Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: hematology

43 Qualitative Analysis of Emotional Thoughts in the Perspective of Nurses Who Have Been Working Experience in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit

Authors: Sevil Inal, Leman Yantiri, Meral Kelleci

Abstract:

Aim: In this study, it was aimed to qualitatively analyze the feelings, thoughts and meanings of the nurses who had experience in child hematology in the past. Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 nurses between 29 and 53 years of age who had previously worked in child hematology-oncology unit. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview form. Each interview lasted 20-30 minute. Some of the questions are: ‘What kind of experiences do you experience when you think about the periods you are working in hematology-oncology service?’ ‘Do you explain the reason for living these feelings?’ The data were analyzed with QSR NVivo 7 software. Results: From the perspective of the nurses who had experience working in the pediatric hematology-oncology service in the past, five main themes and sub-themes related to emotions and thoughts towards this experiment were identified in the study. 1) Positive and negative emotions: (a) fear and anxiety, (b) desperation, pity, guilt, (c) burnout, (d) longing; 2) Being coping 3) Professional implications 4) Meaning of life 5) Unmet needs and suggestions. Conclusions: Working in hematology should be viewed as a multidimensional situation that affects the way nurses view their profession and life, leading to a wide range of emotional lives. Data obtained from this study can be used to strengthen hematologic nurses.

Keywords: cancer, child, care, hematology, nursing

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42 A Simple and Easy-To-Use Tool for Detecting Outer Contour of Leukocytes Based on Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Best Leader Nababan, Yogi Ramadhani, Wahyu Siswandari

Abstract:

Blood cell morphology is an important parameter in a hematology test. Currently, in developing countries, a lot of hematology is done manually, either by physicians or laboratory staff. According to the limitation of the human eye, examination based on manual method will result in a lower precision and accuracy. In addition, the hematology test by manual will further complicate the diagnosis in some areas that do not have competent medical personnel. This research aims to develop a simple tool in the detection of blood cell morphology-based computer. In this paper, we focus on the detection of the outer contour of leukocytes. The results show that the system that we developed is promising for detecting blood cell morphology automatically. It is expected, by implementing this method, the problem of accuracy, precision and limitations of the medical staff can be solved.

Keywords: morphology operation, developing countries, hematology test, limitation of medical personnel

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41 Effects of Corynebacterium cutis Lysate Administration on Hematology and Biochemistry Parameters with PPR Vaccine

Authors: Burak Dik, Oguzhan Avci, Irmak Dik, Emre Bahcivan

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alone and combined administration of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine with Corynebacterium cutis lysate (CCL) on the hematology and biochemistry parameters levels in sheep. CCL and PPR vaccine changes cell and organ activity. In this study, 12 ewes were divided into equal groups; first group; PPR vaccine was applied only one time 1 mL subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep, and the second group; CCL (1 mL) and PPR vaccine (1 mL) combination were applied only one time subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep. Blood samples were collected before treatment (0. hour, control) and after treatment (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) from the sheep. Plasma and serum samples were evaluated for hematology and biochemistry parameters and there were statistically significant in sheep. In conclusion, combined usage of PPR vaccine with CCL may not influence cells and organs. Repeated CCL treatment with vaccine can create hepatotoxic, renal and bone marrow effects in sheep.

Keywords: Corynebacterium cutis lysate, hematology, peste des petits ruminants, vaccine

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40 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

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Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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39 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani

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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: broilers, growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry

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38 Epidemiology of Healthcare-Associated Infections among Hematology/Oncology Patients: Results of a Prospective Incidence Survey in a Tunisian University Hospital

Authors: Ezzi Olfa, Bouafia Nabiha, Ammar Asma, Ben Cheikh Asma, Mahjoub Mohamed, Bannour Wadiaa, Achour Bechir, Khelif Abderrahim, Njah Mansour

