Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: sponge

49 Mariculture Trials of the Philippine Blue Sponge Xestospongia sp.

Authors: Clairecynth Yu, Geminne Manzano

Abstract:

The mariculture potential of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. was assessed through the pilot sponge culture in the open-sea at two different biogeographic regions in the Philippines. Thirty explants were randomly allocated for the Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro culture setup and the other nine were transported to Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. Two different sponge culture methods of the sponge explants- the lantern and the wall method, were employed to assess the production of the Renieramycin M. Both methods have shown to be effective in growing the sponge explants and that the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results have shown that Renieramycin M is present on the sponges. The effect of partial harvesting in the growth and survival rates of the blue sponge in the Puerto Galera setup was also determined. Results showed that a higher growth rate was observed on the partially harvested explants on both culture methods as compared to the unharvested explants.

Keywords: chemical ecology, porifera, sponge, Xestospongia sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
48 The City Ecological Corridor Construction Based on the Concept Of "Sponge City"(Case Study: Lishui)

Authors: Xu Mengyuan, Xu Lei

Abstract:

Behind the rapid development of Chinese city, the contradiction of frequent urban waterlogging and the shortage of water resources is deepening. In order to solve this problem, introduce the low impact development "sponge city" construction mode in the process of the construction of new urbanization in China, make our city " resilience to adapt" environmental change and natural disaster. Firstly this paper analyses the basic reason of urban waterlogging, then introduces the basic connotation and realization approach of “sponge city”. Finally, study on the project in Lishui Guazhou, focuses on the analysis of the "urban ecological corridor" construction strategy and the positive impact on city in the construction of “sponge city”. Meanwhile, we put forward the ”local conditions” and ”sustainable” as the construction ideas, make use of ecological construction leading city development, explore the ecological balance through the city to enhance the regional value, and providing reference and reflection for the development and future of the “sponge city” in China.

Keywords: urban water logging, sponge city, urban ecological corridor, sustainable development, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
47 Preliminary Study of Sponge Spicule to Understand Paleobathymetry, Sentolo Formation, Kulon Progo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

Authors: Akmaluddin, Aulia Agus Patria, Adniwan Shubhi Banuzaki, Lucia Hardiana Kurnia Pratiwi

Abstract:

The phylum Porifera, commonly known as sponges, is a group of primitive animals living since Paleozoic-recent, currently have over 8300 described species, where the majority lives in the marine environment and sessile or in situ. Sponge spicule is one part of the body that secreted by sponge; this spicule can be well preserved because it composed of silicate material. Sponge spicule was identified based on morphological form, which was classified into two main classes, Megasclere and Microsclere. Any form of spicule morphology will indicate a particular sponge species, and it also related to the sponge living environment. Therefore, understanding the paleobathymetry using spicules can be done and more detailed because of sponge living in situ. The methods used in this paper are stratigraphic measurement, continuous sampling, and sieve preparation to dissolve calcareous and siliciclastics materials. Then, each spicule was picked by picking method for every 100 grams of each sample and identified the morphological form to determine the order and abundance of spicule. 10 samples have analyzed, 1489 spicules were identified, there were two classes of Porifera, Demospongiae, and Hexactinellida. Five orders of Porifera also identified in the research area, Haplosclerida, Hadromerida, Agelasida, Lithistids, and Lyssacinosida. The results from descriptive analysis and spicule abundance can be understood that the paleobathymetry of research area was in intertidal zone. Furthermore, the variation and abundance of sponge spicule can be used to understand the paleobathymetry and depositional environment.

Keywords: paleobathymetry, Sentolo formation, sponge, spicule

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
46 Sponge Urbanism as a Resilient City Design to Overcome Urban Flood Risk, for the Case of Aluva, Kerala, India

Authors: Gayathri Pramod, Sheeja K. P.

Abstract:

Urban flooding has been seen rising in cities for the past few years. This rise in urban flooding is the result of increasing urbanization and increasing climate change. A resilient city design focuses on 'living with water'. This means that the city is capable of accommodating the floodwaters without having to risk any loss of lives or properties. The resilient city design incorporates green infrastructure, river edge treatment, open space design, etc. to form a city that functions as a whole for resilience. Sponge urbanism is a recent method for building resilient cities and is founded by China in 2014. Sponge urbanism is the apt method for resilience building for a tropical town like Aluva of Kerala. Aluva is a tropical town that experiences rainfall of about 783 mm per month during the rainy season. Aluva is an urbanized town which faces the risk of urban flooding and riverine every year due to the presence of Periyar River in the town. Impervious surfaces and hard construction and developments contribute towards flood risk by posing as interference for a natural flow and natural filtration of water into the ground. This type of development is seen in Aluva also. Aluva is designed in this research as a town that have resilient strategies of sponge city and which focusses on natural methods of construction. The flood susceptibility of Aluva is taken into account to design the spaces for sponge urbanism and in turn, reduce the flood susceptibility for the town. Aluva is analyzed, and high-risk zones for development are identified through studies. These zones are designed to withstand the risk of flooding. Various catchment areas are identified according to the natural flow of water, and then these catchment areas are designed to act as a public open space and as detention ponds in case of heavy rainfall. Various development guidelines, according to land use, is also prescribed, which help in increasing the green cover of the town. Aluva is then designed to be a completely flood-adapted city or sponge city according to the guidelines and interventions.

