Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC)

107 Potentiality of Biohythane Process for the Gaseous Energy Recovery from Organic Wastes

Authors: Debabrata Das, Preeti Mishra


A two-phase anaerobic process combining biohydrogen followed by biomethane (biohythane technology) serves as an environment-friendly and economically sustainable approach for the improved valorization of organic wastes. Suitability of the pure cultures like Klebsiela pneumonia, C. freundii, B. coagulan, etc. and mixed acidogenic cultures for the biohydrogen production was already studied. The characteristics of organic wastes play a critical role in biohydrogen production. The choice of an appropriate combination of complementary organic wastes can vastly improve the bioenergy generation besides achieving the significant cost reduction. Suitability and economic viability of using the groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC), distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS) and algal biomass (AB) as a co-substrate were studied for a biohythane production. Results show that maximum gaseous energy of 20.7, 9.3, 16.7 and 15.6 % was recovered using GDOC, MDOC, DDGS and AB in the two stage biohythane production, respectively. Both GDOC and DDGS were found to be better co-substrates as compared to MDOC and AB in terms of hythane production, respectively. The maximum cumulative hydrogen and methane production of 150 and 64 mmol/L were achieved using GDOC. Further, 98 % reduction in substrate input cost (SIC) was achieved using the co-supplementation procedure.

Keywords: Biohythane, algal biomass, distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS), groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC)

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106 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger

Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit


We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol ester

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
105 Effect of Synthetic L-Lysine and DL-Methionine Amino Acids on Performance of Broiler Chickens

Authors: S. M. Ali, S. I. Mohamed


Reduction of feed cost for broiler production is at most importance in decreasing the cost of production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of synthetic amino acids (L-lysine – DL-methionine) instead of super concentrate and groundnut cake versus meat powder as protein sources. A total of 180 male broiler chicks (Cobb – strain) at 15 day of age (DOA) were selected according to their average body weight (380 g) from a broiler chicks flock at Elbashair Farm. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups of 30 chicks. Each group was further sub divided into three replicates with 10 birds. Six experimental diets were formulated. The first diet contained groundnut cake and super concentrate as the control (GNC + C); in the second diet, meat powder and super concentrate (MP + C) were used. The third diet contained groundnut cake and amino acids (GNC + AA); the forth diet contained meat powder and amino acids (MP + AA). The fifth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and super concentrate (GNC + MP + C) and the sixth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and amino acids (GNC + MP + AA). The formulated rations were randomly assigned for the different sub groups in a completely randomized design of six treatments and three replicates. Weekly feed intake, body weight and mortality were recorded and body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment (49 DOA), nine birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Live body weight, carcass weight, head, shank, and some internal organs (gizzard, heart, liver, small intestine, and abdominal fat pad) weights were taken. For the overall experimental period the (GNC + C +MP) consumed significantly (P≤0.01) the highest cumulative feed while the (MP + AA) group consumed the lowest amount of feed. The (GNC + C) and the (GNC + AA) groups had the heaviest live body weight while (MP + AA) had the lowest live body weight. The overall FCR was significantly (P≤0.01) the best for (GNC + AA) group while the (MP + AA) reported the worst FCR. However, the (GNC + AA) had significantly (P≤0.01) the lowest AFP. The (GNC + MP + Con) group had the highest dressing % while the (MP + AA) group had the lowest dressing %. It is concluded that amino acids can be used instead of super concentrate in broiler feeding with perfect performance and less cost and that meat powder is not advisable to be used with amino acids.

Keywords: broiler chickens, DL-lysine, methionine, performance

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104 Effect of Feeding Camel Rumen Content on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens under Semi-Arid Condition

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Adamu, Aminu Maidala


One hundred and fifty (150) day old chicks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments birds and each treatment where replicated twice in groups of fifteen birds in each replicate. Camel rumen content (CRC) was included in the diets of broiler at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to replace maize and groundnut cake to evaluate the effect on the performance and hematological parameters at the starter and finisher phase. A completely randomized design was used and 600g of feed was given daily and water was given ad libitum. At the starter phase, the daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by the test ingredients, although T1(0% CRC) which serve as a control, were similar with T2(5% CRC), T3(10% CRC), and T4(15% CRC), while the lowest value was recorded in T5(20% CRC). The result indicates that up to 15% (CRC) level can be included in the starter diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without any effect on the performance. However, at the finisher phase, the daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio show no significant (F>0.05) difference among the dietary treatments. Similarly, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) also did not differ significantly (F>0.05) among the dietary treatments while hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) differs significantly. The differential counts of eosinophils, heterophils, and lymphocytes differ significantly among the treatment groups, while that of basophils and monocytes shows no significant difference among the treatment groups. This means up to 20% CRC inclusion level can be used to replaced maize and groundnut cake in the finisher diet without any adverse effect on the performance and hematological parameters of the chickens.

