Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1849

Search results for: ether extract

1849 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena

Abstract:

Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

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1848 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Petroleum Ether Extract of Pleiogynium timorense Bark

Authors: Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Ataa A. Said, Khaled Y. Mohamed, Hala M. Mohammed

Abstract:

Pleiogynium timorense(DC.) Leenh is one of the therapeutically active plants belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The bark of Pleiogynium timorense needs further studies to investigate its phytochemical and biological activities. This work was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as well as to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageen hind paw oedema models in rats, respectively. The results showed that twenty one compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction were identified representing 92.54 % of the total beak area, the major compounds were 1-Heptene (35.32%), Butylated hydroxy toluene (19.42%) and phytol (12.53%), whereas fifteen compounds were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters fraction representing 94.15% of the total identified peak area. The major compounds were 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (35.34%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (29.32%). Moreover, petroleum ether extract showed a significant reduction in pain and inflammation in a dose dependent manner. This study aims to be the first step toward the use of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, bark, petroleum ether extract, Pleiogynium timorense

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1847 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. Investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property

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1846 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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1845 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak

Abstract:

The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

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1844 Mansonone G and Its Ether Analogues as New Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Rita Hairani, Warinthorn Chavasiri

Abstract:

Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widespread in nature and can be produced by plants, fungi and actinomycetes. The interest of naphthoquinones is not only limited as organic dyes, but also their wide variety of biological activities such as antitumor, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Typical 1,2-naphthoquinones such as mansonones can be found in Mansonia gagei Drumm. (“chan-cha-mod”), Sterculaceae family. This plant has been used traditionally to treat some diseases such as antiemetic and antidepressant. In this study, some natural mansonones isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of M. gagei heartwood have been assessed for their antibacterial activities using agar well diffusion method. According to the antibacterial activity results of four natural mansonones (mansonones C, E, G and H), mansonones E and G showed higher activities than the others against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Since mansonone G exhibited good antibacterial activity and was obtained in the highest yield, we decided to derivertize mansonone G into five ether analogues. Based on the antibacterial activities of these synthesized compounds, four ether analogues (compounds 1-4) revealed higher antibacterial activities than its natural mansonone G against S. aureus and S. typhi.

Keywords: Mansonia gagei Drumm., antibacterial activities, mansonone G, ether analogues

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1843 Isolation and Biological Activity of Betulinic and Oleanolic Acids from the Aerial Plant Parts of Maesobotrya Barteri (Baill)

Authors: Christiana Ene Ogwuche, Joseph Amupitan, George Ndukwe, Rachael Ayo

Abstract:

Maesobotrya barteri (Baill), belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, is a medicinal plant growing widely in tropical Africa. The Aerial plant parts of Maesobotrya barteri (Baill) were collected fresh from Orokam, Ogbadibo local Government of Benue State, Nigeria in July 2013. Taxonomical identification was done by Mallam Musa Abdullahi at the Herbarium unit of Biological Sciences Department, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria. Pulverized aerial parts of Maesobotrya barteri (960g) was exhaustively extracted successively using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and concentrated in the rotary evaporator at 40°C. The Petroleum ether extract had the second highest activity against test microbes from preliminary crude microbial screenings. The Petroleum ether extract was subjected to phytochemical studies, antimicrobial analysis and column chromatography (CC). The column chromatography yielded fraction PE, which was further purified using preparative thin layer chromatography to give PE1. The structure of the isolated compound was established using 1-D NMR and 2-D NMR spectroscopic analysis and by direct comparison with data reported in literature was confirmed to be a mixture, an isomer of Betulinic acid and Oleanolic acid, both with the molecular weight (C₃₀H₄₈O₃). The bioactivity of this compound was carried out using some clinical pathogens and the activity compared with standard drugs, and this was found to be comparable with the standard drug.