Keywords: climate change, flooding, resilient city, sponge city, sponge urbanism, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
45 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

Abstract:

An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
44 Distribution Patterns of the Renieramycin-M-Producing Blue Sponge, Xestospongia sp. (De Laubenfels, 1932) (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines

Authors: Geminne Manzano, Clairecynth Yu, Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes, Viviene Santiago, Porfirio AliñO

Abstract:

The distribution and abundance patterns of many marine sessile organisms such as sponges vary among and within reefs. Determining the factors affecting its distribution is essential especially for organisms that produce secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical importance. In this study, the small-scale distribution patterns of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. in relation to some ecological factors were examined. The relationship between the renieramycin-M production and their benthic attributes were also determined. Ecological surveys were conducted on two stations with varying depth and exposure located in Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. Three 30 by 6m belt transect were used to assess the sponge abundance at each station. The substratum of the sponges was also characterized. Fish visual census observations were also taken together with the photo transect methods benthic surveys. Sponge samples were also collected for the extraction of Renieramycin-M and for further chemical analysis. Varying distribution patterns were observed to be attributed to the combination of different ecological and environmental factors. The amount of Renieramycin-production also varied in each station. The common substratum for blue sponges includes hard and soft corals, as well as, dead coral with algal patches. Blue sponges from exposed habitat frequently grow associated with massive and branching corals, Porites sp., while the most frequent substrate found on sheltered habitats is the coral Pavona sp. Exploring the influence of ecological and environmental parameters on the abundance and distribution of sponge assemblages provide ecological insights and their potential applications to pharmaceutical studies. The results of this study provide further impetus in pursuing studies into patterns and processes of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. distribution in relation to the chemical ecology of its secondary metabolites.

Keywords: distribution patterns, Porifera, Renieramycin-M, sponge assemblages, Xestospongia sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
43 Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.

Keywords: TiCl₄, titanium, hydrogen, plasma, reduction, thermodynamic calculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
42 Protein Isolates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Its Application in Cake

Authors: Mohamed Abdullah Ahmed

Abstract:

In a study of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) preparation, the wet alkaline extraction was carried out. The objectives were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of CPI and apply CPI into a sponge cake recipe to replace egg and make acceptable product. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was preferred to graphically express the relationship between extraction time and pH with the output variables of percent yield and protein content of CPI. It was noted that optimal extracting conditions were 60 min and pH 10.5 resulting in 90.07% protein content and 89.15% yield of CPI. The protein isolate (CPI) could be incorporated in cake to 20% without adversely affecting the cake physical properties such as cake hardness and sensory attributes. The higher protein content in cake was corresponding to the amount of CPI added. Therefore, adding CPI can significantly (p<0.05) increase protein content in cake. However, sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 20% of CPI decreased the overall acceptability. The results of this investigation could be used as a basic knowledge of CPI utilization in other food products.

Keywords: chick bean protein isolate, sponge cake, utilization, sponge

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41 Development of Ornamental Seedlings and Cuttings for Hydroponics Using Different Substrates

Authors: Moustafa A. Fadel, Omar Al Shehhi, Mohsin Al Mussabi, Abdullah Al Ameri

Abstract:

Hydroponics represents an extraordinary promising technique if used efficiently in arid regions where water resources are extremely scarce where a great portion of the used water should be recycled and saved. Available research publications studying the production of seedlings for such purpose are limited. This research paper focuses on investigating the effect of using various substrate materials on the development of seedlings for ornamental plants. Bermuda grass, Petunia (Compacta Enana Rosa) and Epipremnum aureum are used widely in landscape design. Bermuda is used as a turf grass; Petunia is used as a flowering plant and Epipremnum aureum as an indoor ornamental plant in hydroponics. Three substrate materials were used to germinate and propagate the first two and the cuttings of the third one. Synthetic sponge (Polyurethane sponge), Rockwool and sterilized cotton were used as the substrate material in each case where an experimental water-circulating apparatus was designed and installed to execute the test. An experimental setup of closed hydroponic apparatus was developed to carry out the experiment equipped with water recycling circuit and an aeration mechanism pumping air in reservoir in order to increase oxygen levels in the recycled water. Water pumping was programmed in different regimes to allow better aeration for seeds and cuttings under investigation. Results showed that Bermuda grass germinated in Rockwool reached a germination rate of 70% while it did not exceed 50% when sponge and medically treated cotton were used after 15 days. On the other hand the highest germination rate of Petunia was observed when treated cotton was used where it recorded about 30% while it was 22%, and 7% after 20 days where Rockwool and sponge were utilized respectively. Cuttings propagation of Epipremnum aureum developed the highest number of shoots when treated cotton was used where it gave 10 shoots after 10 days while it gave just 7 shoots when Rockwool and sponge were used as the propagation substrate.

Keywords: hydroponics, germination, seedlings, cuttings

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40 An Energy Integration Study While Utilizing Heat of Flue Gas: Sponge Iron Process

Authors: Venkata Ramanaiah, Shabina Khanam

Abstract:

Enormous potential for saving energy is available in coal-based sponge iron plants as these are associated with the high percentage of energy wastage per unit sponge iron production. An energy integration option is proposed, in the present paper, to a coal based sponge iron plant of 100 tonnes per day production capacity, being operated in India using SL/RN (Stelco-Lurgi/Republic Steel-National Lead) process. It consists of the rotary kiln, rotary cooler, dust settling chamber, after burning chamber, evaporating cooler, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), wet scrapper and chimney as important equipment. Principles of process integration are used in the proposed option. It accounts for preheating kiln inlet streams like kiln feed and slinger coal up to 170ᴼC using waste gas exiting ESP. Further, kiln outlet stream is cooled from 1020ᴼC to 110ᴼC using kiln air. The working areas in the plant where energy is being lost and can be conserved are identified. Detailed material and energy balances are carried out around the sponge iron plant, and a modified model is developed, to find coal requirement of proposed option, based on hot utility, heat of reactions, kiln feed and air preheating, radiation losses, dolomite decomposition, the heat required to vaporize the coal volatiles, etc. As coal is used as utility and process stream, an iterative approach is used in solution methodology to compute coal consumption. Further, water consumption, operating cost, capital investment, waste gas generation, profit, and payback period of the modification are computed. Along with these, operational aspects of the proposed design are also discussed. To recover and integrate waste heat available in the plant, three gas-solid heat exchangers and four insulated ducts with one FD fan for each are installed additionally. Thus, the proposed option requires total capital investment of $0.84 million. Preheating of kiln feed, slinger coal and kiln air streams reduce coal consumption by 24.63% which in turn reduces waste gas generation by 25.2% in comparison to the existing process. Moreover, 96% reduction in water is also observed, which is the added advantage of the modification. Consequently, total profit is found as $2.06 million/year with payback period of 4.97 months only. The energy efficient factor (EEF), which is the % of the maximum energy that can be saved through design, is found to be 56.7%. Results of the proposed option are also compared with literature and found in good agreement.

Keywords: coal consumption, energy conservation, process integration, sponge iron plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
39 Improving the Bioprocess Phenotype of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 and Sponge Decoy Mediated MiRNA Knockdowns

Authors: Kevin Kellner, Nga Lao, Orla Coleman, Paula Meleady, Niall Barron

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Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the prominent cell line used in biopharmaceutical production. To improve yields and find beneficial bioprocess phenotypes genetic engineering plays an essential role in recent research. The miR-23 cluster, specifically miR-24 and miR-27, was first identified as differentially expressed during hypothermic conditions suggesting a role in proliferation and productivity in CHO cells. In this study, we used sponge decoy technology to stably deplete the miRNA expression of the cluster. Furthermore, we implemented the CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockdown miRNA expression. Sponge constructs were designed for an imperfect binding of the miRNA target, protecting from RISC mediated cleavage. GuideRNAs for the CRISPR/Cas9 system were designed to target the seed region of the miRNA. The expression of mature miRNA and precursor were confirmed using RT-qPCR. For both approaches stable expressing mixed populations were generated and characterised in batch cultures. It was shown, that CRISPR/Cas9 can be implemented in CHO cells with achieving high knockdown efficacy of every single member of the cluster. Targeting of one miRNA member showed that its genomic paralog is successfully targeted as well. The stable depletion of miR-24 using CRISPR/Cas9 showed increased growth and specific productivity in a CHO-K1 mAb expressing cell line. This phenotype was further characterized using quantitative label-free LC-MS/MS showing 186 proteins differently expressed with 19 involved in proliferation and 26 involved in protein folding/translation. Targeting miR-27 in the same cell line showed increased viability in late stages of the culture compared to the control. To evaluate the phenotype in an industry relevant cell line; the miR-23 cluster, miR-24 and miR-27 were stably depleted in a Fc fusion CHO-S cell line which showed increased batch titers up to 1.5-fold. In this work, we highlighted that the stable depletion of the miR-23 cluster and its members can improve the bioprocess phenotype concerning growth and productivity in two different cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that using CRISPR/Cas9 is comparable to the traditional sponge decoy technology.

