a panel vector error correction model (VECM), the study detects both bidirectional and unidirectional causality between financial development and energy consumption. The variation of this causality is due to the use of different proxies for both financial development and energy consumption. The policy implication of this study is that economic policies should recognize the differences in the financial development-energy consumption nexus in order to maintain sustainable development in the selected 35 FATF countries.

Keywords: energy consumption, financial development, FATF countries, Panel VECM

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22 Health Outcomes and Economic Growth Nexus: Testing for Long-run Relationships and Causal Links in Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Modibbo Usman, Mustapha Muktar, Nasiru Inuwa

Abstract:

This paper examined the long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria from 1961 to 2012. Using annual time series data, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is conducted to check the stochastic properties of the variables. Also, the long run relationship among the variables is confirmed based on Johansen Multivariate Cointegration approach whereas the long run and short run dynamics are observed using Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). In addition, VEC Granger causality test is employed to examine the direction of causality among the variables. On the whole, the results obtained revealed the existence of a long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria and that both life expectancy and crude death rate as measures of health are found to have a long run negative and statistically significant impact on the economic growth over the study period. This is further buttressed by the results of Granger causality test which indicated the existence of unidirectional causality running from life expectancy and crude death rate to economic growth. The study therefore, calls for governments at various levels to create preconditions for health improvements in Nigeria in order to boost the level of health outcomes.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, Granger causality, health outcomes, VECM

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21 The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption and GDP for Iran: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: Crude oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity), CO2 emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Iran using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for stationarity, Johansen’s maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. All the variables in this study show very strong significant effects on GDP in the country for the long term. The long-run equilibrium in VECM suggests that all energy consumption variables in this study have significant impacts on GDP in the long term. The consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil and natural gas decrease GDP, while the coal and electricity use enhanced the GDP between 1980-2010 in Iran. In the short term, only electricity use enhances the GDP as well as its long-run effects. All variables of this study, except the CO2 emissions, show significant effects on the GDP in the country for the long term. The long-run equilibrium in VECM suggests that the consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil and natural gas use have positive impacts on the GDP while the consumptions of electricity and coal have adverse impacts on the GDP in the long term. In the short run, electricity use enhances the GDP over period of 1980-2010 in Iran. Overall, the results partly support arguments that there are relationships between energy use and economic output, but the associations can be differed by the sources of energy in the case of Iran over period of 1980-2010. However, there is no significant relationship between the CO2 emissions and the GDP and between the CO2 emissions and the energy use both in the short term and long term.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Iran, time series analysis

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20 An Application of Vector Error Correction Model to Assess Financial Innovation Impact on Economic Growth of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Qamruzzaman, Wei Jianguo

Abstract:

Over the decade, it is observed that financial development, through financial innovation, not only accelerated development of efficient and effective financial system but also act as a catalyst in the economic development process. In this study, we try to explore insight about how financial innovation causes economic growth in Bangladesh by using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for the period of 1990-2014. Test of Cointegration confirms the existence of a long-run association between financial innovation and economic growth. For investigating directional causality, we apply Granger causality test and estimation explore that long-run growth will be affected by capital flow from non-bank financial institutions and inflation in the economy but changes of growth rate do not have any impact on Capital flow in the economy and level of inflation in long-run. Whereas, growth and Market capitalization, as well as market capitalization and capital flow, confirm feedback hypothesis. Variance decomposition suggests that any innovation in the financial sector can cause GDP variation fluctuation in both long run and short run. Financial innovation promotes efficiency and cost in financial transactions in the financial system, can boost economic development process. The study proposed two policy recommendations for further development. First, innovation friendly financial policy should formulate to encourage adaption and diffusion of financial innovation in the financial system. Second, operation of financial market and capital market should be regulated with implementation of rules and regulation to create conducive environment.

