Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 635

Search results for: severity

635 Latent Factors of Severity in Truck-Involved and Non-Truck-Involved Crashes on Freeways

Authors: Shin-Hyung Cho, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

Truck-involved crashes have higher crash severity than non-truck-involved crashes. There have been many studies about the frequency of crashes and the development of severity models, but those studies only analyzed the relationship between observed variables. To identify why more people are injured or killed when trucks are involved in the crash, we must examine to quantify the complex causal relationship between severity of the crash and risk factors by adopting the latent factors of crashes. The aim of this study was to develop a structural equation or model based on truck-involved and non-truck-involved crashes, including five latent variables, i.e. a crash factor, environmental factor, road factor, driver’s factor, and severity factor. To clarify the unique characteristics of truck-involved crashes compared to non-truck-involved crashes, a confirmatory analysis method was used. To develop the model, we extracted crash data from 10,083 crashes on Korean freeways from 2008 through 2014. The results showed that the most significant variable affecting the severity of a crash is the crash factor, which can be expressed by the location, cause, and type of the crash. For non-truck-involved crashes, the crash and environment factors increase severity of the crash; conversely, the road and driver factors tend to reduce severity of the crash. For truck-involved crashes, the driver factor has a significant effect on severity of the crash although its effect is slightly less than the crash factor. The multiple group analysis employed to analyze the differences between the heterogeneous groups of drivers.

Keywords: crash severity, structural structural equation modeling (SEM), truck-involved crashes, multiple group analysis, crash on freeway

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634 Identifying Key Factors for Accidents’ Severity at Rail-Road Level Crossings Using Ordered Probit Models

Authors: Arefeh Lotfi, Mahdi Babaei, Ayda Mashhadizadeh, Samira Nikpour, Morteza Bagheri

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to investigate the key factors in accidents’ severity at rail-road level crossings. The data required for this study is obtained from both accident and inventory database of Iran Railways during 2009-2015. The Ordered Probit model is developed using SPSS software to identify the significant factors in the accident severity at rail-road level crossings. The results show that 'train speed', 'vehicle type' and 'weather' are the most important factors affecting the severity of the accident. The results of these studies assist to allocate resources in the right place. This paper suggests mandating the regulations to reduce train speed at rail-road level crossings in bad weather conditions to improve the safety of rail-road level crossings.

Keywords: rail-road level crossing, ordered probit model, accidents’ severity, significant factors

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633 Multivariate Dependent Frequency-Severity Modeling of Insurance Claims: A Vine Copula Approach

Authors: Islem Kedidi, Rihab Bedoui Bensalem, Faysal Manssouri

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In traditional models of insurance data, the number and size of claims are assumed to be independent. Relaxing the independence assumption, this article explores the Vine copula to model dependence structure between multivariate frequency and average severity of insurance claim. To illustrate this approach, we use the Wisconsin local government property insurance fund which offers several insurance protections for motor vehicles, property and contractor’s equipment claims. Results show that the C-vine copula can better characterize the multivariate dependence structure between frequency and severity. Furthermore, we find significant dependencies especially between frequency and average severity among different coverage types.

Keywords: dependency modeling, government insurance, insurance claims, vine copula

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632 Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic health problem and a major risk factor of stroke. A number of therapeutic modalities exist for diabetes management. It’s still unknown whether the different oral hypoglycemic agents would ameliorate the detrimental effect of diabetes on stroke severity. The objective of this work is to assess the effect of pretreatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and their combination on stroke severity at presentation. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)-Jordan with ischemic stroke between January 2015 and December 2016 were evaluated and their comorbid diseases, treatment on admission and their neurologic severity was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were documented. Stroke severity was compared for non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients treated with different antidiabetic agents. Results: Data from 324 patients with acute stroke was documented. The median age of participants was 69 years. Diabetes was documented in about 50% of the patients. Multinomial regression analysis identified diabetes treatment status as an independent predictor of neurological severity of stroke (p=0.032). Patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents had a significantly lower NIHSS as compared to nondiabetic patients and insulin treated patients (p < 0.02). The positive effect of oral hypoglycemic agents was blunted by insulin co-treatment. Insulin did not alter the severity of stroke as compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents may reduce the severity of neurologic deficit of ischemic stroke and may have neuroprotective effect.