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Background: In hematology/oncology, health care improvement has allowed increasingly aggressive management in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Nevertheless, these intensified procedures have been associated with higher risk of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). We undertook this study to estimate the burden of HAIs in the cancer patients in an onco -hematology unit in a Tunisian university hospital. Materials/Methods: A prospective, observational study, based on active surveillance for a period of 06 months from Mars through September 2016, was undertaken in the department of onco-hematology in a university hospital in Tunisia. Patients, who stayed in the unit for ≥ 48 h, were followed until hospital discharge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (CDC) for site-specific infections were used as standard definitions for HAIs. Results: One hundred fifty patients were included in the study. The gender distribution was 33.3% for girls and 66.6% boys. They have a mean age of 23.12 years (SD = 18.36 years). The main patient’s diagnosis is: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): 48.7 %( n=73). The mean length of stay was 21 days +/- 18 days. Almost 8% of patients had an implantable port (n= 12), 34.9 % (n=52) had a lumber puncture and 42.7 % (n= 64) had a medullary puncture. Chemotherapy was instituted in 88% of patients (n=132). Eighty (53.3%) patients had neutropenia at admission. The incidence rate of HAIs was 32.66 % per patient; the incidence density was 15.73 per 1000 patient-days in the unit. Mortality rate was 9.3% (n= 14), and 50% of cases of death were caused by HAIs. The most frequent episodes of infection were: infection of skin and superficial mucosa (5.3%), pulmonary aspergillosis (4.6%), Healthcare associated pneumonia (HAP) (4%), Central venous catheter associated infection (4%), digestive infection (5%), and primary bloodstream infection (2.6%). Finally, fever of unknown origin (FUO) incidence rate was 14%. In case of skin and superficial infection (n= 8), 4 episodes were documented, and organisms implicated were Escherichia.coli, Geotricum capitatum and Proteus mirabilis. For pulmonary aspergillosis, 6 cases were diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and one was proved by positive aspergillus antigen in bronchial aspiration. Only one patient died due this infection. In HAP (6 cases), four episodes were diagnosed clinically and radiologically. No bacterial etiology was established in these cases. Two patients died due to HAP. For primary bloodstream infection (4 cases), implicated germs were Enterobacter cloacae, Geotricum capitatum, klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion: This type of prospective study is an indispensable tool for internal quality control. It is necessary to evaluate preventive measures and design control guides and strategies aimed to reduce the HAI’s rate and the morbidity and mortality associated with infection in a hematology/oncology unit.

Keywords: cohort prospective studies, healthcare associated infections, hematology oncology department, incidence

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37 Attenuation of Pancreatic Histology, Hematology and Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Azadirachta excelsa

Authors: S. Nurdiana, A. S. Nor Haziqah, M. K. Nur Ezwa Khairunnisa, S. Nurul Izzati, Y. Siti Amna M. J. Norashirene, I. Nur Hilwani

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Azadirachta excelsa or locally known as sentang are frequently used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in Malaysia. However, less attention has been given to their toxicity effect. Thus, the study is an attempt to examine the protective effect of A. excelsa on the pancreas and to determine possible toxicity mediated by the extract. Diabetes was induced experimentally in rats by high-fat-diet for 16 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at dosage of 35 mg/kg of body weight. Declination of the fasting blood glucose level was observed after continuous administration of A. excelsa for 14 days twice daily. This is due to the refining structure of the pancreas. However, surprisingly, the plant extract reduced the leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCHC and lymphocytes. In addition, the rat treated with the plant extract exhibited increment in AST and eosinocytes level. Overall, the finding shows that A. excelsa possesses antidiabetic activity by improving the structure of pancreatic islet of Langerhans but involved in ameliorating of hematology and biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Azadirachta excelsa, diabetes, pancreas, hemato-biochemical parameters

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36 Heamatological and Biochemical Changes in Cockerels Fed Graded Levels of Wild Sunflower Leaf Meal