Keywords: financial innovation, economic growth, GDP, financial institution, VECM

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19 The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption and GDP per capita for Oman: Time Series Analysis, 1980–2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of CO2 emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfil the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Oman using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test for stationary, Johansen maximum likelihood method for co-integration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. All the variables in this study show very strong significant effects on GDP in the country for the long term. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests positive long-run causalities from CO2 emissions to GDP. Conversely, negative impacts of energy consumption on GDP are found to be significant in Oman during the period. In the short run, there exist negative unidirectional causalities among GDP, CO2 emissions and energy consumption running from GDP to CO2 emissions and from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use and economic output in Oman over of period 1980-2010.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Oman, time series analysis

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18 The Internationalization of Capital Market Influencing Debt Sustainability's Impact on the Growth of the Nigerian Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, Eugine Iheanacho

Abstract:

The paper set out to assess the sustainability of debt in the Nigerian economy. Precisely, it sought to determine the level of debt sustainability and its impact on the growth of the economy; whether internationalization of capital market has positively influenced debt sustainability’s impact on economic growth; and to ascertain the direction of causality between external debt sustainability and the growth of GDP. In the light of these objectives, ratio analysis was employed for the determination of debt sustainability. Our findings revealed that the periods 1986 – 1994 and 1999 – 2004 were periods of severe unsustainable borrowing. The unit root test showed that the variables of the growth model were integrated of order one, I(1) and the cointegration test provided evidence for long run stability. Considering the dawn of internationalization of capital market, the researcher employed the structural break approach using Chow Breakpoint test on the vector error correction model (VECM). The result of VECM showed that debt sustainability, measured by debt to GDP ratio exerts negative and significant impact on the growth of the economy while debt burden measured by debt-export ratio and debt service export ratio are negative though insignificant on the growth of GDP. The Cho test result indicated that internationalization of capital market has no significant effect on the debt overhang impact on the growth of the Economy. The granger causality test indicates a feedback effect from economic growth to debt sustainability growth indicators. On the bases of these findings, the researchers made some necessary recommendations which if followed religiously will go a long way to ameliorating debt burdens and engendering economic growth.

Keywords: debt sustainability, internalization, capital market, cointegration, chow test

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17 The Relationships between Energy Consumption, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, and GDP for Turkey: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity), CO2 emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Turkey using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for stationarity, Johansen’s maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests no effects of the CO2 emissions and energy use on the GDP in Turkey. There exists a short-run bidirectional relationship between the electricity and natural gas consumption, and also there is a negative unidirectional causality running from the GDP to electricity use. Overall, the results partly support arguments that there are relationships between energy use and economic output; however, the effects may differ due to the source of energy such as in the case of Turkey for the period of 1980-2010. However, there is no significant relationship between the CO2 emissions and the GDP and between the CO2 emissions and the energy use both in the short term and long term.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Turkey, time series analysis

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16 The Relationships between Energy Consumption, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, and GDP for Egypt: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, electricity), CO2 emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Egypt using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for co-integration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests some negative impacts of the CO2 emissions and the coal and natural gas use on the GDP. Conversely, a positive long-run causality from the electricity consumption to the GDP is found to be significant in Egypt during the period. In the short-run, some positive unidirectional causalities exist, running from the coal consumption to the GDP, and the CO2 emissions and the natural gas use. Further, the GDP and the electricity use are positively influenced by the consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use, and economic output in both the short term and long term; however, the effects may differ due to the sources of energy, such as in the case of Egypt for the period of 1980-2010.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, Egypt, energy consumption, GDP, time series analysis

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15 The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption and GDP for Israel: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of CO2 emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, electricity), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Israel using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Phillips–Perron (PP) test for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests significant positive impacts of coal and natural gas consumptions on GDP in Israel. In the short run, GDP positively affects coal consumption. While there exists a positive unidirectional causality running from coal consumption to consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil, there exists a negative unidirectional causality running from natural gas consumption to consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil in the short run. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use and economic output but the associations can to be differed by the sources of energy in the case of Israel over of period 1980-2010.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Israel, time series analysis

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14 Impact of Import Restriction on Rice Production in Nigeria

Authors: C. O. Igberi, M. U. Amadi

Abstract:

This research paper on the impact of import restriction on rice production in Nigeria is aimed at finding/proffering valid solutions to the age long problem of rice self-sufficiency, through a better understanding of policy measures used in the past, in this case, the effectiveness of rice import restriction of the early 90’s. It tries to answer the questions of; import restriction boosting domestic rice production and the macroeconomic determining factors of Gross Domestic Rice Product (GDRP). The research probe is investigated through literature and analytical frameworks, such that time series data on the GDRP, Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), average foreign rice producers’ prices(PPF), domestic producers’ prices (PPN) and the labour force (LABF) are collated for analysis (with an import restriction dummy variable, POL1). The research objectives/hypothesis are analysed using; Cointegration, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Granger Causality Test(GCT) methodologies. Results show that in the short-run error correction specification for GDRP, a percentage (1%) deviation away from the long-run equilibrium in a current quarter is only corrected by 0.14% in the subsequent quarter. Also, the rice import restriction policy had no significant effect on the GDRP at this time. Other findings show that the policy period has, in fact, had effects on the PPN and LABF. The choice variables used are valid macroeconomic factors that explain the GDRP of Nigeria, as adduced from the IRF and GCT, and in the long-run. Policy recommendations suggest that the import restriction is not disqualified as a veritable tool for improving domestic rice production, rather better enforcement procedures and strict adherence to the policy dictates is needed. Furthermore, accompanying policies which drive public and private capital investment and accumulation must be introduced. Also, employment rate and labour substitution in the agricultural sector should not be drastically changed, rather its welfare and efficiency be improved.

Keywords: import restriction, gross domestic rice production, cointegration, VECM, Granger causality, impulse response function

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13 The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption, and GDP for Turkey: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of CO2 emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, electricity), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Turkey using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Phillips–Perron (PP) test for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. All the variables in this study show very strong significant effects on GDP in the country for the long term. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests negative long-run causalities from consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil, coal and natural gas to GDP. Conversely, positive impacts of CO2 emissions and electricity consumption on GDP are found to be significant in Turkey during the period. There exists a short-run bidirectional relationship between electricity consumption and natural gas consumption. There exists a positive unidirectional causality running from electricity consumption to natural gas consumption, while there exists a negative unidirectional causality running from natural gas consumption to electricity consumption. Moreover, GDP has a negative effect on electricity consumption in Turkey in the short run. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use and economic output but the associations can to be differed by the sources of energy in the case of Turkey over of period 1980-2010.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Turkey, time series analysis

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12 Does "R and D" Investment Drive Economic Growth? Evidence from Africa

Authors: Boopen Seetanah, R. V. Sannassee, Sheereen Fauzel, Robin Nunkoo

Abstract:

The bulk of research on the impact of research and development (R&D) has been carried out in developed economies where the intensity of R&D expenditure has been relatively high and stable for many years. However, there is a paucity of similar studies in developing countries. In this paper, we provide empirical estimates of the impact of R&D investment on economic growth in a developing African economy (Mauritius) where R&D expenditure intensity has been low initially, but rising, albeit moderately in recent years. Using a dynamic time series analysis over the period 1980 to 2014 in a Vector Autoregressive framework, R & D is shown to have a positive and significant effect on the economic progress of the island, although the impact is considerably less when compared to both other ingredients of growth and also to reported elasticities fromdeveloped economies . Interestingly, there is evidence of bicausality between R & D and growth. furthermore, R & D positively impacts on both domestic and foreign investment, suggesting the possibilities of indirect effects.

Keywords: R & D, VECM, Africa, Mauritius

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11 Effects of Financial Development on Economic Growth in South Asia

Authors: Anupam Das

Abstract:

Although financial liberalization has been one of the most important policy prescriptions of international organizations like the World Bank and the IMF, the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth in developing countries is far from unanimous. Since the '80s, South Asian countries made a significant development in liberalization the financial sector. However, due to unavailability of a sufficient number of time series observations, the relationship between economic growth and financial development has not been investigated adequately. We aim to fill this gap by examining time series data of five developing countries from the South Asian region: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Applying the cointegration tests and Granger causality within the vector error correction model (VECM), we do not find unanimous evidence of financial development on positive economic growth. These results are helpful for developing countries which have been trying to liberalize the financial sector in recent decades.