Keywords: diabetes, stroke, neuroprotection, oral hypoglycemic agents

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631 Severity Index Level in Effectively Managing Medium Voltage Underground Power Cable

Authors: Mohd Azraei Pangah Pa'at, Mohd Ruzlin Mohd Mokhtar, Norhidayu Rameli, Tashia Marie Anthony, Huzainie Shafi Abd Halim

Abstract:

Partial Discharge (PD) diagnostic mapping testing is one of the main diagnostic testing techniques that are widely used in the field or onsite testing for underground power cable in medium voltage level. The existence of PD activities is an early indication of insulation weakness hence early detection of PD activities can be determined and provides an initial prediction on the condition of the cable. To effectively manage the results of PD Mapping test, it is important to have acceptable criteria to facilitate prioritization of mitigation action. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) through Distribution Network (DN) division have developed PD severity model name Severity Index (SI) for offline PD mapping test since 2007 based on onsite test experience. However, this severity index recommendation action had never been revised since its establishment. At presence, PD measurements data have been extensively increased, hence the severity level indication and the effectiveness of the recommendation actions can be analyzed and verified again. Based on the new revision, the recommended action to be taken will be able to reflect the actual defect condition. Hence, will be accurately prioritizing preventive action plan and minimizing maintenance expenditure.

Keywords: partial discharge, severity index, diagnostic testing, medium voltage, power cable

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630 Agent-Based Modeling of Pedestrian Corridor Congestion on the Characteristics of Physical Space Form

Authors: Sun Shi, Sun Cheng

Abstract:

The pedestrian corridor is the most crowded area in the public space. The crowded severity has been focused on the field of evacuation strategies of the entrance in large public spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the walking efficiency in different spaces of pedestrian corridor with the variation of spatial parameters. The congestion condition caused by the variation of walking efficiency is modeled as well. This study established the space model of the walking corridor by setting the width, slope, turning form and turning angle of the pedestrian corridor. The pedestrian preference of walking mode varied with the difference of the crowded severity, walking speed, field of vision, sight direction and the expected destination, which is influenced by the characters of physical space form. Swarm software is applied to build Agent model. According to the output of the Agent model, the relationship between the pedestrian corridor width, ground slope, turning forms, turning angle and the walking efficiency, crowded severity is acquired. The results of the simulation can be applied to pedestrian corridor design in order to reduce the crowded severity and the potential safety risks caused by crowded people.

Keywords: crowded severity, multi-agent, pedestrian preference, urban space design

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629 Enhance Security in XML Databases: XLog File for Severity-Aware Trust-Based Access Control

Authors: A: Asmawi, L. S. Affendey, N. I. Udzir, R. Mahmod

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The topic of enhancing security in XML databases is important as it includes protecting sensitive data and providing a secure environment to users. In order to improve security and provide dynamic access control for XML databases, we presented XLog file to calculate user trust values by recording users’ bad transaction, errors and query severities. Severity-aware trust-based access control for XML databases manages the access policy depending on users' trust values and prevents unauthorized processes, malicious transactions and insider threats. Privileges are automatically modified and adjusted over time depending on user behaviour and query severity. Logging in database is an important process and is used for recovery and security purposes. In this paper, the Xlog file is presented as a dynamic and temporary log file for XML databases to enhance the level of security.

Keywords: XML database, trust-based access control, severity-aware, trust values, log file

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628 Assessing the Legacy Effects of Wildfire on Eucalypt Canopy Structure of South Eastern Australia

Authors: Yogendra K. Karna, Lauren T. Bennett

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Fire-tolerant eucalypt forests are one of the major forest ecosystems of south-eastern Australia and thought to be highly resistant to frequent high severity wildfires. However, the impact of different severity wildfires on the canopy structure of fire-tolerant forest type is under-studied, and there are significant knowledge gaps in relation to the assessment of tree and stand level canopy structural dynamics and recovery after fire. Assessment of canopy structure is a complex task involving accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical arrangement of the canopy in space and time. This study examined the utility of multitemporal, small-footprint lidar data to describe the changes in the horizontal and vertical canopy structure of fire-tolerant eucalypt forests seven years after wildfire of different severities from the tree to stand level. Extensive ground measurements were carried out in four severity classes to describe and validate canopy cover and height metrics as they change after wildfire. Several metrics such as crown height and width, crown base height and clumpiness of crown were assessed at tree and stand level using several individual tree top detection and measurement algorithm. Persistent effects of high severity fire 8 years after both on tree crowns and stand canopy were observed. High severity fire increased the crown depth but decreased the crown projective cover leading to more open canopy.