Authors: Siyanbola Mojisola Funmilayo, Amao Emmanuel Ayodele

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The poultry industry in Nigeria has been played by a variety of problems, which include the search for feed ingredients that are not competed for by man. This has resulted in a reduced interest of farmers in the industry leading to a reduction in animal protein availability for human consumption as a consequence of a high cost of production. The incorporation of wild sunflower meal (Tithonia diversfolia, Hemsl A. Gray) (WSF Meal) and some others in poultry diets have been reported to result in compounded feed with nutrient profiles that compare favourable with feeds of conventional feedstuff and reduce feed cost as they reduce competition with humans. A 98-day feeding trial was used to evaluate the effect of Wild sunflower leaf (WSL) at varying levels on the hematology and biochemistry of cockerels. A total of one hundred and twenty(120) cockerel birds were randomly allotted into four experimental diets with three replicates per experimental diet (ten birds per replicate). Wild sunflower leaf was included in four graded levels ; 0, 5, 10, and 15%. Packed cell volume, Red blood cell count, White blood cell count, Hemoglobin count, Lymphocyte count, Neutrophil count, Platelets, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Glucose, Urea, Chloride, Sodium, and Potassium ion values were significantly different (p<0.05) among the treatments. Mean values obtained for Creatinine, Total Protein, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Albumin, and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the treatment. WSL could be included up to 15% in the diet of cockerel without any deleterious effect on the birds. Based on the results, up to 15% Wild sunflower meal (WSL) can be included in the diet of cockerel without any adverse effect on the hematology and biochemical indices of birds.

Keywords: biochemical changes, cockerels, hematology, wild sunflower leaf

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35 Black-Legged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Impacts on Hematology and Ectoparasite Communities of Peromyscus Mice

Authors: Erica Fellin, Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde

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As the climate warms, the black-legged tick’s (Ixodes scapularis) range expands further north in Ontario, Canada, reaching new host populations that have not previously interacted with this blood-feeding parasite. Peromyscus mice in these northern areas are unfamiliar and inexperienced to the effects of these ticks compared to their southern counterparts that have adapted to living with these organisms. The purpose of this study was to see if there is a difference in physiology between these two groups – deer mice living in areas where tick populations have established and deer mice living in black-legged tick-free environments – looking specifically to see if there is significant variation in hemoglobin levels, which can negatively impact how these mice function in their environment. Along with this, a comparison of the parasite community structure on these mice hosts was analyzed to see if ticks change the composition of these micro-environments. Blood samples were collected from individual mice from populations where black-legged ticks were either present or absent to assess haemoglobin levels. At the same time, ectoparasites were collected from these same mice to determine parasite loads and species diversity. Haemoglobin levels were found to be lower when tick loads were high, and parasite diversity appeared to be higher when ticks were absent. Since black-legged ticks are carriers of many pathogens that can be passed on to humans, including Lyme’s disease, it is important to understand their movement and distribution across Ontario as well as their interactions with their hosts (and co-occurring parasites) in their environments.

Keywords: community ecology, hematology, hosts, parasites

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34 Effects of Vitamin C and Spondias mombin Supplementation on Hematology, Growth, Egg Production Traits, and Eggshell Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in a Hot-Humid Tropics

Authors: B. O. Oyebanji, I. O. Dudusola, C. T. Ademola, S. A. Olaniyan

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A 56 day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of Spondias mombin on hematological, growth, egg parameters and egg shell quality of Japanese quails, Cortunix cortunix japonica. One hundred birds were used for this study, and they were allocated randomly into 5 groups and replicated twice. Group 1 animals served as control without inclusion of extract, groups 2, 3, and 4 had 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg inclusion of SM, group 5 had 600 mg/kg of vitamin C respectively. The birds were weighed weekly to determine weight change, the blood parameters analyzed at the completion of the experiment were PCV, Hb, RBC WBC, differential WBC count, MCH, MCH, and MCV were afterwards calculated from these parameters. 5 eggs were collected from each group and egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, albumen percentage, yolk percentage and shell percentage were determined. There was no significant difference among the group for the hematological parameters measured and calculated. The egg weight and albumen weight of quails on 800 mg/kg was highest of all the groups, all other egg parameters measured showed no significant difference. The birds supplemented with Vitamin C had the highest weight gain (40.8±2.5 g) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (2.25). There was no mortality recorded in all the groups except in the SM800 group with 10% mortality. It can be concluded from this experiment that Vitamin C supplementation has positive effect on quail production in humid tropics and the inclusion of Spondias mombin leaf extract has a dose-dependent toxicity in quails.