Keywords: camel, rumen content, growth, hematology

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103 Proximate Composition, Colour and Sensory Properties of Akara egbe Prepared from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Taiwo Tijani, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Mutiat A. Balogun, Fausat L. Kolawole, John K. Joseph


Bambara groundnut is an underutilised leguminous crop that has a similar composition to cowpea. Hence, it could be used in making traditional snack usually produced from cowpea paste. In this study, akara egbe, a traditional snack was prepared from Bambara groundnut flour or paste. Cowpea was included as the reference sample. The proximate composition and functional properties of the flours were studies as well as the proximate composition and sensory properties of the resulting akara egbe. Protein and carbohydrate were the main components of Bambara groundnut and cowpea grains. Ash, fat and fiber contents were low. Bambara groundnut flour had higher protein content (23.71%) than cowpea (19.47%). In terms of functional properties, the oil absorption capacity (0.75 g oil/g flour) of Bambara groundnut flour was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the cowpea (0.92 g oil/g flour), whereas, Cowpea flour absorbed more water (1.59 g water/g flour) than Bambara groundnut flour (1.12 g/g). The packed bulk density (0.92 g/mL) of Bambara groundnut was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than cowpea flour (0.82 g/mL). Akara egbe prepared from Bambara groundnut flour showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher protein content (23.41%) than the sample made from Bambara groundnut paste (19.35%). Akara egbe prepared from cowpea paste had higher ratings in aroma, colour, taste, crunchiness and overall acceptability than those made from cowpea flour or Bambara groundnut paste or flour. Bambara groundnut can produce akara egbe with comparable nutritional and sensory properties to that made from cowpea.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Cowpea, Snack, Sensory properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
102 Humic Acid and Azadirachtin Derivatives for the Management of Crop Pests

Authors: R. S. Giraddi, C. M. Poleshi


Organic cultivation of crops is gaining importance consumer awareness towards pesticide residue free foodstuffs is increasing globally. This is also because of high costs of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, making the conventional farming non-remunerative. In India, organic manures (such as vermicompost) are an important input in organic agriculture.  Though vermicompost obtained through earthworm and microbe-mediated processes is known to comprise most of the crop nutrients, but they are in small amounts thus necessitating enrichment of nutrients so that crop nourishment is complete. Another characteristic of organic manures is that the pest infestations are kept under check due to induced resistance put up by the crop plants. In the present investigation, deoiled neem cake containing azadirachtin, copper ore tailings (COT), a source of micro-nutrients and microbial consortia were added for enrichment of vermicompost. Neem cake is a by-product obtained during the process of oil extraction from neem plant seeds. Three enriched vermicompost blends were prepared using vermicompost (at 70, 65 and 60%), deoiled neem cake (25, 30 and 35%), microbial consortia and COTwastes (5%). Enriched vermicompost was thoroughly mixed, moistened (25+5%), packed and incubated for 15 days at room temperature. In the crop response studies, the field trials on chili (Capsicum annum var. longum) and soybean, (Glycine max cv JS 335) were conducted during Kharif 2015 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad-Karnataka, India. The vermicompost blend enriched with neem cake (known to possess higher amounts of nutrients) and vermicompost were applied to the crops and at two dosages and at two intervals of crop cycle (at sowing and 30 days after sowing) as per the treatment plan along with 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). 10 plants selected randomly in each plot were studied for pest density and plant damage. At maturity, crops were harvested, and the yields were recorded as per the treatments, and the data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and procedures. In the crops, chili and soybean, crop nourishment with neem enriched vermicompost reduced insect density and plant damage significantly compared to other treatments. These treatments registered as much yield (16.7 to 19.9 q/ha) as that realized in conventional chemical control (18.2 q/ha) in soybean, while 72 to 77 q/ha of green chili was harvested in the same treatments, being comparable to the chemical control (74 q/ha). The yield superiority of the treatments was of the order neem enriched vermicompost>conventional chemical control>neem cake>vermicompost>untreated control.  The significant features of the result are that it reduces use of inorganic manures by 50% and synthetic chemical insecticides by 100%.

