Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 963

Search results for: nitrogen fixation

963 Plasma-Assisted Nitrogen Fixation for the Elevation of Seed Germination and Plant Growth

Authors: Pradeep Lamichhane


Plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation is a process by which atomic nitrogen generated by plasma is converted into ammonia (NH₃) or related nitrogenous compounds. Nitrogen fixation is essential to plant because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required to them for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acid. Most of our atmosphere is composed of nitrogen; however, the plant cannot absorb it directly from the air ambient. As a portion of the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation fundamental for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. In this study, plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation was performed by exposing a non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma generated a sinusoidal power supply (with an applied voltage of 10 kV and frequency of 33 kHz) on a water surface. Besides this, UV excitation of water molecules at the water interface was also done in order to disassociate water. Hydrogen and hydroxyl radical obtained from this UV photolysis electrochemically combine with nitrogen atom obtained from plasma. As a result of this, nitrogen fixation on plasma-activated water (PAW) significantly enhanced. The amount of nitrogen-based products like NOₓ and ammonia (NH₃) synthesized by this combined process of UV and plasma are 1.4 and 2.8 times higher than those obtained by plasma alone. In every 48 hours, 20 ml of plasma-activated water (pH≈3.15) for 10 minutes with moderate concentrations of NOₓ, NH₃ and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was irrigated on each corn plant (Zea Mays). It was found that the PAW has shown a significant impact on seeds germination rate and improved seedling growth. The result obtained from this experiment suggested that crop yield could increase in a short duration. In the future, this experiment could open boundless opportunities in plasma agriculture to mobilize nitrogen because nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia are more suitable for plant uptake.

Keywords: plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation, nitrogen plasma, UV excitation of water, ammonia synthesis

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962 Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils

Authors: F. Z. Aliyat, B. Ben Messaoud, L. Nassiri, E. Bouiamrine, J. Ibijbijen


The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.

Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation, inoculation, rhizobium, soybean

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961 The Effect of Salinity on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa and Faba Bean

Authors: Mouffok Ahlem, Belhamra Mohamed, Mouffok Sihem


The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitable consequence, the increase in the nitrate content of water, which may contribute to the production of nitrite and the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The nitrogen fertilizer may also affect the structure and function of the microbial community. And the fight against eutrophication of aquatic environments represents a cost to the student statements. The agronomic, ecological and economic legumes such as faba beans and alfalfa are not demonstrated, especially in the case of semi-arid and arid areas. Osmotic stress due to drought and / or salinity deficit, nutritional deficiencies is the major factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of pulses. To study the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the region of Biskra, we used soil samples collected from 30 locations. This work has identified several issues of ecological and agronomic interest. Evaluation of symbiotic potential of soils in the region of Biskra; by trapping technique, show different levels of susceptibility to rhizobial microflora. The effectiveness of the rhizobial symbiosis in both legumes indicates that air dry biomass and the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part, depends mainly on the rate of nodulation and regardless of the species and locality. The correlation between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and some physico-chemical properties of soils shows that symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both legumes is strongly related to soil conditions of the soil. Salinity disrupts the physiological process of growth, development and more particularly that of the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Against by phosphorus promotes rhizobial symbiosis.

Keywords: rhizobia, faba bean, alfalfa, salinity

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960 Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean Approaches for Enhancing under Saline and Water Stress Conditions

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, AbdElhamid Omar, Dekoum Assaha, Khair Mohammad Youldash, Akihiro Ueda, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka


Drought and salinity stress are a worldwide problem, constraining global crop production seriously. Hence, soybean is susceptible to yield loss from water deficit and salinity stress. Therefore, different approaches have been suggested to solve these issues. Osmoprotectants play an important role in protection the plants from various environmental stresses. Moreover, organic fertilization has several beneficial effects on agricultural fields. Presently, efforts to maximize nitrogen fixation in soybean are critical because of widespread increase in soil degradation in Egypt. Therefore, a greenhouse research was conducted at plant nutritional physiology laboratory, Hiroshima University, Japan for assessing the impact of exogenous osmoregulators and compost application in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity and water stress on soybean. Treatments was included (i) water stress treatments (different soil moisture levels consisting of (100%, 75%, and 50% of field water holding capacity), (ii) salinity concentrations (0 and 15 mM) were applied in fully developed trifoliolate leaf node (V1), (iii) compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1) and (iv) the exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each, was applied at two growth stages (V1 and R1). The seeds of soybean cultivar Giza 111, was sown into basin from wood (length10 meter, width 50cm, height 50cm and depth 350cm) containing a soil mixture of granite regosol soil and perlite (2:1 v/v). The nitrogen-fixing activity was estimated by using gas chromatography and all measurements were made in three replicates. The results showed that water deficit and salinity stress reduced biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity than normal irrigation conditions. Exogenous osmoprotectants were improved biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity as well as, applying of compost led to improving many of biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity with superiority than stress conditions. The combined application compost fertilizer and exogenous osmoprotectants were more effective in alleviating the adverse effect of stress to improve biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity of Soybean.