Keywords: Chinese Hamster ovary cells, CRISPR/Cas9, microRNAs, sponge decoy technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
38 Spatial Variability of Renieramycin-M Production in the Philippine Blue Sponge, Xestospongia Sp.

Authors: Geminne Manzano, Porfirio Aliño, Clairecynth Yu, Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes, Viviene Santiago

Abstract:

Many marine benthic organisms produce secondary metabolites that serve as ecological roles to different biological and environmental factors. The secondary metabolites found in these organisms like algae, sponges, tunicates and worms exhibit variation at different scales. Understanding the chemical variation can be essential in deriving the evolutionary and ecological function of the secondary metabolites that may explain their patterns. Ecological surveys were performed on two collection sites representing from two Philippine marine biogeographic regions – in Oriental Mindoro located on the West Philippine Sea (WPS) and in Zamboanga del Sur located at Celebes Sea (CS), where a total of 39 Xestospongia sp. sponges were collected using SCUBA. The sponge samples were transported to the laboratory for taxonomic identification and chemical analysis. Biological and environmental factors were investigated to determine their relation to the abundance and distribution patterns and its spatial variability of their secondary metabolite production. Extracts were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and anti-proliferative assays to confirm the presence of Renieramycin-M and to test its cytotoxicity. The blue sponges were found to be more abundant on the WPS than in CS. Both the benthic community and the fish community in Oriental Mindoro, WPS and Zamboanga del Sur, CS sites are characterized by high species diversity and abundance and a very high biomass category. Environmental factors like depth and monsoonal exposure were also compared showing that wave exposure and depth are associated with the abundance and distribution of the sponges. Renieramycin-M presence using the TLC profiles between the sponge extracts from WPS and from CS showed differences in the Reniermycin-M presence and the presence of other functional groups were observed between the two sites. In terms of bioactivity, different responses were also exhibited by the sponge extracts coming from the different region. Different responses were also noted on its bioactivity depending on the cell lines tested. Exploring the influence of ecological parameters on the chemical variation can provide deeper chemical ecological insights in the knowledge and their potential varied applications at different scales. The results of this study provide further impetus in pursuing studies into patterns and processes of the chemical diversity of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. and the chemical ecological significance of the coral triangle.

Keywords: chemical ecology, porifera, renieramycin-m, spatial variability, Xestospongia sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
37 Acoustic Emission for Investigation of Processes Occurring at Hydrogenation of Metallic Titanium

Authors: Anatoly A. Kuznetsov, Pavel G. Berezhko, Sergey M. Kunavin, Eugeny V. Zhilkin, Maxim V. Tsarev, Vyacheslav V. Yaroshenko, Valery V. Mokrushin, Olga Y. Yunchina, Sergey A. Mityashin

Abstract:

The acoustic emission is caused by short-time propagation of elastic waves that are generated as a result of quick energy release from sources localized inside some material. In particular, the acoustic emission phenomenon lies in the generation of acoustic waves resulted from the reconstruction of material internal structures. This phenomenon is observed at various physicochemical transformations, in particular, at those accompanying hydrogenation processes of metals or intermetallic compounds that make it possible to study parameters of these transformations through recording and analyzing the acoustic signals. It has been known that at the interaction between metals or inter metallides with hydrogen the most intensive acoustic signals are generated as a result of cracking or crumbling of an initial compact powder sample as a result of the change of material crystal structure under hydrogenation. This work is dedicated to the study into changes occurring in metallic titanium samples at their interaction with hydrogen and followed by acoustic emission signals. In this work the subjects for investigation were specimens of metallic titanium in two various initial forms: titanium sponge and fine titanium powder made of this sponge. The kinetic of the interaction of these materials with hydrogen, the acoustic emission signals accompanying hydrogenation processes and the structure of the materials before and after hydrogenation were investigated. It was determined that in both cases interaction of metallic titanium and hydrogen is followed by acoustic emission signals of high amplitude generated on reaching some certain value of the atomic ratio [H]/[Ti] in a solid phase because of metal cracking at a macrolevel. The typical sizes of the cracks are comparable with particle sizes of hydrogenated specimens. The reasons for cracking are internal stresses initiated in a sample due to the increasing volume of a solid phase as a result of changes in a material crystal lattice under hydrogenation. When the titanium powder is used, the atomic ratio [H]/[Ti] in a solid phase corresponding to the maximum amplitude of an acoustic emission signal are, as a rule, higher than when titanium sponge is used.