Keywords: humic acid, azadirachtin, vermicompost, insect-pest

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101 Comparative Analysis of White Bean Cake and Soybean Cake through Sensory Evaluation

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu, Linda Ojeyokan


This study produced and compared the acceptability of white bean cake (akara) and soy bean cake (akara) through sensory evaluation. Two varieties of beans were used; white (haricot) beans and soy beans; processed in the wet (paste) form and dry (flour) form. They were all used in the production of samples of bean cake (akara) under the same condition. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the products; 100% white beans cake paste was labeled (A1), 50% white bean and 50% soya bean cake paste was (B1), 100% white bean cake flour was (A2); 50% white bean cake flour and 50% soya bean cake flour (B2). A five (5) point hedonic scale rating, very good (5), good (4), fair (3), poor (2) and very poor (1) was administered on the ten panel of judge. 40 questionnaires were administered to the general public to access their knowledge of soya beans akara. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine which product is more acceptable. Table, percentages and mean score were methods employed in analyzing data collected. The analysis revealed that soya bean (akara) is generally acceptable except for sample B1 that was rated poor with 2 points, white beans cake was rated very well with 5 points. It was recommended that the hospitality industry could introduce soya bean cakes in the breakfast menu. Families can also include these products in their breakfast.

Keywords: akara, bean cake, soybean, white bean

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100 Protein Isolates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Its Application in Cake

Authors: Mohamed Abdullah Ahmed


In a study of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) preparation, the wet alkaline extraction was carried out. The objectives were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of CPI and apply CPI into a sponge cake recipe to replace egg and make acceptable product. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was preferred to graphically express the relationship between extraction time and pH with the output variables of percent yield and protein content of CPI. It was noted that optimal extracting conditions were 60 min and pH 10.5 resulting in 90.07% protein content and 89.15% yield of CPI. The protein isolate (CPI) could be incorporated in cake to 20% without adversely affecting the cake physical properties such as cake hardness and sensory attributes. The higher protein content in cake was corresponding to the amount of CPI added. Therefore, adding CPI can significantly (p<0.05) increase protein content in cake. However, sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 20% of CPI decreased the overall acceptability. The results of this investigation could be used as a basic knowledge of CPI utilization in other food products.

Keywords: chick bean protein isolate, sponge cake, utilization, sponge

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99 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad


Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: food composite, nutrient utilization, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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98 The Effects of Root Zone Supply of Aluminium on Vegetative Growth of 15 Groundnut Cultivars Grown in Solution Culture

Authors: Mosima M. Mabitsela


Groundnut is preferably grown on light textured soils. Most of these light textured soils tend to be highly weathered and characterized by high soil acidity and low nutrient status. One major soil factor associated with infertility of acidic soils that can negatively depress groundnut yield is aluminium (Al) toxicity. In plants Al toxicity damages root cells, leading to inhibition of root growth as a result of the suppression of cell division, cell elongation and cell expansion in the apical meristem cells of the root. The end result is that roots become stunted and brittle, root hair development is poor, and the root apices become swollen. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aluminium (Al) toxicity on a range of groundnut varieties. Fifteen cultivars were tested in incremental aluminum (Al) supply in an ebb and flow solution culture laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were six aluminium (Al) treatments viz. 0 µM, 1 µM, 5.7 µM, 14.14 µM, 53.18 µM, and 200 µM. At 1 µM there was no inhibitory effect on the growth of groundnut. The inhibition of groundnut growth was noticeable from 5.7 µM to 200 µM, where the severe effect of aluminium (Al) stress was observed at 200 µM. The cultivars varied in their response to aluminium (Al) supply in solution culture. Groundnuts are one of the most important food crops in the world, and its supply is on a decline due to the light-textured soils that they thrive under as these soils are acidic and can easily solubilize aluminium (Al) to its toxic form. Consequently, there is a need to develop groundnut cultivars with high tolerance to soil acidity.

Keywords: aluminium toxicity, cultivars, reduction, root growth

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97 Use of Cassava Flour in Cakes Processing

Authors: S. S. Silva, S. M. A. Souza, C. F. P. Oliveira


Brazil's agriculture is a major economic base in the country; in addition, family farming is directly responsible for the production of most agricultural products in Brazil, such as cassava. The number of studies on the use of cassava and its derivatives in the food industry has been increased, which is the basis of this study. Sought to develop a food that take advantage the products from farmers, adding value to these products and to study its effects as a replacement for wheat flour. For such elaborated a gluten-free cake – aiming to meet the needs of the celiac public – containing cassava flour, cane sugar, honey, egg, soya oil, coconut desiccated, baking powder and water. For evaluation of their characteristics technological, physicochemical and texture characterizations were done. Cake showed similar characteristics of cake made with wheat flour and growth and aeration of the dough. In sum up, marketing the product is viable, in that it has a typical overall appearance of cake made of wheat flour, meet the needs of celiac people and value the family farming.