Keywords: canopy gaps, canopy structure, crown architecture, crown projective cover, multi-temporal lidar, wildfire severity

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627 Heavy Vehicles Crash Injury Severity at T-Intersections

Authors: Sivanandan Balakrishnan, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay

Abstract:

Heavy vehicles make a significant contribution to many developed economies, including Australia, because they are a major means of transporting goods within these countries. With the increase in road freight, there will be an increase in the heavy vehicle traffic proportion, and consequently, an increase in the possibility of collisions involving heavy vehicles. Crashes involving heavy vehicles are a major road safety concern because of the higher likelihood of fatal and serious injury, especially to any small vehicle occupant involved. The primary objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing injury severity to occupants in vehicle collisions involving heavy vehicle at T- intersection using a binary logit model in Victoria, Australia. Our results show that the factors influencing injury severity include occupants' gender, age and restraint use. Also, vehicles' type, movement, point-of-impact and damage, time-of-day, day-of-week and season, higher percentage of trucks in traffic volume, hit pedestrians, number of occupants involved and type of collisions are associated with severe injury.

Keywords: binary logit model, heavy vehicle, injury severity, T-intersections

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626 Impulsivity and Nutritional Restrictions in BED

Authors: Jaworski Mariusz, Owczarek Krzysztof, Adamus Mirosława

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Binge eating disorder (BED) is one of the three main eating disorders, beside anorexia and bulimia nervosa. BED is characterized by a loss of control over the quantity of food consumed and the lack of the compensatory behaviors, such as induced vomiting or purging. Studies highlight that certain personality traits may contribute to the severity of symptoms in the ED. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between psychological variables (Impulsivity and Urgency) and Nutritional restrictions in BED. The study included two groups. The first group consisted of 35 women with BED aged 18 to 28. The control group - 35 women without ED aged 18 to 28. ED-1 questionnaire was used in a study to assess the severity of impulsivity, urgency and nutritional restrictions. The obtained data were standardized. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS 21 software. The severity of impulsivity was higher in patients with BED than the control group. The relation between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions in BED was observed, only taking into consideration the relationship of these variables with the level of urgency. However, if the severity of urgency in this relationship is skipped, the relationship between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions will not occur. Impulsivity has a negative relationship with the level of urgency. This study suggests the need to analyze the interaction between impulsivity and urgency, and their relationship with dietary behavior in BED, especially nutritional restrictions. Analysis of single isolated features may give erroneous results.

Keywords: binge eating disorder, impulsivity, nutritional restrictions, urgency

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625 The Effect of Normal Cervical Sagittal Configuration in the Management of Cervicogenic Dizziness: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Moustafa Ibrahim Moustafa

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The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of cervical sagittal curve restoration and forward head correction, on severity of dizziness, disability, frequency of dizziness, and severity of cervical pain. 72 patients with cervicogenic dizziness, definite hypolordotic cervical spine, and forward head posture were randomized to experimental or a control group. Both groups received the multimodal program, additionally, the study group received the Denneroll cervical traction. All outcome measures were measured at three intervals. The general linear model indicated a significant group × time effects in favor of experimental group on measures of anterior head translation (F=329.4 P < .0005), cervical lordosis (F=293.7 P < .0005), severity of dizziness (F=262.1 P < .0005), disability (F=248.9 P < .0005), frequency of dizziness (F=53.9 P < .0005), and severity of cervical pain (F=350.1 P < .0005). The addition of Dennroll cervical traction to a multimodal program can positively affect dizziness management outcomes.

Keywords: randomized controlled trial, traction, dizziness, cervical

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624 Comparative Efficacy of Benomyl and Three Plant Extracts in the Control of Cowpea Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sensu Lato

Authors: M. J. Falade

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Field experiment was conducted to compare the efficacy of hot water extracts of three plants (Ricinus communis, Jatropha gossypifolia and Datura stramonium) with benomyl in the control of cowpea anthracnose disease. Three concentrations of the extracts (65, 50 and 30%) were used in the study. Result from the experiment shows that all the extracts at the tested concentration reduced the incidence and severity of the disease. D. stramonium at 65% concentration compares favourably with that of benomyl fungicide in reducing incidence and severity of infection. At 65% concentration of D. stramonium, incidence of the disease was 22% on pooled mean basis, and this was not significantly different from that of benomyl (21%). Similarly, the percentage of normal seeds recorded at this same concentration of the extract was 85% and was not significantly different from that of benomyl (86%). In terms of disease severity trace infections were observed on the cowpea plants at this concentration of the extract and that of benomyl. However, at lower concentrations of all the extracts, significant variations were observed on incidence of disease and percentage of normal seeds such that values obtained from use of benomyl were higher than those obtained from the use of the extracts. The study, therefore, shows that extracts of these indigenous plants can be used as a substitute for the benomyl fungicide in the management of anthracnose disease.