Keywords: acoustic emission signal, cracking, hydrogenation, titanium specimen

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36 Evaluation of Natural Gums: Gum Tragacanth, Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum and Gum Acacia as Potential Hemostatic Agents

Authors: Himanshu Kushwah, Nidhi Sandal, Meenakshi K. Chauhan, Gaurav Mittal

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Excessive bleeding is the primary factor of avoidable death in both civilian trauma centers as well as the military battlefield. Hundreds of Indian troops die every year due to blood loss caused by combat-related injuries. These deaths are avoidable and can be prevented to a large extent by making available a suitable hemostatic dressing in an emergency medical kit. In this study, natural gums were evaluated as potential hemostatic agents in combination with calcium gluconate. The study compares the hemostatic activity of Gum Tragacanth (GT), Guar Gum (GG), Xanthan Gum (XG) and Gum Acacia (GA) by carrying out different in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In-vitro studies were performed using the Lee-White method and Eustrek method, which includes the visual and microscopic analysis of blood clotting. MTT assay was also performed using human lymphocytes to check the cytotoxicity of the gums. The in-vivo studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats using tail bleeding assay to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the gums and compared with a commercially available hemostatic sponge, Surgispon. Erythrocyte agglutination test was also performed to check the interaction between blood cells and the natural gums. Other parameters like blood loss, adherence strength of the developed hemostatic dressing material incorporating these gums, re-bleeding, and survival of the animals were also studied. The data obtained from the MTT assay showed that Guar gum, Gum Tragacanth, and Gum Acacia were not significantly cytotoxic, but substantial cytotoxicity was observed in Xanthan gum samples at high concentrations. Also, Xanthan gum took the least time with its minimum concentration to achieve hemostasis, (approximately 50 seconds at 3mg concentration). Gum Tragacanth also showed efficient hemostasis at a concentration of 35mg at the same time, but the other two gums tested were not able to clot the blood in significantly less time. A sponge dressing made of Tragacanth gum was found to be more efficient in achieving hemostasis and showed better practical applicability among all the gums studied and also when compared to the commercially available product, Surgispon, thus making it a potentially better alternative.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, hemostasis, natural gums, sponge

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35 Inhibition of Sea Urchin and Starfish Embryonic Development by Hexane Extracts from Five Philippine Marine Sponges

Authors: Chona Gelani, Mylene Uy, Keisuke Yasuda, Emi Ohta, Shinji Ohta

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The marine environment is undoubtedly a rich source of diverse organisms that possess bioactive secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities. Marine sponges have since been contributing a wide array of compounds of biomedical and pharmaceutical importance. This study is an attempt to contribute to the growing and advancing marine natural products research. It aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the hexane extract (H) from the Philippine marine sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata (Rg), Callyspongia sp. (Calsp), Callyspongia aerizusa (Ca), Carteriospongia sp. (Carsp), and Cinachyrella sp. (Cisp) using the eggs of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, and sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of the marine sponge hexane extract was determined through its inhibition of starfish and sea urchin embryonic development. After 24 hours, CarspH and RgH inhibited early gastrulation of sea urchin at a minimum concentration of 15.63 and 31.25 μg/mL, respectively. CalspH inhibited the early gastrulation of both sea urchin and starfish at 125 μg/mL, whereas CaH halted the morula of sea urchin and early gastrulation of starfish at 250 μg/mL. CispH exhibited relatively weak inhibitory activity on starfish embryogenesis but inhibited the early gastrulation of sea urchin at 250 μg/mL. The results obtained from this study were used as basis for the separation, isolation and purification of the component(s) of the hexane extracts from the five Philippine marine sponges.

Keywords: embryonic development, marine sponge cytotoxicity, Philippine marine sponges, sea urchin and starfish embryogenesis

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34 3D Microscopy, Image Processing, and Analysis of Lymphangiogenesis in Biological Models

Authors: Thomas Louis, Irina Primac, Florent Morfoisse, Tania Durre, Silvia Blacher, Agnes Noel