Keywords: baking, cake, cassava flour, celiac disease

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96 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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95 Structural Strength Potentials of Nigerian Groundnut Husk Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Mortar

Authors: F. A. Olutoge, O.R. Olulope, M. O. Odelola


This study investigates the strength potentials of groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement in mortar and also develops a predictive model using Artificial Neural Network. Groundnut husks sourced from Ogbomoso, Nigeria, was sun dried, calcined to ash in a furnace at a controlled temperature of 600⁰ C for a period of 6 hours, and sieved through the 75 microns. The ash was subjected to chemical analysis and setting time test. Fine aggregate (sand) for the mortar was sourced from Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The cement: GHA constituents were blended in ratios 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 %. The sum of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ content in GHA is 26.98%. The compressive strength for mortars PC, GHA5, GHA10, GHA15, and GHA20 ranged from 6.3-10.2 N/mm² at 7days, 7.5-12.3 N/mm² at 14 days, 9.31-13.7 N/mm² at 28 days, 10.4-16.7 N/mm² at 56days and 13.35- 22.3 N/mm² at 90 days respectively, PC, GHA5 and GHA10 had competitive values up to 28 days, but GHA10 gave the highest values at 56 and 90 days while GHA20 had the lowest values at all ages due to dilution effect. Flexural strengths values at 28 days ranged from 1.08 to 1.87 N/mm² and increased to a range of 1.53-4.10 N/mm² at 90 days. The ANN model gave good prediction for compressive strength of the mortars. This study has shown that groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement improves the strength properties of mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, groundnut husk ash, mortar, pozzolanic index

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94 Nutritive Value of Three-Stage Olive Cake (Olea europaea L.) for Growing Rabbit

Authors: Zahia Dorbane, Si Ammar Kadi, Dalila Boudouma, Thierry Gidenne


In rabbits feeding, minimum fibre intake is essential to avoid digestive disorders. However, this concentration of fibre is not easy to obtain when formulating feeds, without reduction of nutritional value. Three stage olive cake, the residual material after oil extraction by centrifugation, including pulp and stones, can be used as a fibre source in rabbit diet. The incorporation of olive cake can allow a better balance between different fibre fractions and reduce health disorder. However, for practical use of any raw material, it is necessary to know its chemical and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritive value of three-stage olive cake (TSOC) for growing rabbits. Thus, 36 rabbits weaned at 35 days (702.8 ± 28.5) were divided into three groups of 12 receiving one of the following diets: control with 0% of TSOC, TSOC10 (10% of TSOC) and TSOC20 (20% TSOC). The rabbits were individually housed in digestibility cages and received ad libitum one of the three diets, fresh and clean water was provided ad libitum. After an adaptation period of 7d, feces were collected for 4d. Collected feces were frozen and stored for further analysis. The chemical composition of TSOC shows that it is a rich fiber raw material since it contains (%DM): 6% of CP; 7.4% of EE; 78.7% of NDF; 55.4% of ADF and 24.3% of ADL. The inclusion of TSOC at 20% of basal diet reduced the digestibility coefficient of organic matter, crude protein and NDF from 67.8 to 55.3%, 80.4 to 75.3% and from 31.5 to 18.4% (p < 0.001) respectively. The digestible energy and digestible protein content of the three-stage olive cake estimated by regression was 2.94 ± 0.52MJ DE/kg DM and 22.4 ± 6 g DP/kg DM respectively. In conclusion, based on the results of the present experiment, the three-stage olive cake can be used as a fibre source for rabbit.

Keywords: digestibility, nutritive value, olive cake, rabbit

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93 H2 Production and Treatment of Cake Wastewater Industry via Up-Flow Anaerobic Staged Reactor

Authors: Manal A. Mohsen, Ahmed Tawfik


Hydrogen production from cake wastewater by anaerobic dark fermentation via upflow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR) was investigated in this study. The reactor was continuously operated for four months at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21.57 hr, PH value of 6 ± 0.6, temperature of 21.1°C, and organic loading rate of 2.43 gCOD/l.d. The hydrogen production was 5.7 l H2/d and the hydrogen yield was 134.8 ml H2 /g CODremoved. The system showed an overall removal efficiency of TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN, and Carbohydrates of 40 ± 13%, 59 ± 18%, 84 ± 17%, 28 ± 27%, and 85 ± 15% respectively during the long term operation period. Based on the available results, the system is not sufficient for the effective treatment of cake wastewater, and the effluent quality of UASR is not complying for discharge into sewerage network, therefore a post treatment is needed (not covered in this study).

Keywords: cake wastewater industry, chemical oxygen demand (COD), hydrogen production, up-flow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR)

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92 The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties

Authors: Banafsheh Aghamohammadi, Masoud Honarvar, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi


Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.