Keywords: benomyl, C. lindemuthianum, disease incidence, disease severity

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623 Sentinel-2 Based Burn Area Severity Assessment Tool in Google Earth Engine

Authors: D. Madhushanka, Y. Liu, H. C. Fernando

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Fires are one of the foremost factors of land surface disturbance in diverse ecosystems, causing soil erosion and land-cover changes and atmospheric effects affecting people's lives and properties. Generally, the severity of the fire is calculated as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index. This is performed manually by comparing two images obtained afterward. Then by using the bitemporal difference of the preprocessed satellite images, the dNBR is calculated. The burnt area is then classified as either unburnt (dNBR<0.1) or burnt (dNBR>= 0.1). Furthermore, Wildfire Severity Assessment (WSA) classifies burnt areas and unburnt areas using classification levels proposed by USGS and comprises seven classes. This procedure generates a burn severity report for the area chosen by the user manually. This study is carried out with the objective of producing an automated tool for the above-mentioned process, namely the World Wildfire Severity Assessment Tool (WWSAT). It is implemented in Google Earth Engine (GEE), which is a free cloud-computing platform for satellite data processing, with several data catalogs at different resolutions (notably Landsat, Sentinel-2, and MODIS) and planetary-scale analysis capabilities. Sentinel-2 MSI is chosen to obtain regular processes related to burnt area severity mapping using a medium spatial resolution sensor (15m). This tool uses machine learning classification techniques to identify burnt areas using NBR and to classify their severity over the user-selected extent and period automatically. Cloud coverage is one of the biggest concerns when fire severity mapping is performed. In WWSAT based on GEE, we present a fully automatic workflow to aggregate cloud-free Sentinel-2 images for both pre-fire and post-fire image compositing. The parallel processing capabilities and preloaded geospatial datasets of GEE facilitated the production of this tool. This tool consists of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to make it user-friendly. The advantage of this tool is the ability to obtain burn area severity over a large extent and more extended temporal periods. Two case studies were carried out to demonstrate the performance of this tool. The Blue Mountain national park forest affected by the Australian fire season between 2019 and 2020 is used to describe the workflow of the WWSAT. This site detected more than 7809 km2, using Sentinel-2 data, giving an error below 6.5% when compared with the area detected on the field. Furthermore, 86.77% of the detected area was recognized as fully burnt out, of which high severity (17.29%), moderate-high severity (19.63%), moderate-low severity (22.35%), and low severity (27.51%). The Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest Park, California, the USA, which is affected by the Cameron peak fire in 2020, is chosen for the second case study. It was found that around 983 km2 had burned out, of which high severity (2.73%), moderate-high severity (1.57%), moderate-low severity (1.18%), and low severity (5.45%). These spots also can be detected through the visual inspection made possible by cloud-free images generated by WWSAT. This tool is cost-effective in calculating the burnt area since satellite images are free and the cost of field surveys is avoided.

Keywords: burnt area, burnt severity, fires, google earth engine (GEE), sentinel-2

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622 Base Deficit Profiling in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury – Correlation with Severity and Outcomes

Authors: Shahan Waheed, Muhammad Waqas, Asher Feroz

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Objectives: To determine the utility of base deficit in traumatic brain injury in assessing the severity and to correlate with the conventional computed tomography scales in grading the severity of head injury. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2012. All patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of the injury to the emergency department were included in the study. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale and base deficit values were taken at presentation, the patients were followed during their hospital stay and CT scan brain findings were recorded and graded as per the Rotterdam scale, the findings were cross-checked by a radiologist, Glasgow Outcome Scale was taken on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Continuous variables with normal and non-normal distributions are reported as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages. Relationship of the base deficit with GCS, GOS, CT scan brain and length of stay was calculated using Spearman`s correlation. Results: 154 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients were 30 years and 137 were males. The severity of brain injuries as per the GCS was 34 moderate and 109 severe respectively. 34 percent of the total has an unfavorable outcome with a mean of 18±14. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level with GCS on presentation and the base deficit 0.004. The correlation was not significant between the Rotterdam CT scan brain findings, length of stay and the base deficit. Conclusion: The base deficit was found to be a good predictor of severity of brain injury. There was no association of the severity of injuries on the CT scan brain as per the Rotterdam scale and the base deficit. Further studies with large sample size are needed to further evaluate the associations.