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In vitro and in vivo lymphangiogenesis assays are essential for the identification of potential lymphangiogenic agents and the screening of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we analyse three biological models: in vitro lymphatic endothelial cell spheroids, in vivo ear sponge assay, and in vivo lymph node colonisation by tumour cells. These assays provide suitable 3D models to test pro- and anti-lymphangiogenic factors or drugs. 3D images were acquired by confocal laser scanning and light sheet fluorescence microscopy. Virtual scan microscopy followed by 3D reconstruction by image aligning methods was also used to obtain 3D images of whole large sponge and ganglion samples. 3D reconstruction, image segmentation, skeletonisation, and other image processing algorithms are described. Fixed and time-lapse imaging techniques are used to analyse lymphatic endothelial cell spheroids behaviour. The study of cell spatial distribution in spheroid models enables to detect interactions between cells and to identify invasion hierarchy and guidance patterns. Global measurements such as volume, length, and density of lymphatic vessels are measured in both in vivo models. Branching density and tortuosity evaluation are also proposed to determine structure complexity. Those properties combined with vessel spatial distribution are evaluated in order to determine lymphangiogenesis extent. Lymphatic endothelial cell invasion and lymphangiogenesis were evaluated under various experimental conditions. The comparison of these conditions enables to identify lymphangiogenic agents and to better comprehend their roles in the lymphangiogenesis process. The proposed methodology is validated by its application on the three presented models.

Keywords: 3D image segmentation, 3D image skeletonisation, cell invasion, confocal microscopy, ear sponges, light sheet microscopy, lymph nodes, lymphangiogenesis, spheroids

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
33 Assessment of Selected Marine Organisms from Malaysian Coastal Areas for Inhibitory Activity against the Chikungunya Virus

Authors: Yik Sin Chan, Nam Weng Sit, Fook Yee Chye, van Ofwegen Leen, de Voogd Nicole, Kong Soo Khoo

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Chikungunya fever is an arboviral disease transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes. It has resulted in epidemics of the disease in tropical countries in the Indian Ocean and South East Asian regions. The recent spread of this disease to the temperate countries such as France and Italy, coupled with the absence of vaccines and effective antiviral drugs make chikungunya fever a worldwide health threat. This study aims to investigate the anti-chikungunya virus activity of selected marine organism samples collected from Malaysian coastal areas, including seaweeds (Caulerpa racemosa, Caulerpa sertularioides and Kappaphycus alvarezii), a soft coral (Lobophytum microlobulatum) and a sponge (Spheciospongia vagabunda). Following lyophilization (oven drying at 40C for K. alvarezii) and grinding to powder form, each sample was subjected to sequential solvent extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and distilled water in order to extract bioactive compounds. The antiviral activity was evaluated using monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells infected with the virus (multiplicity of infection=1). The cell viability was determined by Neutral Red uptake assay. 70% of the 30 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity with cell viability ≤30%. Seven of the extracts exhibited moderate inhibitory activity (cell viability: 31%-69%). These were the chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of C. racemosa; chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of L. microlobulatum; and the chloroform extract of C. sertularioides. Only the hexane and ethanol extracts of L. microlobulatum showed strong inhibitory activity against the virus, resulting in cell viabilities (mean±SD; n=3) of 73.3±2.6% and 79.2±0.9%, respectively. The corresponding mean 50% effective concentrations (EC50) for the extracts were 14.2±0.2 and 115.3±1.2 µg/mL, respectively. The ethanol extract of the soft coral L. microlobulatum appears to hold the most promise for further characterization of active principles as it possessed greater selectivity index (SI>5.6) compared to the hexane extract (SI=2.1).

Keywords: antiviral, seaweed, sponge, soft coral, vero cell

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32 Pharmacological Active Compounds of Sponges and a Gorgonian Coral from the Andaman Sea, Thailand

Authors: Patchara Pedpradab, Kietisak Yoksang, Kosin Pattanamanee

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In our ongoing search for pharmacological significant of compounds from marine organisms, we investigated the active constituents of two sponges (Xestospongia sp., Halichondria sp.) and a gorgonian coral (Juncella sp.) from the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Several compounds were isolated from those of marine organisms. A marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. contained an isoqinoline compound namely aureol and cytotoxic thiophenen sesterterpene while Halichondria sp. produced C-28 sterols. The white gorgonian coral, Juncella sp. contained anti-tuberculosis diterpenes namely, junceellin and praelolide. All of the isolated compounds were analyzed by spectroscopic methods, extensively.

Keywords: Xestospongia sp., Halichondria sp., gorgonian, Juncella sp. biological activity

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31 Munting Kamay, Munting Gawa: Children's Development Training, a UCU Experience

Authors: Elizabeth A. Montero

Abstract:

The project contemplated in this study particularly aimed at enabling public school children of ages ten to twelve who belong to low and middle income families. The pupils were provided training on communication, work, computer and social skills. In this study, the researcher hypothesized that children given the opportunity to develop a skill through guidance and proper supervision will significantly learn, improve and develop a skill. Since children’s minds are highly absorbent like a sponge absorbing anything within its capacity to take, it is ideal and necessary that education should provide an environment that is rich offering an array of meaningful experiences. The context of this study is well balanced since it catered to the children’s communication, work, computer and social skills.