Keywords: cake, green-A syrup, quality tests, sensory evaluation, wash syrup

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91 Improving the Quality and Nutrient Content of Palm Kernel Cake through Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Mirnawati, Gita Ciptaan, Ferawati


Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a waste of the palm oil industry. Indonesia, as the largest palm oil producer in the world, produced 45-46% palm kernel cake. Palm kernel cake can potentially be used as animal ration but its utilization for poultry is limited. Thus, fermentation process was done in order to increase the utilization PKC in poultry ration. An experiment was conducted to study the effect between Inoculum Doses with Bacillus subtilis and fermentation time to improve the quality and nutrient content of fermented Palm Kernel Cake. Material and Methods: 1) Palm kernel cake derived from Palm Kernel Processing Manufacture of Andalas Agro Industry in Pasaman, West Sumatra. 2) Bacillus subtilis obtained from The Research Center of Applied Chemistry LIPI, Bogor. 3) Preparations nutrient agar medium (NA) produced by Difoo - Becton Dickinson. 4) Rice bran 5) Aquades and mineral standard. The experiment used completely randomize design (CRD) with 3 x 3 factorial and 3 replications. The first factors were three doses of inoculum Bacillus subtilis: (3%), (5%), and (7%). The second factor was fermentation time: (1) 2 day, (2) 4 day, and (3) 6 day. The parameters were crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC). Results: The result of the study showed that there was significant interaction (P<0.01) between factor A and factor B and each factor A and B also showed significant effect (P<0.01) on crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that fermented PKC with 7% doses of Bacillus subtilis and 6 days fermentation time provides the best result as seen from 24.65% crude protein, 17.35% crude fiber, 68.47% nitrogen retention, 53.25% crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC).

Keywords: fermentation, Bacillus Subtilis, inoculum, palm kernel cake, quality, nutrient

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90 Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Groundnut Hulls

Authors: Olumuyiwa Ayoola Kokapi, Olugbenga Solomon Bello


Dyes are organic compounds with complex aromatic molecular structure that resulted in fast colour on a substance. Dye effluent found in wastewater generated from the dyeing industries is one of the greatest contributors to water pollution. Groundnut hull (GH) is an agricultural material that constitutes waste in the environment. Environmental contamination by hazardous organic chemicals is an urgent problem, which is partially solved through adsorption technologies. The choice of groundnut hull was promised on the understanding that some materials of agricultural origin have shown potentials to act as Adsorbate for hazardous organic chemicals. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of groundnut hull to adsorb Crystal violet dye through kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The prepared groundnut hulls was characterized using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, and effect of temperature were studied. Equilibrium time for the adsorption process was attained in 80 minutes. Adsorption isotherms used to test the adsorption data were Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° of the adsorption processes were determined. The results showed that the uptake of dye by groundnut hulls occurred at a faster rate, corresponding to an increase in adsorption capacity at equilibrium time of 80 min from 0.78 to 4.45 mg/g and 0.77 to 4.45mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L for pH 3.0 and 8.0 respectively. High regression values obtained for pseudo-second-order kinetic model, sum of square error (SSE%) values along with strong agreement between experimental and calculated values of qe proved that pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted more than pseudo first-order kinetic model. The result of Langmuir and Freundlich model showed that the adsorption data fit the Langmuir model more than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study demonstrated the feasibility, spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process due to negative values of free energy change (∆G) at all temperatures and positive value of enthalpy change (∆H) respectively. The positive values of ∆S showed that there was increased disorderliness and randomness at the solid/solution interface of crystal violet dye and groundnut hulls. The present investigation showed that, groundnut hulls (GH) is a good low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, crystal violet dye, groundnut halls, kinetics

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89 Efficacy of DAPG Producing Fluorescent Pseudomonas for Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficacy, Bio-Control of Soil-Borne Diseases and Yield of Groundnut