Keywords: base deficit, traumatic brain injury, Rotterdam, GCS

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621 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa

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Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

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620 Mixtures of Length-Biased Weibull Distributions for Loss Severity Modelling

Authors: Taehan Bae

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In this paper, a class of length-biased Weibull mixtures is presented to model loss severity data. The proposed model generalizes the Erlang mixtures with the common scale parameter, and it shares many important modelling features, such as flexibility to fit various data distribution shapes and weak-denseness in the class of positive continuous distributions, with the Erlang mixtures. We show that the asymptotic tail estimate of the length-biased Weibull mixture is Weibull-type, which makes the model effective to fit loss severity data with heavy-tailed observations. A method of statistical estimation is discussed with applications on real catastrophic loss data sets.

Keywords: Erlang mixture, length-biased distribution, transformed gamma distribution, asymptotic tail estimate, EM algorithm, expectation-maximization algorithm

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619 The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Driver Fatigue in North Taiwan Urban Areas

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin, Kang Lo

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Background: Driving fatigue related to inadequate or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of traffic accidents. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. However, the effects of OSAS severity on driving drowsiness remain unclear. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between OSAS severity and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. OSAS severity was quantified as the polysomnography, and the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The severity of OSAS was diagnosed by the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) with the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline. The logistic regression model was used to examine the associations after adjusted age, gender, neck circumstance, waist circumstance, and body mass index (BMI). Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for OSAS as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. 752 subjects were diagnosed with OSA, and 484 subjects had fatigue driving behavior in the past week. Patients diagnosed with OSAS had a 9.42-fold higher odds ratio (p < 0.01, 95% CI = 5.41 – 16.42) of driving drowsiness for cohorts with a normal degree. Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between OSAS and driving fatigue. For the purpose of promoting traffic safety, OSAS should be monitored and treated.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, driving fatigue, polysomnography, apnea and hypopnea index

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618 Satellite Images to Determine Levels of Fire Severity in a Native Chilean Forest: Assessing the Responses of Soil Mesofauna Diversity to a Fire Event

Authors: Carolina Morales, Ricardo Castro-Huerta, Enrique A. Mundaca

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The edaphic fauna is the main factor involved in the transformation of nutrients and soil decomposition processes. Edaphic organisms are highly sensitive to soil disturbances, which normally causes changes in the composition and abundance of such organisms. Fire is known to be a disturbing factor since it affects the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and the whole ecosystem. During the summer (December-March) of 2017, Chile suffered the major fire events recorded in its modern history, which affected a vast area and a number of ecosystem types. The objective of this study was first to use remote sensing satellite images and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to assess and identify levels of fire severity in disturbed areas and to compare the responses of the soil mesofauna diversity among such areas. We identified four areas (treatments) with an ascending level of severity, namely: mild, medium, high severity, and free of fire. A non-affected patch of forest was established as a control. Three samples from each treatment were collected in the form of a soil cube (10x10x10 cm). Edaphic mesofauna was obtained from each sample through the Berlese-Tullgren funnel method. Collected specimens were quantified and identified, using the RTU (Recognisable Taxonomic Unit) criterion. Diversity was analysed using inferential statistics to compare Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indexes across treatments. As predicted, the unburned forest patch (control) exhibited higher diversity values than the treatments. Significantly higher diversity values were recorded in those treatments subjected to lower fire severity. We conclude that remote sensing zoning is an adequate tool to identify different levels of fire severity and that an edaphic mesofauna is a group of organisms that qualify as good bioindicators for monitoring soil recovery after fire events.

Keywords: bioindicator, Chile, fire severity level, soil

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617 Classification for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Based on Random Forest

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Shin-Mei Hsu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Chi Wu

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Background: Obstructive Sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. In addition, Body parameters were identified high predictive importance for OSAS severity. However, the effects of body parameters on OSAS severity remain unclear. Objective: In this study, the objective is to establish a prediction model for OSAS by using body parameters and investigate the effects of body parameters in OSAS. Methodologies: Severity was quantified as the polysomnography and the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). Four levels of OSAS severity were classified by the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) with American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline. Body parameters, including neck circumference, waist size, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from questionnaire. Next, dividing the collecting subjects into two groups: training and testing groups. The training group was used to establish the random forest (RF) to predicting, and test group was used to evaluated the accuracy of classification. Results: There were 3330 subjects recruited in this study, whom had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for OSAS. A RF of 1000 trees achieved correctly classified 79.94 % of test cases. When further evaluated on the test cohort, RF showed the waist and BMI as the high import factors in OSAS. Conclusion It is possible to provide patient with prescreening by body parameters which can pre-evaluate the health risks.