Keywords: a biotic stress, biological nitrogen fixation, compost, osmoprotectants, specific nodule activity, soybean

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959 Nitrogen Fixation, Cytokinin and Exopolysachharide Production by indigenous Azotobacter spp. from East Nusa Tenggara

Authors: Reginawanti Hindersah, Widiya Septiani Perdanawati, Dewi Azizah Sulaksana, Hidiyah Ayu Ma’rufah


Maize in some region in East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia bordering Republic Democratic of Timor Leste is important local food crop and commonly cultivated using conventional method without appropriate plant nutrition system so that productivity is still low. A way to enhance local corn yield is adding biofertilizer containing nitrogen (N2) fixing bacteria such as Azotobacter. The purpose of this research was to determine N2 fixation, cytokinin as well as exopolysachharide production capacity of six indigenous Azotobacter strains in pure culture. The N2 fixation capacities of native 3 day old Azotobacter strains added to Ashby Media varied from 0.01 to 0.39 µM/g/hour. Cytokinin production of these strain in liquid culture of N-free Media was 0.11 to 40.04 ppm while exopolysachharide content in liquid culture of Vermani Media varied from 0.4 to 27.3 g/L. This results demonstrate that some local Azotobacter strains might be used as biofertilizer.

Keywords: azotobacter, local isolate, N fixation, phythohormone, exopolysaccaride

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958 Nitrogen Fixation in Hare Gastrointestinal Tract

Authors: Tatiana A. Kuznetsova, Maxim V. Vechersky, Natalia V. Kostina, Marat M. Umarov, Elena I. Naumova


One of the main problems of nutrition of phytophagous animals is the insufficiency of protein in their forage. Usually, symbiotic microorganisms highly contribute both to carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds of the food. But it is not easy to utilize microbial biomass in the large intestine and caecum for the animals with hindgut fermentation. So that, some animals, as well hares, developed special mechanism of contribution of such biomass - obligate autocoprophagy, or reingestion. Hares have two types of feces - the hard and the soft. Hard feces are excreted at night, while hares are vigilance ("foraging period"), and the soft ones (caecotrophs) are produced and reingested in the day-time during hares "resting-period". We examine the role of microbial digestion in providing nitrogen nutrition of hare (Lepus europaeus). We determine the ability of nitrogen fixation in fornix and stomach body, small intestine, caecum and colon of hares' gastro-intestinal tract in two main period of hares activity - "resting-period" (day time) and "foraging period" (late-evening and very-early-morning). We use gas chromatography to measure levels of nitrogen fixing activity (acetylene reduction). Nitrogen fixing activity was detected in the contents of all analyzed parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum values were recorded in the large intestine. Also daily dynamics of the process was detected. Thus, during hare “resting-period” (caecotrophs formation) N2-fixing activity was significantly higher than during “foraging period”, reaching 0,3 nmol C2H4/g*h. N2-fixing activity in the gastrointestinal tract can allocate to significant contribution of nitrogen fixers to microbial digestion in hare and confirms the importance of coprophagy as a nitrogen source in lagomorphs.

Keywords: coprophagy, gastrointestinal tract, lagomorphs, nitrogen fixation

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957 Iron Doping Enhanced Photocatalytic Nitrogen Fixation Performance of WO₃ with Three-Dimensionally Orderd Macroporous Structure

Authors: Xiaoling Ren, Guidong Yang


Ammonia, as one of the largest-volume industrial chemicals, is mostly produced by century-old Haber-Bosch process with extreme conditionsand high-cost. Under the circumstance, researchersarededicated in finding new ways to replace the Haber-Bosch process. Photocatalytic nitrogen fixation is a promising sustainable, clear and green strategy for ammonia synthesis, butit is still a big challenge due to the high activation energy for nitrogen. It is essential to develop an efficient photocatalyst for making this approach industrial application. Constructing chemisorption active sites through defect engineering can be defined as an effective and reliable means to improve nitrogen activation by forming the extraordinary coordination environment and electronic structure. Besides, the construction of three-dimensionally orderdmacroporous (3DOM) structured photocatalyst is considered to be one of effectivestrategiesto improve the activity due to it canincrease the diffusion rate of reactants in the interior, which isbeneficial to the mass transfer process of nitrogen molecules in photocatalytic nitrogen reduction. Herein, Fe doped 3DOM WO₃(Fe-3DOM WO₃) without noble metal cocatalysts is synthesized by a polystyrene-template strategy, which is firstly used for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation. To elucidate the chemical nature of the dopant, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysiswas conducted. The pure 3DOM WO₃ has a monoclinic type crystal structure. And no additional peak is observed in Fe doped 3DOM WO₃, indicating that the incorporation of Fe atoms did not result in a secondary phase formation. In order to confirm the morphologies of Fe-3DOM WO₃and 3DOM WO₃, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed. The synthesized Fe-3DOM WO₃and 3DOM WO₃ both exhibit a highly ordered three dimensional inverse opal structure with interconnected pores. From high-resolution TEM image of Fe-3DOM WO₃, the ordered lattice fringes with a spacing of 3.84 Å can be assigned to the (001) plane of WO₃, which is consistent with the XRD results. Finally, the photocatalytic nitrogen reduction performance of 3DOM WO₃ and Fe doped 3DOM WO₃with various Fe contents were examined. As a result, both Fe-3DOM WO₃ samples achieve higher ammonia production rate than that of pure 3DOM WO₃, indicating that the doped Fe plays a critical role in the photocatalytic nitrogen fixation performance. To verify the reaction process upon N2 reduction on the Fe-3DOM WO₃, in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy was employed to monitor the intermediates. The in-situ DRIFTS spectra of Fe-3DOM WO₃ exhibit the increased signals with the irradiation time from 0–60min in the N2 atmosphere. The above results prove that nitrogen is gradually hydrogenated to produce ammonia over Fe-3DOM WO₃. Thiswork would enrich our knowledge in designing efficient photocatalystsfor photocatalytic nitrogen reduction.