Authors: Basavaraj Yenagi, P. Nagaraju, C. R. Patil


Groundnut (Arachis hypohaea L.) is called as “King of oilseeds” and one of the most important food and cash crops in Indian subcontinent. Yield and quality of oil are negatively correlated with poor or imbalanced nutrition and constant exposure to both biotic and abiotic stress factors. Variety of diseases affect groundnut plant, most of them are caused by fungi and lead to severe yield loss. Imbalanced nutrition increases the concerns of environmental deterioration which includes soil fertility. Among different microbial antagonists, Pseudomonas is common member of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria microflora present in the rhizosphere of groundnut. These are known to produce a beneficial effect on groundnut due to their high metabolic activity leading to the production of enzymes, exopolysaccharides, secondary metabolites, and antibiotics. The ability of pseudomonas lies on their ability to produce antibiotic metabolites such as 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). DAPG can inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens namely collar rot and stem rot and also increase the availability of plant nutrients through increased solubilization and uptake of nutrients. Hence, the present study was conducted for three consecutive years (2014 to 2016) in vertisol during the rainy season to assess the efficacy of DAPG producing fluorescent pseudomonas for enhancing nutrient use efficacy, bio-control of soil-borne diseases and yield of groundnut at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad farm. The experiment was laid out in an RCBD with three replications and seven treatments. The mean of three years data revealed that the effect of DAPG-producing producing fluorescent pseudomonas enhanced groundnut yield, uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus and nutrient use efficiency and also found to be effective in bio-control of collar rot and stem rot incidence leading to increase pod yield of groundnut. Higher dry pod yield of groundnut was obtained with DAPG 2(3535 kg ha-1) closely followed by DAPG 4(3492 kg ha-1), FP 98(3443 kg ha-1), DAPG 1(3414 kg ha-1), FP 86(3361 kg ha-1) and Trichoderma spp. (3380 kg ha-1) over control(3173 kg ha-1). A similar trend was obtained with other growth and yield attributing parameters. N uptake ranged from 8.21 percent to FP 86 to 17.91 percent with DAPG 2 and P uptake ranged between 5.56 percent with FP 86 to 16.67 percent with DAPG 2 over control. The first year, there was no incidence of collar rot. During the second year, the control plot recorded 2.51 percent incidence and it ranged from 0.82 percent to 1.43 percent in different DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas treatments. The similar trend was noticed in the third year with lower incidence. The stem rot incidence was recorded during all the three years. Mean data indicated that the control plot recorded 2.65 percent incidence and it ranged from 0.71 percent to 1.23 percent in different DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas treatments. The increase in net monetary benefits ranged from Rs.5975 ha-1 to Rs.11407 ha 1 in different treatments. Hence, as a low-cost technology, seed treatment with available DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas has a beneficial effect on groundnut for enhancing groundnut yield, nutrient use efficiency and bio-control of soil-borne diseases.

Keywords: groundnut, DAPG, fluorescent pseudomonas, nutrient use efficiency, collar rot, stem rot

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88 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh


Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: bambara groundnut, maize, fortification, complementary food

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87 The Effects of Neurospora crassa-Fermented Palm Kernel Cake in the Diet on the Production Performance and Egg-Yolk Quality of Arab Laying-Hens

Authors: Yose Rizal, Nuraini, Mirnawati, Maria Endo Mahata, Rio Darman, Dendi Kurniawan


An experiment had been conducted to determine the effects of several levels of Neurospora crassa- fermented palm kernel cake in the diet on the production performance and egg-yolk quality of Arab laying-hens, and to obtain the appropriate level of this fermented palm kernel cake for reducing the utilization of concentrated feed in the diet. Three hundred Arab laying-hens of 72 weeks old were employed in this experiment, and randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 7.25, 10.15, and 13.05% fermented palm kernel cake in diets) in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Measured variables were production performance (feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production), and egg-yolk quality (ether extract and cholesterol contents, and egg-yolk color index). Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight, hen-day egg production and egg-yolk color index were not influenced (P>0.05) by diets. However, the ether extract and cholesterol contents of egg-yolk were very significantly reduced (P<0.01) by diets. In conclusion, Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake could be included up to 13.05% to effectively replace 45% concentrated feed in Arab laying-hens diet without adverse effect on the production performance.

Keywords: neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake, Arab laying-hens, production performance, ether extract, cholesterol, egg-yolk color index

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86 Variation in N₂ Fixation and N Contribution by 30 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties Grown in Blesbokfontein Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Authors: Titus Y. Ngmenzuma, Cherian. Mathews, Feilx D. Dakora


In Africa, poor nutrient availability, particularly N and P, coupled with low soil moisture due to erratic rainfall, constitutes the major crop production constraints. Although inorganic fertilizers are an option for meeting crop nutrient requirements for increased grain yield, the high cost and scarcity of inorganic inputs make them inaccessible to resource-poor farmers in Africa. Because crops grown on such nutrient-poor soils are micronutrient deficient, incorporating N₂-fixing legumes into cropping systems can sustainably improve crop yield and nutrient accumulation in the grain. In Africa, groundnut can easily form an effective symbiosis with native soil rhizobia, leading to marked N contribution in cropping systems. In this study, field experiments were conducted at Blesbokfontein in Mpumalanga Province to assess N₂ fixation and N contribution by 30 groundnut varieties during the 2018/2019 planting season using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The results revealed marked differences in shoot dry matter yield, symbiotic N contribution, soil N uptake and grain yield among the groundnut varieties. The percent N derived from fixation ranged from 37 to 44% for varieties ICGV131051 and ICGV13984. The amount of N-fixed ranged from 21 to 58 kg/ha for varieties Chinese and IS-07273, soil N uptake from 31 to 80 kg/ha for varieties IS-07947 and IS-07273, and grain yield from 193 to 393 kg/ha for varieties ICGV15033 and ICGV131096, respectively. Compared to earlier studies on groundnut in South Africa, this study has shown low N₂ fixation and N contribution to the cropping systems, possibly due to environmental factors such as low soil moisture. Because the groundnut varieties differed in their growth, symbiotic performance and grain yield, more field testing is required over a range of differing agro-ecologies to identify genotypes suitable for different cropping environments