Keywords: apnea and hypopnea index, Body parameters, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, Random Forest

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616 Assessment of the Association between Serum Thrombospondin-1 Levels at the Time of Admission and the Severity of Neurological Deficit in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

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Introduction: Despite improvements in stroke management, it remains the leading cause of disability worldwide. It has been suggested that enhancing brain angiogenesis after stroke will improve stroke outcome. Promoting post stroke angiogenesis requires the upregulation of angiogenic factors with a simultaneous reduction of anti-angiogenic factors. Thrombospondin-1 is the main anti-angiogenic protein in the living cells. Counterintuitively, it has been shown that animals with Thrombospondin-1 knockdown will have better stroke outcome. Data about the clinical significance of Thrombspondin-1 levels at the time of admission is still lacking. The objective of this work is to assess the association between serum Thrombospondin-1 levels measured at the time of admission and baseline neurologic severity after stroke. Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) with ischemic stroke at the time of admission and serum Thrombopsondin-1 levels were measured using ELISA. Patients neurologic severity was evaluated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Results: Samples from 50 patients admitted between January 2016 and December 2016 were collected. The median age of participants was 68 years and the median NIHSS was 3. Multinomial regression identified serum Thrombospondin-1 as an independent predictor of stroke outcome (p=0.003). Baseline serum Thrombsopondin-1 was negatively associated with NIHSS at the time of admission (spearman rho correlation coefficient=0.272, p=0.032). Conclusion: Serum Thrombospondin-1 at the time of admission may be a useful marker of stroke severity that predicts more severe neurologic severity.

Keywords: thrombospondin, stroke, neuroprotection, biomarkers

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615 The Admitting Hemogram as a Predictor for Severity and in-Hospital Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Florge Francis A. Sy

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Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas with local and systemic complications. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has a higher mortality rate. Laboratory parameters like the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), red cell distribution width (RDW), and mean platelet volume (MPV) have been associated with SAP but with conflicting results. This study aims to determine the predictive value of these parameters on the severity and in-hospital mortality of AP. This retrospective, cross-sectional study was done in a private hospital in Cebu City, Philippines. One-hundred five patients were classified according to severity based on the modified Marshall scoring. The admitting hemogram, including the NLR, RDW, and MPV, was obtained from the complete blood count (CBC). Cut-off values for severity and in-hospital mortality were derived from the ROC. Association between NLR, RDW, and MPV with SAP and mortality were determined with a p-value of < 0.05 considered significant. The mean age for AP was 47.6 years, with 50.5% being male. Most had an unknown cause (49.5%), followed by a biliary cause (37.1%). Of the 105 patients, 23 patients had SAP, and 4 died. Older age, longer in-hospital duration, congestive heart failure, elevated creatinine, urea nitrogen, and white blood cell count were seen in SAP. The NLR was associated with in-hospital mortality using a cut-off of > 10.6 (OR 1.133, 95% CI, p-value 0.003) with 100% sensitivity, 70.3% specificity, 11.76% PPV and 100% NPV (AUC 0.855). The NLR was not associated with SAP. The RDW and MPV were not associated with SAP and mortality. The admitting NLR is, therefore, an easily accessible parameter that can predict in-hospital mortality in acute pancreatitis. Although the present study did not show an association of NLR with SAP nor RDW and MPV with both SAP and mortality, further studies are suggested to establish their clinical value.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, mean platelet volume, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, red cell distribution width

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614 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman

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Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

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613 Influence of Travel Time Reliability on Elderly Drivers Crash Severity

Authors: Ren Moses, Emmanuel Kidando, Eren Ozguven, Yassir Abdelrazig

Abstract:

Although older drivers (defined as those of age 65 and above) are less involved with speeding, alcohol use as well as night driving, they are more vulnerable to severe crashes. The major contributing factors for severe crashes include frailty and medical complications. Several studies have evaluated the contributing factors on severity of crashes. However, few studies have established the impact of travel time reliability (TTR) on road safety. In particular, the impact of TTR on senior adults who face several challenges including hearing difficulties, decreasing of the processing skills and cognitive problems in driving is not well established. Therefore, this study focuses on determining possible impacts of TTR on the traffic safety with focus on elderly drivers. Historical travel speed data from freeway links in the study area were used to calculate travel time and the associated TTR metrics that is, planning time index, the buffer index, the standard deviation of the travel time and the probability of congestion. Four-year information on crashes occurring on these freeway links was acquired. The binary logit model estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling technique was used to evaluate variables that could be influencing elderly crash severity. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that TTR is statistically significant in affecting the severity of a crash involving an elderly driver. The result suggests that one unit increase in the probability of congestion reduces the likelihood of the elderly severe crash by nearly 22%. These findings will enhance the understanding of TTR and its impact on the elderly crash severity.