Keywords: ammonia, photocatalytic, nitrogen fixation, Fe doped 3DOM WO₃

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956 Effects of Excess-Iron Stress on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Efficiency of Yardlong-Bean Plants

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Qinghuo Lin


Excess-iron (Fe) stresses involved in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation are not understood. Our objectives were to investigate the tolerance of yardlong-bean plants to soil excess-Fe stress and antagonistic effects of organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants on plant root nodulation and stem ureide formation. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 5.3±0.4) and highly variable in Fe concentrations(596±79 mg/kg). The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. The treatment effects were significant on root nodulation, stem ureide, amino acids, plant N/Fe accumulation and bean yields (P<0.05). The yardlong-bean stem allantoin, amino acids and nitrate concentrations and relative ureide % declined with high soil Fe concentrations (>300 mg/kg). It was concluded that the co-variance of excess Fe stress could inhibit legume symbiotic N fixation efficiency. Organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants could help improve crop tolerance to excess Fe stress.

Keywords: atmospheric N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, yardlong-bean plants

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955 Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance and Grain Yield of 63 Common Bean Genotypes Grown Under Field Conditions at Malkerns Eswatini

Authors: Rotondwa P. Gunununu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Common bean is the most importantly high protein grain legume grown in Southern Africa for human consumption and income generation. Although common bean can associate with rhizobia to fix N₂ for bacterial use and plant growth, it is reported to be a poor nitrogen fixer when compared to other legumes. N₂ fixation can vary with legume species, genotype and rhizobial strain. Therefore, screening legume germplasm can reveal rhizobia/genotype combinations with high N₂-fixing efficiency for use by farmers. This study assessed symbiotic performance and N₂ fixation in 63 common bean genotypes under field conditions at Malkerns Station in Eswatini, using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The shoots of common bean genotypes were sampled at a pod-filling stage, oven-dried (65oC for 72h), weighed, ground into a fine powder (0.50 mm sieve), and subjected to ¹⁵N/¹⁴N isotopic analysis using mass spectrometry. At maturity, plants from the inner rows were harvested for the determination of grain yield. The results revealed significantly higher modulation (p≤0.05) in genotypes MCA98 and CIM-RM01-97-8 relative to the other genotypes. Shoot N concentration was highest in genotype MCA 98, followed by KAB 10 F2.8-84, with most genotypes showing shoot N concentrations below 2%. Percent N derived from atmospheric N₂ fixation (%Ndfa) differed markedly among genotypes, with CIM-RM01-92-3 and DAB 174, respectively, recording the highest values of 66.65% and 66.22 % N derived from fixation. There were also significant differences in grain yield, with CIM-RM02-79-1 producing the highest yield (3618.75 kg/ha). These results represent an important contribution in the profiling of symbiotic functioning of common bean germplasm for improved N₂ fixation.

Keywords: nitrogen fixation, %Ndfa, ¹⁵N natural abundance, grain yield

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954 Impact of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Metabolic Changes in the Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

Authors: Rishi Saxena


Cyanobacteria is a photosynthetic prokaryote, and these obtain their energy through photosynthesis. In this paper, we studied the effect of iron on metabolic changes in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Nowadays, metal contamination due to natural and anthropogenic sources is a global environment concern. Iron induced changes in growth, N2-fixation, CO2 fixation and photosynthetic activity were studied in a diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Iron at 50 uM concentration supported the maximum growth, heterocyst frequency, CO2 fixation, photosystem I (PS I), photosystem II (PS II) and nitrogenase activities in the organism. Higher concentration of iron inhibited these processes. Chl a and PS II activities were more sensitive to iron than the protein and PS I activity. Here, it is also mentioned that heavy metal induced altered macromolecules metabolism and changes in the central dogma of life (DNA→ mRNA → Protein). And also recent advances have been made in understanding heavy metal-cyanobacteria interaction and their application for metal detoxification.

Keywords: cyanobacterium anabaena 7120, nitrogen fixation, photosystem I (PS I), photosystem II (PS II)

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953 Co-Limitation of Iron Deficiency in Stem Allantoin and Amino-N Formation of Peanut Plants Intercropped with Cassava

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Weibo Yang


Co-limitation of iron (Fe) deficiency in legume nitrogen fixation process is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine how peanut plants cope with Fe deficiency with the rhizobial inoculants and N-nutrient treatments. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 4.6±0.7) and deficient in Fe (9.2±2.3 mg/kg). Peanut plants were intercropped with cassava. The inoculants and N treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. Peanut root nodulation, stem allantoin, amino acids and plant N derived from fixation (P) reduced with declining soil Fe concentrations. The treatment interactions were significant on relative ureide % and peanut yields (P<0.05). Residual fixed N from peanut plants was beneficial to cassava plants. It was concluded that co-variance of Fe deficiency could influence peanut N fixation efficiency and rhizobia and N inputs could help improving peanut tolerance to Fe deficiency stress.