Keywords: Maesobotrya barteri, medicinal plant, bioactivity, petroleum spirit extract, butellinic acid, oleanilic acid

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1842 The Effects of Neurospora crassa-Fermented Palm Kernel Cake in the Diet on the Production Performance and Egg-Yolk Quality of Arab Laying-Hens

Authors: Yose Rizal, Nuraini, Mirnawati, Maria Endo Mahata, Rio Darman, Dendi Kurniawan

Abstract:

An experiment had been conducted to determine the effects of several levels of Neurospora crassa- fermented palm kernel cake in the diet on the production performance and egg-yolk quality of Arab laying-hens, and to obtain the appropriate level of this fermented palm kernel cake for reducing the utilization of concentrated feed in the diet. Three hundred Arab laying-hens of 72 weeks old were employed in this experiment, and randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 7.25, 10.15, and 13.05% fermented palm kernel cake in diets) in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Measured variables were production performance (feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production), and egg-yolk quality (ether extract and cholesterol contents, and egg-yolk color index). Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight, hen-day egg production and egg-yolk color index were not influenced (P>0.05) by diets. However, the ether extract and cholesterol contents of egg-yolk were very significantly reduced (P<0.01) by diets. In conclusion, Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake could be included up to 13.05% to effectively replace 45% concentrated feed in Arab laying-hens diet without adverse effect on the production performance.

Keywords: neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake, Arab laying-hens, production performance, ether extract, cholesterol, egg-yolk color index

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1841 Synthesis of Bisphenols Containing Pendant Furyl Group Based on Chemicals Derived from Lignocellulose and Their Utilization for Preparation of Clickable Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone)s

Authors: Samadhan S. Nagane, Sachin S. Kuhire, Prakash P. Wadgaonkar

Abstract:

Lignocellulose-derived chemicals such as furfural, furandicarboxylic acid, syringol, guaiacol, etc are highly attractive as sustainable alternatives to petrochemicals for the synthesis of monomers and polymers. We wish to report herein the facile synthesis of fully bio-based bisphenols containing pendant furyl group by base-catalyzed condensation of furfural with guaiacol. Bisphenols possessing pendant furyl group represent valuable monomers for the synthesis of a range of polymers which include epoxy resins, polyesters, polycarbonates, poly(aryl ether)s, etc. Several new homo/co-poly(arylene ether sulfone)s have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4(-fluorodiphenyl sulfone (FDS) with 4,4'-(furan-2-ylmethylene)bis(2-methoxyphenol) (BPF) and 4,4(-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) using different molar ratios of bisphenols. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed inherent viscosities in the range 0.92-1.47 dLg-1 and number average molecular weights (Mn), obtained from gel permeation chromatography (GPC), were in the range 91,300 – 1,31,000. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s could be cast into tough, transparent and flexible films from chloroform solutions. X-Ray diffraction studies indicated amorphous nature of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed Tg values in the range 179-191 oC. Additionally, the pendant furyl groups in poly(arylene ether sulfone)s provide reactive sites for chemical modifications and cross-linking via Diels-Alder reaction with maleimides and bismaleimides, respectively.

Keywords: bio-based, bisphenols, Diels-Alder reaction, poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

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1840 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah

Abstract:

In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

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1839 Phytochemical Exploration of Plectranthus stocksii Hook. F. for Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties

Authors: Kasipandi Muniyandi, Parimelazhagan Thangaraj

Abstract:

Plants are important prospective wealth of a country, combination of local health care information about a specific plant together with data published by several groups of scientists, can help in deciding whether it should be considered acceptable for medicinal use. In the developed countries, too, plant-derived drugs may be of importance. The wide variety of ailments that are being treated with Plectranthus is an indication of the medicinal value of the genus. A number of species are not toxic and so may be taken orally, whilst others are used topically on the skin or as enemas. This study was designed to evaluate the different properties of Plectranthus stocksii and the aerial parts were collected and extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol by Soxhlet apparatus and finally macerated with hot water. The quantification assays revealed that, leaf methanol extract showed higher total phenolic (415.41 mg GAE/ g extract) and tannin (177.53 mg GAE/ g extract) contents whereas leaf ethyl acetate exhibited higher flavonoids (777.11 mg RE/ g extract) content. The antioxidant efficiency of the extracts was analyzed by various radical scavenging assays. Among the different antioxidant assays, leaf ethyl acetate extract showed higher free radical scavenging activities against DPPH (IC50 = 3.46 µg/mL), ABTS (27417.65 µM TE/ g extract), FRAP (152.17 mM Fe(II)E/ mg extract) NO• radical (21.46%) and Superoxide radical (IC50 = 24.16 µg/mL) assays. All the parts P. stocksii extracts showed significant protection against OH• induced DNA damage at 50 µg concentration. The HPLC analysis of leaf ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of Quercetin (30.29 µg/mg of extract) was the major compound. Anticancer activity of leaf ethyl acetate extract showed better IC50 values were 48.87 and 36.08 µg/ mL against MCF-7 and Caco-2 respectively. From this study, P. stocksii can act as a potent antioxidant and cytotoxic antimicrobial agent. The scope for drug development from this plant is endless and there is undoubtedly a call for further research in pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, phenolics, plectranthus stocksii