Keywords: highway safety, travel time reliability, elderly drivers, traffic modeling

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612 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

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611 Modelling the Effect of Physical Environment Factors on Child Pedestrian Severity Collisions in Malaysia: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis

Authors: Muhamad N. Borhan, Nur S. Darus, Siti Z. Ishak, Rozmi Ismail, Siti F. M. Razali

Abstract:

Children are at the greater risk to be involved in road traffic collisions due to the complex interaction of various elements in our transportation system. It encompasses interactions between the elements of children and driver behavior along with physical and social environment factors. The present study examined the effect between the collisions severity and physical environment factors on child pedestrian collisions. The severity of collisions is categorized into four injury outcomes: fatal, serious injury, slight injury, and damage. The sample size comprised of 2487 cases of child pedestrian-vehicle collisions in which children aged 7 to 12 years old was involved in Malaysia for the years 2006-2015. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to establish the effect between severity levels and physical environment factors. The results showed that eight contributing factors influence the probability of an injury road surface material, traffic system, road marking, control type, lighting condition, type of location, land use and road surface condition. Understanding the effect of physical environment factors may contribute to the improvement of physical environment design and decrease the collision involvement.

Keywords: child pedestrian, collisions, primary school, road injuries

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610 Identifying and Quantifying Factors Affecting Traffic Crash Severity under Heterogeneous Traffic Flow

Authors: Praveen Vayalamkuzhi, Veeraragavan Amirthalingam

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Studies on safety on highways are becoming the need of the hour as over 400 lives are lost every day in India due to road crashes. In order to evaluate the factors that lead to different levels of crash severity, it is necessary to investigate the level of safety of highways and their relation to crashes. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the factors that contribute to road crashes and to quantify their effect on the severity of road crashes. The study was carried out on a four-lane divided rural highway in India. The variables considered in the analysis includes components of horizontal alignment of highway, viz., straight or curve section; time of day, driveway density, presence of median; median opening; gradient; operating speed; and annual average daily traffic. These variables were considered after a preliminary analysis. The major complexities in the study are the heterogeneous traffic and the speed variation between different classes of vehicles along the highway. To quantify the impact of each of these factors, statistical analyses were carried out using Logit model and also negative binomial regression. The output from the statistical models proved that the variables viz., horizontal components of the highway alignment; driveway density; time of day; operating speed as well as annual average daily traffic show significant relation with the severity of crashes viz., fatal as well as injury crashes. Further, the annual average daily traffic has significant effect on the severity compared to other variables. The contribution of highway horizontal components on crash severity is also significant. Logit models can predict crashes better than the negative binomial regression models. The results of the study will help the transport planners to look into these aspects at the planning stage itself in the case of highways operated under heterogeneous traffic flow condition.

Keywords: geometric design, heterogeneous traffic, road crash, statistical analysis, level of safety

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609 Investigating Acute and Chronic Pain after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Patti Kastanias, Wei Wang, Karyn Mackenzie, Sandra Robinson, Susan Wnuk

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Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is recognized as a chronic disease. Pain in the obese individual is a multidimensional issue. An increase in BMI is positively correlated with pain incidence and severity, especially in central obesity where individuals are twice as likely to have chronic pain. Both obesity and chronic pain are also associated with mood disorders. Pain is worse among obese individuals with depression and anxiety. Bariatric surgery provides patients with an effective solution for long-term weight loss and associated health problems. However, not much is known about acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery and its contributing factors, including mood disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) at one large multidisciplinary bariatric surgery centre led two studies to examine acute and chronic pain and pain management over time after bariatric surgery. The purpose of the initial study was to examine the incidence and severity of acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery. The aim of the secondary study was to further examine chronic pain, specifically looking at psychological factors that influence severity or incidence of both neuropathic and somatic pain as well as changes in opioid use. The initial study was a prospective, longitudinal study where patients having bariatric surgery at one surgical center were followed up to 6 months postop. Data was collected at 7 time points using validated instruments for pain severity, pain interference, and patient satisfaction. In the second study, subjects were followed longitudinally starting preoperatively and then at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively to capture changes in chronic pain and influencing variables over time. Valid and reliable instruments were utilized for all major study outcomes. In the first study, there was a trend towards decreased acute post-operative pain over time. The incidence and severity of chronic pain was found to be significantly reduced at 6 months post bariatric surgery. Interestingly, interference of chronic pain in daily life such as normal work, mood, and walking ability was significantly improved at 6 months postop however; this was not the case with sleep. Preliminary results of the secondary study indicate that pain severity, pain interference, anxiety and depression are significantly improved at 6 months postoperatively. In addition, preoperative anxiety, depression and emotional regulation were predictive of pain interference, but not pain severity. The results of our regression analyses provide evidence for the impact of pre-existing psychological factors on pain, particularly anxiety in obese populations.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, mood disorders, obesity, pain