Keywords: amino acids, plant N derived from N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, peanuts, cassava

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952 Amblyopia and Eccentric Fixation

Authors: Kristine Kalnica-Dorosenko, Aiga Svede


Amblyopia or 'lazy eye' is impaired or dim vision without obvious defect or change in the eye. It is often associated with abnormal visual experience, most commonly strabismus, anisometropia or both, and form deprivation. The main task of amblyopia treatment is to ameliorate etiological factors to create a clear retinal image and, to ensure the participation of the amblyopic eye in the visual process. The treatment of amblyopia and eccentric fixation is usually associated with problems in the therapy. Eccentric fixation is present in around 44% of all patients with amblyopia and in 30% of patients with strabismic amblyopia. In Latvia, amblyopia is carefully treated in various clinics, but eccentricity diagnosis is relatively rare. Conflict which has developed relating to the relationship between the visual disorder and the degree of eccentric fixation in amblyopia should to be rethoughted, because it has an important bearing on the cause and treatment of amblyopia, and the role of the eccentric fixation in this case. Visuoscopy is the most frequently used method for determination of eccentric fixation. With traditional visuoscopy, a fixation target is projected onto the patient retina, and the examiner asks to look straight directly at the center of the target. An optometrist then observes the point on the macula used for fixation. This objective test provides clinicians with direct observation of the fixation point of the eye. It requires patients to voluntarily fixate the target and assumes the foveal reflex accurately demarcates the center of the foveal pit. In the end, by having a very simple method to evaluate fixation, it is possible to indirectly evaluate treatment improvement, as eccentric fixation is always associated with reduced visual acuity. So, one may expect that if eccentric fixation in amlyopic eye is found with visuoscopy, then visual acuity should be less than 1.0 (in decimal units). With occlusion or another amblyopia therapy, one would expect both visual acuity and fixation to improve simultaneously, that is fixation would become more central. Consequently, improvement in fixation pattern by treatment is an indirect measurement of improvement of visual acuity. Evaluation of eccentric fixation in the child may be helpful in identifying amblyopia in children prior to measurement of visual acuity. This is very important because the earlier amblyopia is diagnosed – the better the chance of improving visual acuity.

Keywords: amblyopia, eccentric fixation, visual acuity, visuoscopy

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951 New Ethanol Method for Soft Tissue Imaging in Micro-CT

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Vladimir Musil, Jitka Riedlova, Viktor Sykora, Jana Mrzilkova, Petr Zach


Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to create a new fixation method for soft tissue imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of 18 mice - heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, which we fixated in ethanol after meticulous preparation. We fixated organs in different concentrations of ethanol and for different period of time. We used three types of ethanol concentration - 97%, 50% and ascending ethanol concentration (25%, 50%, 75%, 97% each for 12 hours). Fixated organs were scanned after 72 hours, 168 hours and 336 hours period of fixation. We scanned all specimens in micro-CT MARS (Medipix All Resolution System). Results: Ethanol method provided contrast enhancement in all studied organs in all used types of fixation. Fixation in 97% ethanol provided very fast fixation and the contrast among the tissues was visible already after 72 hours of fixation. Fixation for the period of 168 and 336 hours gave better details, especially in lung tissue, where alveoli were visualized. On the other hand, this type of fixation caused organs to petrify. Fixation in 50% ethanol provided best results in 336 hours fixation, details were visualized better than in 97% ethanol and samples were not as hard as in fixation in 97% ethanol. Best results were obtained in fixation in ascending ethanol concentration. All organs were visualized in great details, best-visualized organ was heart, where trabeculae and valves were visible. In this type of fixation, organs stayed soft for whole time. Conclusion: New ethanol method is a great option for soft tissue fixation as well as the method for enhancing contrast among tissues in organs. The best results were obtained with fixation of the organs in ascending ethanol concentration, the best visualized organ was the heart.

Keywords: x-ray imaging, small animals, ethanol, ex-vivo

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950 Evaluation of Nitrogen Fixation Capabilities of Selected Pea Lines Grown under Different Environmental Conditions in Canadian Prairie

Authors: Chao Yang, Rosalind Bueckert, Jeff Schoenau, Axel Diederichsen, Hossein Zakeri, Tom Warkentin


Pea is a very popular pulse crop that widely grew in Western Canadian prairie. However, the N fixation capabilities of these pea lines were not well evaluated under local environmental conditions. In this study, 2 supernodulating mutants Frisson P64 Sym29, Frisson P88 Sym28 along with their wild parent Frisson, 1 hypernodulating mutant Rondo-nod3 (fix+) along with its wild parent Rondo, 1 non-nodulating mutant Frisson P56 (nod-) and 2 commercial pea cultivar CDC Meadow and CDC Dakota which are widely planted in Western Canada were selected in order to evaluate the capabilities of their BNF, biomass, and yield production in symbiosis with R. leguminosarumbv. viciae, Our results showed different environmental conditions and variation of pea lines could both significantly impact days to flowering (DTF), days to podding (DTP), biomass and yield of tested pea lines (P < 0.0001), suggesting consideration of environmental factors could be important when selecting pea cultivar for local farming under different soil zones in Western Canada. Significant interaction effects between environmental conditions and pea lines were found on pea N fixation as well (P = 0.001), suggesting changes in N fixation capability of the same pea cultivar when grown under different environmental conditions. Our results provide useful information for farming and better opportunity for selection of pea cultivars with higher N-fixing capacity during breeding programs in Western Canada.