Keywords: ¹⁵N natural abundance, percent N derived from fixation, amount of N-fixed, grain yield

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85 Effect of Palm Bunch Ash and Neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) Leaf Powder on Termite Infestation in Groundnut Field

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, C. P. Ekwe, G. O. Ihejirika, S. A. Dialoke, O. P. Onyewuchi, C. P. Anyanwu, I. E. Kalu


As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development, especially during prolonged dry spell. Effect of palm bunch ash and neem(Azardirachta indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0tons/ha and three rates of neem leaf powder at 0.0(control), 1.0, 2.0 tons/ha respectively. Data were collected on percentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result shows that there were no significant (P= 0.05) differences in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch ash and neem leaf powder applications. Contrarily, palm bunch ash at 2.0 tons/ha recorded the least termite incidence especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) and 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm bunch ash at 2.0tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively. Control plots on the other hand consistently maintained highest termite severity throughout the trial with the highest value at 2 and 12WAP (1.56). Conclusively, palm bunch ash exhibited highest depressive action against termite on groundnut especially at higher application value (2.0tons/ha).

Keywords: groundnut, incidence, neem, palm, severity, termites

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84 Effects of Roasting as Preservative Method on Food Value of the Runner Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea

Authors: M. Y. Maila, H. P. Makhubele


Roasting is one of the oldest preservation method used in foods such as nuts and seeds. It is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Groundnut seeds, also known as peanuts when sun dried or roasted, are among the oldest oil crops that are mostly consumed as a snack, after roasting in many parts of South Africa. However, roasting can denature proteins, destroy amino acids, decrease nutritive value and induce undesirable chemical changes in the final product. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of various roasting times on the food value of the runner groundnut seeds. A constant temperature of 160 °C and various time-intervals (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were used for roasting groundnut seeds in an oven. Roasted groundnut seeds were then cooled and milled to flour. The milled sundried, raw groundnuts served as reference. The proximate analysis (moisture, energy and crude fats) was performed and the results were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant content was determined using HPLC. Mineral (cobalt, chromium, silicon and iron) contents were determined by first digesting the ash of sundried and roasted seed samples in 3M Hydrochloric acid and then determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All results were subjected to ANOVA through SAS software. Relative to the reference, roasting time significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced moisture (71%–88%), energy (74%) and crude fat (5%–64%) of the runner groundnut seeds, whereas the antioxidant content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased (35%–72%) with increasing roasting time. Similarly, the tested mineral contents of the roasted runner groundnut seeds were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced at all roasting times: cobalt (21%–83%), chromium (48%–106%) and silicon (58%–77%). However, the iron content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) unaffected. Generally, the tested runner groundnut seeds had higher food value in the raw state than in the roasted state, except for the antioxidant content. Moisture is a critical factor affecting the shelf life, texture and flavor of the final product. Loss of moisture ensures prolonged shelf life, which contribute to the stability of the roasted peanuts. Also, increased antioxidant content in roasted groundnuts is essential in other health-promoting compounds. In conclusion, the overall reduction in the proximate and mineral contents of the runner groundnuts seeds due to roasting is sufficient to suggest influences of roasting time on the food value of the final product and shelf life.

Keywords: dry roasting, legume, oil source, peanuts

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83 Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots

Authors: Mehran Bakhshi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mohammadhosein Rahimi


The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.

Keywords: biosynthesis, cadmium cake, cadmium sulfide, nanoparticle, zinc smelter

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82 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad


Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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81 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan


Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: biosorption, copper, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake, purification

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80 Comparative Rumen Degradable and Rumen Undegradable Fractions in Untreated, Formaldehyde and Heat Treated Vegetable Protein Sources of Pakistan

Authors: Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani, Nasrullah, Masood Ul Haq Kakar, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso, Behram Chacher


Protein sources are the major part of ration fed to dairy buffaloes in Pakistan however, the limited availability and lack of judicious use of protein resources are further aggravating the conditions to enhance milk and meat production. In order to gain maximum production from limited protein source availability, it is necessary to balance feed for rumen degradable and rumen undegradable protein fractions. This study planned to know the rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions in all vegetable protein sources with (formaldehyde and heat treatment) and without treatments. Samples of soybean meal, corn gluten meal 60%, maize gluten feed, guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, canola meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed meal, coconut cake, coconut meal, palm kernel cake, almond cake and sesame cake were collected from ten different geographical locations of Pakistan. These samples were also subjected to formaldehyde (1% /100g CP of test feed) and heat treatments (1 hr at 15 lb psi/100 g CP of test feed). In situ technique was used to know the ruminal degradability characteristics. Data obtained were fitted to Orskove equation. Results showed that both treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased ruminal degradability in all vegetable protein sources than untreated vegetable protein sources, however, of both treatments, heat treatment was more effective than formaldehyde treatment in decreasing ruminal degradability in most of the studied vegetable protein sources.