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1838 Physicochemical Characterization of Low Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone/ Layered Double Hydroxide/Sepiolite Hybrid to Improve the Performance of Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Zakaria Ahmed, Khaled Charradi, Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Radhouane Chtourou

Abstract:

Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) with a low sulfonation degree was blended using nanofiller Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH, Mg2AlCl) /sepiolite nanostructured material as additive to use as an electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application. Characterization assessments, i.e., mechanical stability, thermal gravimetric analysis, ion exchange capability, swelling properties, water uptake capacities, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the composite membranes were conducted. The presence of LDH/sepiolite nanoarchitecture material within SPEEK was found to have the highest water retention and proton conductivity value at high temperature rather than LDH/SPEEK and pristine SPEEK membranes.

Keywords: SPEEK, sepiolite clay, LDH clay, proton exchange membrane

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1837 Hypoglycemic Effect of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Olea europaea L. in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Benhabyles, K. Arab, O. Bouchenak, A. Baz

Abstract:

The hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of flavonoids rich extract obtained from leaves of Olea europaea L. was analyzed in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extraction was performed by confrontation with organic solvents method, which yielded four extracts: Di ethyl Ether, Ethyl Acetate, Butanolic, and Aqueous extract. A single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of the different extract was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in a glucose tolerance test in normal rats and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg of AE for anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced (125 mg/kg) diabetic rats. Dosage of 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test after 120 min. However, a better activity is obtained with the AE. For the anti-hyperglycemic study, the results showed a substantial decrease in blood glucose during the 2 h of treatment for all groups treated with different doses of flavonoids. From the results it can be concluded that flavonoids of O. europaea can be a potential candidate in treating the hyperglycemic conditions.

Keywords: alloxan, antihyperglycemic effect, diabetes mellitus, flavonoids, hypoglycemic effect, Olea europaea L.

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1836 Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects and Chemical Analysis of Allium sativum Bulbs Growing in Sudan

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Yacouba Amina Djamila, Amna El Hassan Hamad

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia and diabetes have been treated with several medicinal plants for a long time, meanwhile reduce associated side effects than the synthetic ones. Therefore, the search for more effective and safer anti-diabetic agents derived from plants has become an interest area of active research. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. A. sativum bulbs were collected from local vegetable market at Khourtoum/ Sudan in a fresh form, identified and authenticated by taxonomist, then dried, and extracted with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by using Soxhlet apparatus. The effect of the extracts on glucose uptake was evaluated by using the isolated rats hemidiaphgrams after loading the fasting rats with glucose, and the anti-hyperglycemic effect was investigated on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. Their effects were compared to control rats administered with the vehicle and to a standard group administered with Metformin standard drug. The most active extract was analyzed chemically using GC-MS analysis compared to NIST library. The results showed significant anti-diabetic effect of extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan. Addition to the hypoglycemic activity of A. sativum extracts was found to be decreased with increase in the polarity of the extraction solvent; this may explain the less polarity of substance responsible for the activity and their concentration decreased with polarity increase. The petroleum ether extract possess anti-hyperglycemic activity more significant than the other extracts and the Metformin standard drug with p-value 0.000** of 400mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour; and p-value 0.019*, 0.015* and 0.010* of 200mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour respectively. The GC-MS analysis of petroleum ether extract, with highest anti -diabetes activity showed the presence of Methyl linolate (42.75%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (10.54%), Methyl α-linolenate (8.36%), Dotriacontane (6.83), Tetrapentacontane (6.33), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.8), Phenol,2,2’-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl] (3.25), Methyl 20-methyl-heneicosanoate (2.70), Pentatriacontane (2.13) and many other minor compounds. The most of these compounds are well known for their anti-diabetic activity. The study concluded that A. sativum bulbs extracts were found to enhanced the reuptake of glucose in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm and have antihyperglycemic effect when evaluated on glucose-loaded albino rats with petroleum ether extract activity more significant than the Metformin standard drug.