Keywords: Canadian prairie, environmental condition, N fixation, pea cultivar

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949 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He


Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation

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948 Effect of Nitrogen and Gibberellic Acid at Different Level and their Interaction on Calendula

Authors: Pragnyashree Mishra, Shradhanjali Mohapatra


The present investigation is carried out to know the effect of foliar feeding of nitrogen and gibberellic acid on vegetative growth, flowering behaviour and yield of calendula variety ‘Golden Emporer’. The experiment was laid out in RBD in rabi season of 2013-14. There are 16 treatments are taken at different level such as nitrogen (at 0%,1%,2%,3%) and GA3 (at 50 ppm,100ppm,150 ppm). Among them maximum height at bud initiation stage was obtained at 3% nitrogen (27.00 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (26.5 cm), fist flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(60.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (63.75 days), maximum flower stalk length was obtained at 3% nitrogen(3.50 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (5.42 cm),maximum duration of flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(46.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (46.50days), maximum number of flower was obtained at 3% nitrogen (89.00per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (83.50 per plant), maximum flower weight was obtained at 3% nitrogen(1.25 gm per flower) and at 150 ppm GA3 (1.50 gm per flower), maximum yield was was obtained at 3% nitrogen (110.00 gm per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (105.00gm per plant) and minimum of all character was obtained when 0% nitrogen0 ppm GA3. All interaction between nitrogen and GA3 was found in significant except the yield .

Keywords: calendula, golden emporer, GA3, nitrogen and gibberellic acid

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947 Analysis of Nitrogenase Fe Protein Activity in Transplastomic Tobacco

Authors: Jose A. Aznar-Moreno, Xi Jiang, Stefan Burén, Luis M. Rubio


Integration of prokaryotic nitrogen fixation (nif) genes into the plastid genome for expression of functional nitrogenase components could render plants capable of assimilating atmospheric N2 making their crops less dependent of nitrogen fertilizers. The nitrogenase Fe protein component (NifH) has been used as proxy for expression and targeting of Nif proteins within plant and yeast cells. Here we use tobacco plants with the Azotobacter vinelandii nifH and nifM genes integrated into the plastid genome. NifH and its maturase NifM were constitutively produced in leaves, but not roots, during light and dark periods. Nif protein expression in transplastomic plants was stable throughout development. Chloroplast NifH was soluble, but it only showed in vitro activity when isolated from leaves collected at the end of the dark period. Exposing the plant extracts to elevated temperatures precipitated NifM and apo-NifH protein devoid of [Fe4S4] clusters, dramatically increasing the specific activity of remaining NifH protein. Our data indicate that the chloroplast endogenous [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis was insufficient for complete NifH maturation, albeit a negative effect on NifH maturation due to excess NifM in the chloroplast cannot be excluded. NifH and NifM constitutive expression in transplastomic plants did not affect any of the following traits: seed size, germination time, germination ratio, seedling growth, emergence of the cotyledon and first leaves, chlorophyll content and plant height throughout development.

Keywords: NifH, chloroplast, nitrogen fixation, crop improvement, transplastomic plants, fertilizer, biotechnology

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946 Effect of Non-Legume Primary Ecological Successor on Nitrogen Content of Soil

Authors: Vikas Baliram Kalyankar


Study of ecology is important as it plays role in development of environment engineering. With the advent of technologies the study of ecosystem structure and changes in it are remaining unnoticed. The ecological succession is the sequential replacement of plant species following changes in the environment. The present study depicts the primary ecological succession in an area leveled up to the height of five feet with no signs of plant life on it. The five quadrates of 1 meter square size were observed during the study period of six months. Rain water being the only source of water in the area increased its ecological importance. The primary successor was non- leguminous plant Balonites roxburgii during the peak drought periods in the region of the summer 2013-14. The increased nitrogen content of soil after the plant implied its role in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.

Keywords: succession, Balonites roxburgii, non-leguminous plant, ecology

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945 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland


Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: area of interest, eye tracking, biometrics, fixation, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, heat map, saccades, time to first fixation

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944 Estimation of Foliar Nitrogen in Selected Vegetation Communities of Uttrakhand Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Satellite Remote Sensing

Authors: Yogita Mishra, Arijit Roy, Dhruval Bhavsar


The study estimates the nitrogen concentration in selected vegetation community’s i.e. chir pine (pinusroxburghii) by using hyperspectral satellite data and also identified the appropriate spectral bands and nitrogen indices. The Short Wave InfraRed reflectance spectrum at 1790 nm and 1680 nm shows the maximum possible absorption by nitrogen in selected species. Among the nitrogen indices, log normalized nitrogen index performed positively and negatively too. The strong positive correlation is taken out from 1510 nm and 760 nm for the pinusroxburghii for leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf nitrogen mass while using NDNI. The regression value of R² developed by using linear equation achieved maximum at 0.7525 for the analysis of satellite image data and R² is maximum at 0.547 for ground truth data for pinusroxburghii respectively.