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608 Anxiety Sensitivity and Coping Motives Predict Substance Use Craving and Relapse

Authors: Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem

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Introduction: Substance use disorder is conceptualized as a chronic relapsing condition where relapse is usually defined as the return to problematic substance use following treatment. An issue of great importance is the identification of the predictors of relapse and the development of treatments that may help prevent relapse. One of the strongest predictors of relapse is craving. The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives on craving. Materials and method: Participants (n=74) were male opiate users recruited from a semi-private clinic providing de-toxification and treatment services for substance users. Anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, coping motives and craving were assessed using relevant questionnaires. The addiction severity index was used to assess addiction severity. Results: All patients were methadone maintained and one year after detoxification, 36 patients (48.64%) relapsed. Stress and anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, addiction severity and coping motives predicted craving and relapse. Anxiety sensitivity specifically predicted early relapse. Conclusion: Substance use is a severe mental disorder, with high relapse rates. Substance users high in anxiety sensitivity are particularly prone to relapse during the first six months of treatment. Addiction severity and coping motives need to be taken into account when providing interventional services for substance users. Findings imply the significance of additional psychological attention to methadone maintained patients to prevent craving and relapse.

Keywords: anxiety sensitivity, coping motives, relapse, substance use craving

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607 Combination of Work and Family Demands Correlated with the Severity of Wrist Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses

Authors: Hsien Hwa Kuo, Lin Wen Chun, Lin Wen Chun, Hsien Wen Kuo

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Objective: Nurses represent an important occupational group frequently affected by wrist musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to a heavy workload, working shifts, poor posture, giving shots, making beds, lifting patients, bending their waist and insufficient rest time every day. However, lack of research reported nurses whether workload in household correlated with the severity of WMSDs. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire including the demographic information, workplace condition and nine body parts of musculoskeletal disorders. Results: 17.9% and 23.9% of severity and symptoms in WMSDs among nurses with children were significant higher than among nurses without children (1​2.4% and 15.9%). Based on multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, work duration, job title and body mass index (BMI), we found that heavy workload in hospital had higher odds ratio (OR) of the severity and symptoms of WMSD among nurses with children (OR= 8.67 and OR= 4.30, p<0.05) compared to nurses without children (OR= 1.94 and OR= 1.70). Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of WMSDs among nurses significantly correlated with workload in hospital among nurses with children. If women are at greater risk because of the combination of their work and family demands, synergistic effect of WMSDs was found among nurses. Comment: Women's domestic work, especially once they become mothers, they invest more time and energy caring for children, helping others, and doing housework. Thus domestic work, per se, may be a risk factor for wrist musculoskeletal problems, and, more importantly, it may constrain women's ability to protect themselves from the effects of their paid work. If nurses with more domestic work periodically make efforts to physical activity or modify inappropriate posture, their WMSDs symptoms will be alleviated.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nurse, NMQ, WMSDs

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606 Predicting COVID-19 Severity Using a Simple Parameters in Resource-Limited Settings

Authors: Sireethorn Nimitvilai, Ussanee Poolvivatchaikarn, Nuchanart Tomeun

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the simple laboratory parameters to predict disease severity among COVID-19 patients in resource-limited settings. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Nakhonpathom Hospital, a 722-bed tertiary care hospital, with an average of 50,000 admissions per year, during April 15 and May 15, 2021. Eligible patients were adults aged ≥ 15 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19. Baseline characteristics, comorbid conditions ad laboratory findings at admission were collected. Predictive factors for severe COVID-19 infection were analyzed. Result: There were 207 patients (79 male and 128 female) and the mean age was 46.7 (16.8) years. Of these, 39 cases (18.8%) were severe and 168 (81.2%) cases were non-severe. Factors associated with severe COVID-19 were neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≥ 4 (OR 8.1, 95%CI 2.3-20.3, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio ≥ 10 (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.3-9.1, p 0.01). Conclusions: Complete blood counts, C-reactive protein and albumin are simple, inexpensive, widely available tests and can be used to predict severe COVID-19 in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: COVID-19, predictor of severity, resource-limiting settings, simple laboratory parameters

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