Keywords: economic growth, financial development, Granger causality, South Asia

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10 Agriculture and Global Economy vis-à-vis the Climate Change

Authors: Assaad Ghazouani, Ati Abdessatar

Abstract:

In the world, agriculture maintains a social and economic importance in the national economy. Its importance is distinguished by its ripple effects not only downstream but also upstream vis-à-vis the non-agricultural sector. However, the situation is relatively fragile because of weather conditions. In this work, we propose a model to highlight the impacts of climate change (CC) on economic growth in the world where agriculture is considered as a strategic sector. The CC is supposed to directly and indirectly affect economic growth by reducing the performance of the agricultural sector. The model is tested for Tunisia. The results validate the hypothesis that the potential economic damage of the CC is important. Indeed, an increase in CO2 concentration (temperatures and disruption of rainfall patterns) will have an impact on global economic growth particularly by reducing the performance of the agricultural sector. Analysis from a vector error correction model also highlights the magnitude of climate impact on the performance of the agricultural sector and its repercussions on economic growth

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Economic Growth, World, VECM, Cointegration.

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9 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

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8 The Potential of Renewable Energy in Tunisia and Its Impact on Economic Growth

Authors: Assaad Ghazouani

Abstract:

Tunisia is ranked among the countries with low energy diversification, but this configuration makes the country too dependent on fossil fuel exporting countries and therefore extremely sensitive to any oil crises, many measures to diversify electricity production must be taken in making use of other forms of renewable and nuclear energy. One of the solutions required to escape this dependence is the liberalization of the electricity industry which can lead to an improvement of supply, energy diversification, and reducing some of the negative effects of the trade balance. This paper examines the issue of renewable electricity and economic growth in Tunisia consumption. The main objective is to study and analyze the causal link between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Tunisia over the period 1980-2010. To examine the relationship in the short and in the long terms, we used a multidimensional approach to cointegration based on recent advances in time series econometrics (test Zivot - Andrews, Test of Cointegration Johannsen, Granger causality test, error correction model (ECM)).

Keywords: renewable electricity, economic growth, VECM, cointegration, Tunisia

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7 The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth of Ethiopia: Econometrics Cointegration Analysis

Authors: Dejene Gizaw Kidane

Abstract:

This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth of Ethiopia using yearly time-series data for 1974 through 2013. Economic growth is proxies by real per capita gross domestic product and foreign direct investment proxies by the inflow of foreign direct investment. Other control variables such as gross domestic saving, trade, government consumption and inflation has been incorporated. In order to fully account for feedbacks, a vector autoregressive model is utilized. The results show that there is a stable, long-run relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth. The variance decomposition results show that the main sources of Ethiopia economic growth variations are due largely own shocks. The pairwise Granger causality results show that there is a unidirectional causality that runs from FDI to economic growth of Ethiopia. Hence, the researcher therefore recommends that, FDI facilitate economic growth, so the government has to exert much effort in order to attract more FDI into the country.

Keywords: real per capita GDP, FDI, co-integration, VECM, Granger causality

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6 Dynamic Interaction between Renwable Energy Consumption and Sustainable Development: Evidence from Ecowas Region

Authors: Maman Ali M. Moustapha, Qian Yu, Benjamin Adjei Danquah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the dynamic interaction between renewable energy consumption (REC) and economic growth using dataset from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) from 2002 to 2016. For this study the Autoregressive Distributed Lag- Bounds test approach (ARDL) was used to examine the long run relationship between real gross domestic product and REC, while VECM based on Granger causality has been used to examine the direction of Granger causality. Our empirical findings indicate that REC has significant and positive impact on real gross domestic product. In addition, we found that REC and the percentage of access to electricity had unidirectional Granger causality to economic growth while carbon dioxide emission has bidirectional Granger causality to economic growth. Our findings indicate also that 1 per cent increase in the REC leads to an increase in Real GDP by 0.009 in long run. Thus, REC can be a means to ensure sustainable economic growth in the ECOWAS sub-region. However, it is necessary to increase further support and investments on renewable energy production in order to speed up sustainable economic development throughout the region