Keywords: hyperspectral, NDNI, nitrogen concentration, regression value

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943 Current Status of Nitrogen Saturation in the Upper Reaches of the Kanna River, Japan

Authors: Sakura Yoshii, Masakazu Abe, Akihiro Iijima


Nitrogen saturation has become one of the serious issues in the field of forest environment. The watershed protection forests located in the downwind hinterland of Tokyo Metropolitan Area are believed to be facing nitrogen saturation. In this study, we carefully focus on the balance of nitrogen between load and runoff. Annual nitrogen load via atmospheric deposition was estimated to 461.1 t-N/year in the upper reaches of the Kanna River. Annual nitrogen runoff to the forested headwater stream of the Kanna River was determined to 184.9 t-N/year, corresponding to 40.1% of the total nitrogen load. Clear seasonal change in NO3-N concentration was still observed. Therefore, watershed protection forest of the Kanna River is most likely to be in Stage-1 on the status of nitrogen saturation.

Keywords: atmospheric deposition, nitrogen accumulation, denitrification, forest ecosystems

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942 Mineral Nitrogen Retention, Nitrogen Availability and Plant Growth in the Soil Influenced by Addition of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers: Lysimetric Experiment

Authors: Lukáš Plošek, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Ivana Charousová, Silvia Kovácsová


Compost can influence soil fertility and plant health. At the same time compost can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle and it can influence leaching of mineral nitrogen from soil to underground water. This paper deals with the influence of compost addition and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on leaching of mineral nitrogen, nitrogen availability in microbial biomass and plant biomass production in the lysimetric experiment. Twenty-one lysimeters were filed with topsoil and subsoil collected in the area of protection zone of underground source of drinking water - Březová nad Svitavou. The highest leaching of mineral nitrogen was detected in the variant fertilized only mineral nitrogen fertilizer (624.58 mg m-2), the lowest leaching was recorded in the variant with high addition of compost (315.51 mg m-2). On the other hand, losses of mineral nitrogen are not in connection with the losses of available form of nitrogen in microbial biomass. Because loss of mineral nitrogen was detected in variant with the least change in the availability of N in microbial biomass. The leaching of mineral nitrogen, yields as well as the results concerning nitrogen availability from the first year of long term experiment suggest that compost can positive influence the leaching of nitrogen into underground water.

Keywords: nitrogen, compost, biomass production, lysimeter

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941 Evaluation of Rhizobia for Nodulation, Shoot and Root Biomass from Host Range Studies Using Soybean, Common Bean, Bambara Groundnut and Mung Bean

Authors: Sharon K. Mahlangu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Rural households in Africa depend largely on legumes as a source of high-protein food due to N₂-fixation by rhizobia when they infect plant roots. However, the legume/rhizobia symbiosis can exhibit some level of specificity such that some legumes may be selectively nodulated by only a particular group of rhizobia. In contrast, some legumes are highly promiscuous and are nodulated by a wide range of rhizobia. Little is known about the nodulation promiscuity of bacterial symbionts from wild legumes such as Aspalathus linearis, especially if they can nodulate cultivated grain legumes such as cowpea and Kersting’s groundnut. Determining the host range of the symbionts of wild legumes can potentially reveal novel rhizobial strains that can be used to increase nitrogen fixation in cultivated legumes. In this study, bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to induce root nodules on their homologous hosts. Seeds were surface-sterilized with alcohol and sodium hypochlorite and planted in sterile sand contained in plastic pots. The pot surface was covered with sterile non-absorbent cotton wool to avoid contamination. The plants were watered with nitrogen-free nutrient solution and sterile water in alternation. Three replicate pots were used per isolate. The plants were grown for 90 days in a naturally-lit glasshouse and assessed for nodulation (nodule number and nodule biomass) and shoot biomass. Seven isolates from each of Kersting’s groundnut and cowpea and two from Rooibos tea plants were tested for their ability to nodulate soybean, mung bean, common bean and Bambara groundnut. The results showed that of the isolates from cowpea, where VUSA55 and VUSA42 could nodulate all test host plants, followed by VUSA48 which nodulated cowpea, Bambara groundnut and soybean. The two isolates from Rooibos tea plants nodulated Bambara groundnut, soybean and common bean. However, isolate L1R3.3.1 also nodulated mung bean. There was a greater accumulation of shoot biomass when cowpea isolate VUSA55 nodulated common bean. Isolate VUSA55 produced the highest shoot biomass, followed by VUSA42 and VUSA48. The two Kersting’s groundnut isolates, MGSA131 and MGSA110, accumulated average shoot biomass. In contrast, the two Rooibos tea isolates induced a higher accumulation of biomass in Bambara groundnut, followed by common bean. The results suggest that inoculating these agriculturally important grain legumes with cowpea isolates can contribute to improved soil fertility, especially soil nitrogen levels.