Keywords: Allium, anti-hyperglycemic, bulbs, sativum

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1835 Characterization the Internal Corrosion Behavior by Using Natural Inhibitor in Crude Oil of Low Carbon Steel Pipeline

Authors: Iman Adnan Annon, Kadhim F. Alsultan

Abstract:

This study investigate the internal corrosion of low carbon steel pipelines in the crude oil, as well as prepare and use natural and locally available plant as a natural corrosion inhibiter, the nature extraction achieved by two types of solvents in order to show the solvent effect on inhibition process, the first being distilled water and the second is diethyl ether. FT-IR spectra and using a chemical reagents achieved to detection the presence of many active groups and the presence of tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in the natural extraction. Some experiments were achieved to estimate the performance of a new inhibitor, one of these tests include corrosion measurement by simple immersion in crude oil within and without inhibitors which added in different amounts 30,40,50and 60 ppm at tow temperature 300 and 323k, where the best inhibition efficiencies which get when added the inhibitors in a critical amounts or closest to it, since for the aqueous extract (EB-A) the inhibition efficiency reached (94.4) and (86.71)% at 300 and 323k respectively, and for diethyl ether extract (EB-D) reached (82.87) and (84.6)% at 300 and 323k respectively. Optical microscopy examination have been conducted to evaluate the corrosion nature where it show a clear difference in the topography of the immersed samples surface after add the inhibitors at two temperatures. The results show that the new corrosion inhibitor is not only equivalent to a chemical inhibitor but has greatly improvement properties such as: high efficiency, low cost, non-toxic, easily to produce, and nonpolluting as compared with chemical inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion in pipeline, inhibitors, crude oil, carbon steel, types of solvent

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1834 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Albino Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

Abstract:

Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50,oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals, stem bark extract

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1833 Synthesis of Nanoparticle Mordenite Zeolite for Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation

Authors: Zhang Haitao

Abstract:

The different size of nanoparticle mordenite zeolites were prepared by adding different soft template during hydrothermal process for carbonylation of dimethyl ether (DME) to methyl acetate (MA). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption-desorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, NH3-temperature programmed desorption, scanning electron microscopy and Thermogravimetric. The characterization results confirmed that mordenite zeolites with small nanoparticle showed more strong acid sites which was the active site for carbonylation thus promoting conversion of DME and MA selectivity. Furthermore, the nanoparticle mordenite had increased the mass transfer efficiency which could suppress the formation of coke.

Keywords: nanoparticle mordenite, carbonylation, dimethyl ether, methyl acetate

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1832 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Lens Esculenta Moench, Seeds

Authors: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Kripi Vohra, Monika Gupta

Abstract:

Pulses have been a vital ingredient of the balanced human diet in India. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus or Lens esculenta Moench.) is a common legume known since biblical times. Lentil seeds, with or without hulls, are cooked as dhal and this has been the main dish for millennia in the South Asian region. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and DNA in cells and tissues, resulting in membrane damage, fragmentation or random cross linking of molecules like DNA, enzymes and structural proteins and even lead to cell death induced by DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. These consequences of oxidative stress construct the molecular basis in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and autoimmune. The aim of the present work is to assess the antioxidant potential of the peteroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water extract of the Lens esculenta seeds. In vitro antioxidant assessment of the extracts was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay. The quantitative estimation of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content in extracts and in plant material, total saponin content, total alkaloid content, crude fibre content, total volatile content, fat content and mucilage content in drug material was also carried out. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity the acetone extract was found to possess significant hydrogen donating ability in DPPH (45.83%-93.13%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging system (28.7%-46.41%) than the peteroleum ether, methanol and water extracts. Total phenolic content in the acetone and methanol extract was found to be 608 and 188 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenol/g of sample respectively. Total flavonoid content of acetone and methanol extract was found to be 128 and 30.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of sample respectively. It is evident that acetone extract of Lentil seeds possess high levels of polyphenolics and flavonoids that could be utilized as antioxidants and neutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant, flavanoids, Lens esculenta, polyphenols