Keywords: Munting Kamay, Munting Gawa, children’s development training, UCU experience

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30 Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. S. Salehi, A. Shamloo

Abstract:

Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.

Keywords: cartilage tissue engineering, hydrogel, mechanical strength, mesenchymal stem cell

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29 Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.

Keywords: rutile, titanium, chlorination process, impurities, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage

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28 Oncogenic Functions of Long Non-Coding RNA XIST in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Targeting MiR-34a-5p

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X inactivate-specific transcript (XIST) has been verified as an oncogenic gene in several human malignant tumors, and its dysregulation was closed associated with tumor initiation, development and progression. Nevertheless, whether the aberrant expression of XIST in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is corrected with malignancy, metastasis or prognosis has not been elaborated. Here, we discovered that XIST was up-regulated in NPC tissues and higher expression of XIST contributed to a markedly poorer survival time. In addition, multivariate analysis demonstrated XIST was an independent risk factor for prognosis. XIST over-expression enhanced, while XIST silencing hampered the cell growth in NPC. Additionally, mechanistic analysis revealed that XIST up-regulated the expression of miR-34a-5p targeted gene E2F3 through acting as a competitive ‘sponge’ of miR-34a-5p. Taking all into account, we concluded that XIST functioned as an oncogene in NPC through up-regulating E2F3 in part through ‘spongeing’ miR-34a-5p.

Keywords: X inactivate-specific transcript; hsa-miRNA-34a-5p, miR-34a-5p; E2F3, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, tumorigenesis

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27 Sustainable Development through Cleaner Production in India: Barriers and Possible Directions for Implementation Based on Case Study

Authors: Aparajita Mukherjee, D. P. Mukherjee

Abstract:

This paper critically assessed pollution problems in small and medium enterprises with unique references to foundries and sponge iron industries to survey the adverse impact on human societies and the environment. The objective of this paper was to show how cleaner production concept was implemented in one foundry through improvisation of existing technology in India. Incremental advancement of existing technology minimized environmental issues and resource utilization. This study depicted that poor fiscal help, poor enforcement of government regulations, owners’ attitude and lacking specialized technical workers were the significant hindrances towards cleaner production. The paper explored the possible ways to overcome these hindrances for cleaner production. On a more general level, findings raise important questions regarding the need for a new paradigm for the implementation of cleaner production. Improvisation of existing technology in these enterprises would be cost effective towards sustainable development.

Keywords: SME pollution, ecological crisis, sustainable development, cleaner production, training

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26 Distribution and Segregation of Aerosols in Ambient Air

Authors: S. Ramteke, K. S. Patel

Abstract:

Aerosols are complex mixture of particulate matters (PM) inclusive of carbons, silica, elements, various salts, etc. Aerosols get deep into the human lungs and cause a broad range of health effects, in particular, respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. They are one of the major culprits for the climate change. They are emitted by the high thermal processes i.e. vehicles, steel, sponge, cement, thermal power plants, etc. Raipur (22˚33'N to 21˚14'N and 82˚6'E) to 81˚38'E) is a growing industrial city in central India with population of two million. In this work, the distribution of inorganics (i.e. Cl⁻, NO³⁻, SO₄²⁻, NH₄⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) associated to the PM in the ambient air is described. The PM₁₀ in ambient air of Raipur city was collected for duration of one year (December 2014 - December 2015). The PM₁₀ was segregated into nine modes i.e. PM₁₀.₀₋₉.₀, PM₉.₀₋₅.₈, PM₅.₈₋₄.₇, PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₃.₃₋₂.₁, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇, PM₀.₇₋₀.₄ and PM₀.₄ to know their emission sources and health hazards. The analysis of ions and metals was carried out by techniques i.e. ion chromatography and TXRF. The PM₁₀ concentration (n=48) was ranged from 100-450 µg/m³ with mean value of 73.57±20.82 µg/m³. The highest concentration of PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇ was observed in the commercial, residential and industrial area, respectively. The effect of meteorology i.e. temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction in the PM₁₀ and associated elemental concentration in the air is discussed.