Keywords: legumes, nitrogen fixation, nodulation, rhizobia

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940 Assessment of N₂ Fixation and Water-Use Efficiency in a Soybean-Sorghum Rotation System

Authors: Mmatladi D. Mnguni, Mustapha Mohammed, George Y. Mahama, Alhassan L. Abdulai, Felix D. Dakora


Industrial-based nitrogen (N) fertilizers are justifiably credited for the current state of food production across the globe, but their continued use is not sustainable and has an adverse effect on the environment. The search for greener and sustainable technologies has led to an increase in exploiting biological systems such as legumes and organic amendments for plant growth promotion in cropping systems. Although the benefits of legume rotation with cereal crops have been documented, the full benefits of soybean-sorghum rotation systems have not been properly evaluated in Africa. This study explored the benefits of soybean-sorghum rotation through assessing N₂ fixation and water-use efficiency of soybean in rotation with sorghum with and without organic and inorganic amendments. The field trials were conducted from 2017 to 2020. Sorghum was grown on plots previously cultivated to soybean and vice versa. The succeeding sorghum crop received fertilizer amendments [organic fertilizer (5 tons/ha as poultry litter, OF); inorganic fertilizer (80N-60P-60K) IF; organic + inorganic fertilizer (OF+IF); half organic + inorganic fertilizer (HIF+OF); organic + half inorganic fertilizer (OF+HIF); half organic + half inorganic (HOF+HIF) and control] and was arranged in a randomized complete block design. The soybean crop succeeding fertilized sorghum received a blanket application of triple superphosphate at 26 kg P ha⁻¹. Nitrogen fixation and water-use efficiency were respectively assessed at the flowering stage using the ¹⁵N and ¹³C natural abundance techniques. The results showed that the shoot dry matter of soybean plants supplied with HOF+HIF was much higher (43.20 g plant-1), followed by OF+HIF (36.45 g plant⁻¹), and HOF+IF (33.50 g plant⁻¹). Shoot N concentration ranged from 1.60 to 1.66%, and total N content from 339 to 691 mg N plant⁻¹. The δ¹⁵N values of soybean shoots ranged from -1.17‰ to -0.64‰, with plants growing on plots previously treated to HOF+HIF exhibiting much higher δ¹⁵N values, and hence lower percent N derived from N₂ fixation (%Ndfa). Shoot %Ndfa values varied from 70 to 82%. The high %Ndfa values obtained in this study suggest that the previous year’s organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments to sorghum did not inhibit N₂ fixation in the following soybean crop. The amount of N-fixed by soybean ranged from 106 to 197 kg N ha⁻¹. The treatments showed marked variations in carbon (C) content, with HOF+HIF treatment recording the highest C content. Although water-use efficiency varied from -29.32‰ to -27.85‰, shoot water-use efficiency, C concentration, and C:N ratio were not altered by previous fertilizer application to sorghum. This study provides strong evidence that previous HOF+HIF sorghum residues can enhance N nutrition and water-use efficiency in nodulated soybean.

Keywords: ¹³C and ¹⁵N natural abundance, N-fixed, organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments, shoot %Ndfa

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939 Variability for Nodulation and Yield Traits in Biofertilizer Treated and Untreated Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Varieties

Authors: Areej Javaid, Nishat Fatima, Mehwish Naseer


There is a tremendous use of biofertilizers in agriculture to increase crop productivity. Pakistan spends a huge amount on the purchase of synthetic fertilizers every year. The use of natural compounds to harness crop productivity is the major area of interest nowadays due to being safe for human health and the environment as well. Legumes have the intrinsic quality to enrich the nutrient status of soil because of the presence of nitrogen fixation bacteria on nodules. This research determined the effect of biofertilizer on nodulation attributes and yield of the pea plant. Seeds of pea varieties were treated with a slurry of biofertilizer prepared in a 10% sugar solution just before seed sowing. The impact of biofertilizer on different parameters of growth, yield and nodulation was observed. Analysis of variance showed that plant height, days to flowering, number of nodes, days to first pod, root length and plant height exhibited significant genetic variation. All the yield parameters, including the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed fresh and dry weight showed significant results under treatment. Among nodulation parameters, nodule number responded positively to biofertilizer treatment. Genotypes 2001-40 showed better performance followed by 2001-20 and LINA-PAK in all the parameters, whereas 2001-40 and 2001-20 performed well in nodulation and yield parameters. Consequently, seed treatment with biofertilizer before sowing is recommended to obtain higher crop yield.

Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation, correlation analysis, quantitative inheritance, varietal responses

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938 Use of Chlorophyll Meters to Assess In-Season Wheat Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements in the Southern San Joaquin Valley

Authors: Brian Marsh


Nitrogen fertilizer is the most used and often the most mismanaged nutrient input. Nitrogen management has tremendous implications on crop productivity, quality and environmental stewardship. Sufficient nitrogen is needed to optimum yield and quality. Soil and in-season plant tissue testing for nitrogen status are a time consuming and expensive process. Real time sensing of plant nitrogen status can be a useful tool in managing nitrogen inputs. The objectives of this project were to assess the reliability of remotely sensed non-destructive plant nitrogen measurements compared to wet chemistry data from sampled plant tissue, develop in-season nitrogen recommendations based on remotely sensed data for improved nitrogen use efficiency and assess the potential for determining yield and quality from remotely sensed data. Very good correlations were observed between early-season remotely sensed crop nitrogen status and plant nitrogen concentrations and subsequent in-season fertilizer recommendations. The transmittance/absorbance type meters gave the most accurate readings. Early in-season fertilizer recommendation would be to apply 40 kg nitrogen per hectare plus 16 kg nitrogen per hectare for each unit difference measured with the SPAD meter between the crop and reference area or 25 kg plus 13 kg per hectare for each unit difference measured with the CCM 200. Once the crop was sufficiently fertilized meter readings became inconclusive and were of no benefit for determining nitrogen status, silage yield and quality and grain yield and protein.

Keywords: wheat, nitrogen fertilization, chlorophyll meter

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937 The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó


Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.

Keywords: drought stress, inoculation, N-fertilizer, soybean physiology, yield

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936 Durability Assessment of Nanocomposite-Based Bone Fixation Device Consisting of Bioabsorbable Polymer and Ceramic Nanoparticles

Authors: Jisoo Kim, Jin-Young Choi, MinSu Lee, Sunmook Lee


Effects of ceramic nanoparticles on the improvement of durability of bone fixation devices have been investigated by assessing the durability of nanocomposite materials consisting of bioabsorbable polymer and ceramic nanoparticles, which could be applied for bone fixation devices such as plates and screws. Various composite ratios were used for the synthesis of nanocomposite materials by blending polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) as bioabsorbable polymer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) as ceramic nanoparticles. It was found that the addition of ceramic nanoparticles significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the bone fixation devices compared to those fabricated with pure biopolymers. Particularly, the layer-by-layer approach for the fabrication of nanocomposites also had an effect on the improvement of bending strength. Durability tests were performed by measuring the changes in the bending strength of nanocomposite samples under varied temperature conditions for the accelerated degradation tests. It was found that Weibull distribution was the most proper one for describing the life distribution of devices in the present study. The mean lifetime was predicted by adopting Arrhenius Eq. Model for Stress-Life relationship.

Keywords: bioabsorbable, bone fixation device, ceramic nanoparticles, durability assessment, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
935 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade


Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

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934 Linking the Genetic Signature of Free-Living Soil Diazotrophs with Process Rates under Land Use Conversion in the Amazon Rainforest

Authors: Rachel Danielson, Brendan Bohannan, S.M. Tsai, Kyle Meyer, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues


The Amazon Rainforest is a global diversity hotspot and crucial carbon sink, but approximately 20% of its total extent has been deforested- primarily for the establishment of cattle pasture. Understanding the impact of this large-scale disturbance on soil microbial community composition and activity is crucial in understanding potentially consequential shifts in nutrient or greenhouse gas cycling, as well as adding to the body of knowledge concerning how these complex communities respond to human disturbance. In this study, surface soils (0-10cm) were collected from three forests and three 45-year-old pastures in Rondonia, Brazil (the Amazon state with the greatest rate of forest destruction) in order to determine the impact of forest conversion on microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation. Soil chemical and physical parameters were paired with measurements of microbial activity and genetic profiles to determine how community composition and process rates relate to environmental conditions. Measuring both the natural abundance of 15N in total soil N, as well as incorporation of enriched 15N2 under incubation has revealed that conversion of primary forest to cattle pasture results in a significant increase in the rate of nitrogen fixation by free-living diazotrophs. Quantification of nifH gene copy numbers (an essential subunit encoding the nitrogenase enzyme) correspondingly reveals a significant increase of genes in pasture compared to forest soils. Additionally, genetic sequencing of both nifH genes and transcripts shows a significant increase in the diversity of the present and metabolically active diazotrophs within the soil community. Levels of both organic and inorganic nitrogen tend to be lower in pastures compared to forests, with ammonium rather than nitrate as the dominant inorganic form. However, no significant or consistent differences in total, extractable, permanganate-oxidizable, or loss-on-ignition carbon are present between the two land-use types. Forest conversion is associated with a 0.5- 1.0 unit pH increase, but concentrations of many biologically relevant nutrients such as phosphorus do not increase consistently. Increases in free-living diazotrophic community abundance and activity appear to be related to shifts in carbon to nitrogen pool ratios. Furthermore, there may be an important impact of transient, low molecular weight plant-root-derived organic carbon on free-living diazotroph communities not captured in this study. Preliminary analysis of nitrogenase gene variant composition using NovoSeq metagenomic sequencing indicates that conversion of forest to pasture may significantly enrich vanadium-based nitrogenases. This indication is complemented by a significant decrease in available soil molybdenum. Very little is known about the ecology of diazotrophs utilizing vanadium-based nitrogenases, so further analysis may reveal important environmental conditions favoring their abundance and diversity in soil systems. Taken together, the results of this study indicate a significant change in nitrogen cycling and diazotroph community composition with the conversion of the Amazon Rainforest. This may have important implications for the sustainability of cattle pastures once established since nitrogen is a crucial nutrient for forage grass productivity.

Keywords: free-living diazotrophs, land use change, metagenomic sequencing, nitrogen fixation

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