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1831 Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from the Aerial Parts of Alyssum alyssoides

Authors: Olga St. Tsiftsoglou, Diamanto M. Lazari, Eugene L. Kokkalou

Abstract:

Most of Alyssum species of Brassicaceae family have been mainly studied for their contribution in ecology. In this study, A. alyssoides was examined for its chemical substitutes. The methanol extract of its aerial parts was fractionated with liquid-liquid extraction (distribution) with four different solvents of increasing polarity: diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts were further studied for their chemical composition. So far, secondary metabolites which belong to phenolics were isolated by using several chromatographic methods (C.C. and HPLC) and were identified by using spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, NMR and MS): two phenolic acids (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (vanillic acid)), and five flavonoids, which are derivatives of flavonol: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin), kaempferol 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercetin), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isoramnetin 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (narcissin).

Keywords: Alyssum, chemical substitutes, flavonoids, phenolic acids

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1830 Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Prunus persica L. Leaves

Authors: K. Fellah, H. Benmehdi, A. Amrouche, H. Malainine, F. Memmou, H. Dalile, W. Siata

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the antioxidant of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Prunus persica L. A phytochemical screening allowed us to highlight the different phytochemicals present in the leaves of the studied plant. The selective extraction of flavonoids gave yields of 0.71, 1.5, and 4.8% for the fractions ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n- butanol, respectively. The reading of the antioxidant activity of different extracts of flavonoids by HPLTC method revealed positive reaction (yellow spots) on the TLC plates sprayed with DPPH. Using the DPPH method, the fractions of flavonoids (bunanol, ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether) showed a potent scavenging activity with IC50 = 0.22; 0.27 and 0.76 mg / ml, respectively. Furthermore, our findings revealed the extracts under study exhibited higher reducing potential which depends upon extract concentration. These results obtained from this investigation confirm that the Prunus persica remains a major resource of bioactive molecules.

Keywords: Prunus persica L., phytochemical study, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, TLC bioautographic, FRAP, DPPH

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1829 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum

Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann

Abstract:

Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: extract, phytochemicals, antimicrobial, antibacterial, Chrysanthlum indicum

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1828 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

Abstract:

Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50, oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals and stem bark

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1827 Antioxydant Activity of Flavonoïd’s Extracts of Rhamnus alaternus L. Leaves of Tessala Mountains (Occidental Algeria)

Authors: Benchiha Walid, Mahroug Samira

Abstract:

Rhamnus alaternus L. is a shrub that belongs to the family of Rhamnaceae. It is a medicinal plant that is largely used in traditional medicine in Algeria. Five flavonoic extracts obtained of Rhamnus alaternus L. leaves. The flavonoids were evaluated by a method that uses aluminum chloride AlCl3 of each extract; the content is estimated at 19.33 (Hexanic. Extract), 18.42 (Chlroformic.extract), 16.75 (Acetate. Extract), 3.9 (Brute. Extract), and 3.02 (Aqueous. Extract) mg Equivalent quercetine/gram of extract (mg QE/ g extract). The antioxidant activity was realized by the antiradical test that was evaluated by using DPHH (2.2 diphenyl-1-1picrylhdrazile), the inhibitory concentration at 50% (CI50) were estimated at 74.78 (Vitamin.C), 143.78 (Catechine), 101.78 (Gallic acid), 205.41 (Tannic acid), 210 (Caffeic acid) µg/ml; 74.16 (Br.extr), 9.98 (Aq.extr), 54.08 (Hèx.extr), 8.64 (Ac.extr), 30.49 (Ch.extr) mg/ml.