Keywords: Economic Growth, Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development, Sustainable Energy

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5 Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Indian Mutual Funds: A Time Series Analysis

Authors: Sonali Agarwal

Abstract:

The investor perception about investment avenues is affected to a great degree by the current happenings, within the country, and on the global stage. The influencing events can range from government policies, bilateral trade agreements, election agendas, to changing exchange rates, appreciation and depreciation of currency, recessions, meltdowns, bankruptcies etc. The current research attempts to discover and unravel the effect of various macroeconomic variables (crude oil price, gold price, silver price and USD exchange rate) on the Indian mutual fund industry in general and the chosen funds (Axis Gold Fund, BSL Gold Fund, Kotak Gold Fund & SBI gold fund) in particular. Cointegration tests and Vector error correction equations prove that the chosen variables have strong effect on the NAVs (net asset values) of the mutual funds. However, the greatest influence is felt from the fund’s own past and current information and it is found that when an innovation of fund’s own lagged NAVs is given, variance caused is high that changes the current NAVs markedly. The study helps to highlight the interplay of macroeconomic variables and their repercussion on mutual fund industry.

Keywords: cointegration, Granger causality, impulse response, macroeconomic variables, mutual funds, stationarity, unit root test, variance decomposition, VECM

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4 Causal Relationship between Macro-Economic Indicators and Fund Unit Price Behaviour: Evidence from Malaysian Equity Unit Trust Fund Industry

Authors: Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Ahamed Kameel, Hasanuddeen Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship specifically the causal relation between fund unit prices of Islamic equity unit trust fund which measure by fund NAV and the selected macro-economic variables of Malaysian economy by using VECM causality test and Granger causality test. Monthly data has been used from Jan, 2006 to Dec, 2012 for all the variables. The findings of the study showed that industrial production index, political election and financial crisis are the only variables having unidirectional causal relationship with fund unit price. However, the global oil prices is having bidirectional causality with fund NAV. Thus, it is concluded that the equity unit trust fund industry in Malaysia is an inefficient market with respect to the industrial production index, global oil prices, political election and financial crisis. However, the market is approaching towards informational efficiency at least with respect to four macroeconomic variables, treasury bill rate, money supply, foreign exchange rate and corruption index.

Keywords: fund unit price, unit trust industry, Malaysia, macroeconomic variables, causality

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3 Dynamic Modeling of the Exchange Rate in Tunisia: Theoretical and Empirical Study

Authors: Chokri Slim

Abstract:

The relative failure of simultaneous equation models in the seventies has led researchers to turn to other approaches that take into account the dynamics of economic and financial systems. In this paper, we use an approach based on vector autoregressive model that is widely used in recent years. Their popularity is due to their flexible nature and ease of use to produce models with useful descriptive characteristics. It is also easy to use them to test economic hypotheses. The standard econometric techniques assume that the series studied are stable over time (stationary hypothesis). Most economic series do not verify this hypothesis, which assumes, when one wishes to study the relationships that bind them to implement specific techniques. This is cointegration which characterizes non-stationary series (integrated) with a linear combination is stationary, will also be presented in this paper. Since the work of Johansen, this approach is generally presented as part of a multivariate analysis and to specify long-term stable relationships while at the same time analyzing the short-term dynamics of the variables considered. In the empirical part, we have applied these concepts to study the dynamics of of the exchange rate in Tunisia, which is one of the most important economic policy of a country open to the outside. According to the results of the empirical study by the cointegration method, there is a cointegration relationship between the exchange rate and its determinants. This relationship shows that the variables have a significant influence in determining the exchange rate in Tunisia.

Keywords: stationarity, cointegration, dynamic models, causality, VECM models

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