Keywords: formaldehyde and heat treatments, in situ technique, rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions, vegetable protein sources

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79 Evaluation of Rhizobia for Nodulation, Shoot and Root Biomass from Host Range Studies Using Soybean, Common Bean, Bambara Groundnut and Mung Bean

Authors: Sharon K. Mahlangu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Rural households in Africa depend largely on legumes as a source of high-protein food due to N₂-fixation by rhizobia when they infect plant roots. However, the legume/rhizobia symbiosis can exhibit some level of specificity such that some legumes may be selectively nodulated by only a particular group of rhizobia. In contrast, some legumes are highly promiscuous and are nodulated by a wide range of rhizobia. Little is known about the nodulation promiscuity of bacterial symbionts from wild legumes such as Aspalathus linearis, especially if they can nodulate cultivated grain legumes such as cowpea and Kersting’s groundnut. Determining the host range of the symbionts of wild legumes can potentially reveal novel rhizobial strains that can be used to increase nitrogen fixation in cultivated legumes. In this study, bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to induce root nodules on their homologous hosts. Seeds were surface-sterilized with alcohol and sodium hypochlorite and planted in sterile sand contained in plastic pots. The pot surface was covered with sterile non-absorbent cotton wool to avoid contamination. The plants were watered with nitrogen-free nutrient solution and sterile water in alternation. Three replicate pots were used per isolate. The plants were grown for 90 days in a naturally-lit glasshouse and assessed for nodulation (nodule number and nodule biomass) and shoot biomass. Seven isolates from each of Kersting’s groundnut and cowpea and two from Rooibos tea plants were tested for their ability to nodulate soybean, mung bean, common bean and Bambara groundnut. The results showed that of the isolates from cowpea, where VUSA55 and VUSA42 could nodulate all test host plants, followed by VUSA48 which nodulated cowpea, Bambara groundnut and soybean. The two isolates from Rooibos tea plants nodulated Bambara groundnut, soybean and common bean. However, isolate L1R3.3.1 also nodulated mung bean. There was a greater accumulation of shoot biomass when cowpea isolate VUSA55 nodulated common bean. Isolate VUSA55 produced the highest shoot biomass, followed by VUSA42 and VUSA48. The two Kersting’s groundnut isolates, MGSA131 and MGSA110, accumulated average shoot biomass. In contrast, the two Rooibos tea isolates induced a higher accumulation of biomass in Bambara groundnut, followed by common bean. The results suggest that inoculating these agriculturally important grain legumes with cowpea isolates can contribute to improved soil fertility, especially soil nitrogen levels.

Keywords: legumes, nitrogen fixation, nodulation, rhizobia

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78 Evaluation of Raw Diatomaceous Earth and Plant Powders in the Control of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) on Stored Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) (Verdc.) Seeds

Authors: Ibrahim Nasiru Dole, Audu Abdullahi, Dike Michiel Chidozie, Lawal Mansur


Bambara groundnut is an important grain legume and the seeds in storage suffer infestation by Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of raw diatomaceous earth (RDE) and plant powders (Jatropha curcas (L.), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh.) and Melia azedarach (L.) against C. subinnotatus infesting stored bambara groundnut seeds. Rearing of the insects and the experiments were conducted in Agricultural Biology Laboratory of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto - Nigeria under ambient conditions (29-33oC and a relative humidity of 44-56%). Four treatments at three levels: RDE at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g while plant powders at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g, standard/check (2.0 g of Actellic dust), and a control. These were separately admixed with 100 g of sterilized seeds in glass jars. Each jar was later infested with thirty, 1-2-days old C. subinnotatus of mixed sexes. Adult mortality was assessed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, F1 and F2 progenies, seed damage, weight loss and viability were also assessed after 90 days. Eighty-nine (89%) percent adult mortality was recorded in the highest dose of RDE after 96 hours of exposure. These treatments significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed F1 and F2 progenies emergence in relation to the control. The control suffered significantly (P < 0.05) higher seed damage (51.0 %) and weight loss (40.8%) thereby recording lower seed germination. Therefore, RDE and plant powders could be used against C. subinnotatus on stored bambara groundnut seeds.

Keywords: bambara, callosobruchus subinnotatus, plant powders, raw diatomaceous earth,

Procedia PDF Downloads 316