Keywords: Rhamnus alaternus L., flavonoids, antioxydant activity, Tessala

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
1826 Antimicrobial Functions of Some Spice Extracts Such as Sumac, Cumin, Black Pepper and Red Pepper on the Growth of Common Food-Borne Pathogens and Their Biogenic Amine Formation

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Ferhat Kuley, Yesim Özogul

Abstract:

The impact of diethyl ether extract of spices (sumac, cumin, black pepper and red pepper) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Camplylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia enterocolitica and their biogenic amine production were investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth. Sumac extract generally had the highest activity to inhibit bacterial growth compared to other extracts, although antimicrobial effect of extracts used varied depending on bacterial strains. Sumac extract resulted in 3.34 and 2.54 log reduction for Y. enterocolitica and Camp. jejuni growth, whilst red pepper extract induced 0.65, 0.41 and 0.34 log reduction for growth of Y. enterocolitica, S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus, respectively. Spice extracts significantly inhibited ammonia production by bacteria (P < 0.05). Eleven and nine fold reduction on ammonia production by S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus were observed in the presence of sumac extract. Dopamine, agmatine, tyramine, serotonin and TMA were main amines produced by bacteria. Tyramine production by food-borne-pathogens was more than 10 mg/L, whereas histamine accumulated below 52 mg/L. The effect of spice extracts on biogenic amine production varied depending on amino acid decarboxylase broth, spice type, bacterial strains and specific amine, although cumin extract generally increased biogenic amine production by bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobials, biogenic amines, food-borne pathogens, spice extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1825 Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2/PVA/ SPEEK Composite Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Yusuf Ansari, Asad Abbas

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a very efficient and promising energy conversion device. Although Nafion® is considered as benchmark materials for membrane used in PEM fuel cell, it has limitations that restrict its uses. Alternative materials for the membrane is always a challenging field for researchers. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is one of the promising material for membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability and lower cost. In this work, SPEEK is synthesized, and property booster such as silica nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are also added to analyse changes in properties such as water uptake, IEC, and conductivity. It has been found that adding PVA support high water uptake and proton conductivity but at large amount of PVA reduces the proton conductivity due to very high water uptake. Adding silica enhances water uptake and proton conductivity.

Keywords: PEM Membrane, sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), silica fumes (SiO2), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
1824 In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata, Commonly Used Fruits in Assamese Cuisine

Authors: M. Das, B. P. Sarma, G. Ahmed

Abstract:

Human diet can be a major source of antioxidants. Poly¬phenols, which are organic compounds present in the regular human diet, have good antioxidant property. Most of the diseases are detected too late and that cause irre¬versible damage to the body. Therefore food that forms the natural source of antioxidants can prevent free radi¬cals from damaging our body tissues. Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata are two major fruits, easily available in Assam, North eastern Indian state. In the present study, the in vitro antioxi¬dant properties of the fruits of these plants are compared as the decoction of these fruits form a major part of Assamese cuisine. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of G. penducalata and D. indica fruits were carried out by the methods of Cotelle A et al. (1996). Different concentrations ranging from 10–110 ug/ml of the extracts were added to 100 uM of DPPH (2,2, Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and the absor¬bance was read at 517 nm after incubation. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. Different concentrations of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of G. penducalata and D. indica fruits were mixed with sodium nitroprusside and incubated. Griess reagent was added to the mixtures and their optical density was read at 546 nm following the method of Marcocci et al. (1994). Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. In order to find the scavenging activity of the extracts against hydroxyl radicals, the method of Kunchandy & Ohkawa (1990) was followed.The superoxide scavenging activity of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the fruits was deter¬mined by the method of Robak & Gryglewski (1998).Six replicates were maintained in each of the experiments and their SEM was evaluated based on which, non linear regres¬sion (curve fit), exponential growth were derived to calculate the IC50 values of the SAWE and standard compounds. All the statistical analyses were done by using paired t test. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the various extracts of D. indica exhibited IC50 values < 110 ug/ml concentration, the scavenging activity of the extracts of G. penducalata was surprisingly>110 ug/ml.Similarly the oxygen free radical scavenging activity of the different extracts of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value of <110 ug/ml but the methanolic extract of the same exhib¬ited a better free radical scavenging activity compared to that of vitamin C. The methanolic extract of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value better than that of vitamin C. The DPPH scavenging activities of the various extracts of D. indica and G. penducalata were <110 ug/ml but the methanolic extract of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value bet¬ter than that of vitaminc C.The higher amounts of phenolic content in the methanolic extract of D. indica might be one of the major causes for its enhanced in vitro antioxidant activity.The present study concludes that Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata both possesses anti oxidant activi¬ties. The anti oxidant activity of Dillenia indica is superior to that of Garcinia penducalata due to its higher phenolic content