Keywords: ambient aerosol, ions, metals, segregation

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25 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin

Abstract:

We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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24 Isolation of Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua

Authors: Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbudin Saad, Deny Susanti, Osama Althunibat

Abstract:

This study was carried out to isolate the active antimicrobial compounds from Neopetrosia exigua using bio-guided assay isolation against Staphylococcus aureus. N. exigua was extracted using methanol and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with different polarity (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, n-butanol and water). Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions was done using Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase chromatography. Based on the biological guided fractionation results, dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions yielded three compounds. The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated and found to be 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, cyclo-1`-demethylcystalgerone and avarol derivative. Avarol was showed potent bactericidal effect against S. aureus. N. exigua appears to be rich source of natural antimicrobial agents. Further studies are needed to investigate the mode of action of these compounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial, avarol, Neopetrosia exigua, Staphylococcus aureus

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23 An Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, L. J. Deng, T. D. C Tran

Abstract:

Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for Biological Wastewater Treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate (SOUR) in a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a Sponge Submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) and Bound-Extracellular Polymeric Substances (BEPS) were found affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.

Keywords: microbial products, microbial activity, specific oxygen uptake rate, membrane bioreactor

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22 Improving Alginate Bioink by Recombinant Spider-Silk Biopolymer

Authors: Dean Robinson, Miriam Gublebank, Ella Sklan, Tali Tavor Re'em

Abstract:

Alginate, a natural linear polysaccharide polymer extracted from brown seaweed, is extensively applied due to its biocompatibility, all- aqueous ease of handling, and relatively low costs. Alginate easily forms a hydrogel when crosslinked with a divalent ion, such as calcium. However, Alginate hydrogel holds low mechanical properties and is cell-inert. To overcome these drawbacks and to improve alginate as a bio-ink for bioprinting, we produced a new alginate matrix combined with spider silk, one of the most resilient, elastic, strong materials known to men. Recombinant spider silk biopolymer has a sponge-like structure and is known to be biocompatible and non-immunogenic. Our results indicated that combining synthetic spider-silk into bio-printed cell-seeded alginate hydrogels resulted in improved properties compared to alginate: improved mechanical properties of the matrix, achieving a tunable gel viscosity and high printability, alongside prolonged and higher cell viability in culture, probably due to the improved cell-matrix interactions. The new bio-ink was then used for bilayer bioprinting of epithelial and stromal endometrial cells. Such a co-culture model will be used for the formation of the complex endometrial tissue for studying the embryo implantation process.

Keywords: cell culture, tissue engineering, spider silk, alginate, bioprinting

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21 Bacterial Contamination of Kitchen Sponges and Cutting Surfaces and Disinfection Procedures

Authors: Hayyan I Al Taweil

Abstract:

Background: The most common of bacterium in kitchen sponges and cutting surfaces which can play a task within the cross-contamination of foods, fomites and hands by foodborne pathogens. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the incidence of bacterium in kitchen Sponge, and cutting surfaces. Material and methods: a complete of twenty four kitchen Sponges were collected from home kitchens and therefore the numbers of mesotrophic microorganism, coliform microorganism, E. coli, Salmonella, genus {pseudomonas|bacteria genus} and staphylococci in every kitchen Sponges were determined. Microbiological tests of all sponges for total mesophilic aerobic microorganism, S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella spp., and E. coli were performed on days 3, 7, and 14 by sampling. The sponges involved in daily use in kitchens countenosely with the dishwasher detergent a minimum of doubly daily Results: Results from the overall mesophilic aerobic microorganism, indicate a major increase within the variety of log CFU/ml. the amount of E. coli was reduced, Salmonella spp. was stabled, S. aureus was enhanced from the sponges throughout fourteen days. Genus Pseudomonas was enhanced and was the dominant micro flora within the sponges throughout fourteen days.

Keywords: Kitchen Sponges, Microbiological Contamination, Disinfection; cutting surface; , Cross-Contamination

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20 Enhanced Biosorption of Copper Ions by Luffa Cylindrica: Biosorbent Characterization and Batch Experiments

Authors: Nouacer Imane, Benalia Mokhtar, Djedid Mabrouk

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The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbons (PAC) derived from Luffa cylindrica investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbents for the control of Cu(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from local luffa cylindrica, were prepared by chemical activation methods using ZnCl2 as activating reagents. Adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of pH, initial adsorbent concentration, the effect of particle size, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper onto grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber was found to be 14.23 mg/g with best fit for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, ∆H (-0.823 kJ/mol), entropy change, ∆S (-9.35 J/molK) and free energy change, ∆G (−1.56 kJ/mol) were also calculated. Adsorption process was found spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Finally, the luffa cylindrica has been evaluated by FTIR, MO and x-ray diffraction in order to determine if the biosorption process modifies its chemical structure and morphology, respectively. Luffa cylindrica has been proven to be an efficient biomaterial useful for heavy metal separation purposes that is not altered by the process.

Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, thermodynamic, luffa sponge

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