Keywords: antioxidants, free radicals, phenolic, scavenging

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
1823 The Effect of Interfacial Chemistry on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Grafted Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Prajakta Katti, Suryasarathi Bose, S. Kumar

Abstract:

In this work, carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (a-MWNTs) covalently grafted with hydroxylated functionalized poly (ether ether ketone), HPEEK, which is miscible with the pre-polymer (epoxy) through the esterification reaction. The functionalized MWNTs were systematically characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The epoxy composites containing a-MWNTs and HPEEK grafted multiwall carbon nanotubes (HPEEK-g-MWNTs) were formulated using mechanical stirring coupled with a bath sonicator to improve the dispersion property of the nanoparticles and were subsequently cured at 80 ̊C and post cured at 180 ̊C. With the addition of 0.5 wt% of HPEEK-g-MWNTs, an impressive 44% enhancement in the storage modulus, 22% increase in tensile strength and 38% increase in fracture toughness was observed with respect to neat epoxy. In addition to these mechanical properties, the epoxy composites displayed significant enhancement in the hardness without reducing thermal stability. These improved properties were attributed to the tailored interface between HPEEK-MWNTs and epoxy matrix.

Keywords: epoxy, MWNTs, HPEEK-g-MWNTs, tensile properties, nanoindentation, fracture toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1822 Evaluation of Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Different Fractions from Total Alcoholic Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bark in Dexamethasone-Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

Authors: Hasanpasha N. Sholapur, Basanagouda M.Patil

Abstract:

Alcoholic extract of the bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), (Moringaceae), has been evaluated experimentally in the past for its insulin sensitizing potentials. In order to explore the possibility of the class of phytochemical(s) responsible for this experimental claim, the alcoholic extract was fractionated into non-polar [petroleum ether (PEF)], moderately non-polar [ethyl acetate (EAF)] and polar [aqueous (AQF)] fractions. All the fractions and pioglitazone (PIO) as standard (10mg/kg were p.o., once daily for 11 d) were investigated for their chronic effect on fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, insulin, oral glucose tolerance and acute effect on oral glucose tolerance in dexamethasone-induced (1 mg/kg s.c., once daily for 11 d) chronic model and acute model (1 mg/kg i.p., for 4 h) respectively for insulin resistance (IR) in rats. Among all the fractions tested, chronic treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced IR, indicated by prevention of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia and oral glucose intolerance, whereas treatment with AQF (95 mg/kg) prevented hepatic IR but not peripheral IR. In acute study single dose treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced oral glucose intolerance, fraction PEF did not show any effect on these parameters in both the models. The present study indicates that the triterpenoidal and the phenolic class of phytochemicals detected in EAF of alcoholic extract of MO bark may be responsible for the prevention of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, insulin resistance, dexamethasone, serum triglyceride, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test

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1821 Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Leaves Extract and Isolated Constituents from Saraca Asoca

Authors: Sunil Kumar

Abstract:

Background: The present study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the constituents isolated from Sarca asoca by enzyme inhibitory activity. Methods: The dried leaves of Sarca asoca were defatted with petroleum ether and further the same amount plant materials were extracted with methanol. The dried methanol extract was subjected to fractionation and chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of kaemferol, β-sitosterol and quercetin stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro enzyme inhibition effect. Results: The isolated compounds kaemferol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed 45.32, 40.5 and 41.23% α-amylase inhibition respectively and 43.45, 39.29 and 32.43% α-glucosidase inhibition respectively at the conc. of 50 µg/kg. Conclusion: The compounds isolated from Sarca asoca showed in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. So, Euphorbia hirta is a beneficial plant for management of diabetic disorders.

Keywords: diabetes, quercetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1820 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Standardization of Methanolic Extract of Hypericum sinaicum Hochst

Authors: Taghreed A. Ibrahim, Atef A. El-Hela, Hala M. El-Hefnawy

Abstract:

The chromatographic profile of methanol extract of Hypericum sinaicum was determined using HPLC-DAD. Apigenin was used as an external standard in the development and validation of the HPLC method. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable and can be successfully applied for standardization of Hypericum sinaicum methanol extract.

Keywords: quality control, standardization, falvonoids, methanol extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 411