Keywords: hematology, quails, Spondias mombin, vitamin C

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33 Cytotoxic Drugs: Handling Practices and Clinical Manifestations among Hospital Staff

Authors: Boularas El-Alia, Arbi Raja, Bachir Bouiadjra Sara, Rezk-Kallah Haciba, Rezkkallah Baghdad

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Objectives : To determine the handling practices of cytotoxic drugs and to describe clinical manifestations expressed by hospital personnel of Sidi Bel Abbes during the year 2014. Methods: Sectional descriptive study conducted in 3 center university hospital units (Hematology, Oncology and Urology) and Gynecology of EHS Sidi Bel Abbes. A questionnaire was administered to hospital workers regulary exposed to cytotoxic drugs. A work-place visit was performed to have an overview about working conditions. The Cytotoxic Contact Index (CCI) was calculated for each nurse on a period of 15 working days. Treatment of the results was done using SPSS software. Results: The survey reveals that 22 men and 58 women are exposed to cytotoxic drugs for an average of 7 years. Many symptoms such as ocular irritation (38,75%), throat irritation (56,25%), headache (68,75%), dizziness (43,75%), nausea (37,5%), metallic taste (30%), were reported with high frequency. Are noted in the offspring, 3 congenital anomalies,2 diaphragmatic hernia and a cleft palate. The Cytotoxic Contact Index (CCI) was higher than 3 among Oncology nurses and higher than 1 for most of the nurses of Hematology and Gynecology service. The wearing of personal protective clothing was not respected by all workers: (22/23) wear gloves and (20/23) wear a mask,(5/23) wear a cap, (2/23) wear glasses. Only 3 nurses have benefited from continuous training on handling cytotoxic drugs. Conclusion: This study shows a high occupational exposure risk to cytotoxic drugs among persons handling these drugs and the necessity to apply rigorously all measures related to personal protection awareness and training of personnel to minimize these exposure.

Keywords: cytotoxic drugs, handling, clinical manifestations, hospital staff

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32 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed

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The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

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31 Study the Effect of Dermal Application of Stone Hair Dye on Experimental Animals

Authors: Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Ragaa Mohamed Abdel Maaboud, Heba A. Mubarak

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A commercially available Stone Hair Dye (SHD) was spread in Upper Egypt and used for dying woman's hair. Paraphenyl-diamine (PPD) is the main component of SHD and reported as a toxic substance. This work aims to study the systemic effects induced in experimental animals as a result of dermal application of SHD. 21 rats were divided into three groups, and doses of SHD and PPD were applied according to body weight (25 mg/100 g body weight) for 90 days. The results revealed that insignificant decrease in RBC count and Hb level, but there were significant increases in the WBC count, AST, ALT, GPT, and total protein while creatinine level was insignificantly increased. Hepatocytes showed a lot of degenerative changes in the form of vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular deeply stained nuclei with vascular congestion and lymphocytic infiltration, while renal affection indicated the occurrence of atrophy of glomerular capillaries, hyperplasia, and widening of bowman space.

Keywords: PPD, SHD, rats and histology, biochemistry and hematology

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30 Characterization of PRL-3 Oncogenic Phosphatase in Its Role in Mediating Acquired Resistance to Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma

Authors: Shamill Amedot Udonwa, Phyllis S. Y. Chong, Lim S. L. Julia, Wee-Joo Chng

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In this paper, we investigated how PRL-3 expression in H929 and U266 cells affects the efficacy of drug treatment. H929 and U266 cells were treated with Bortezomib (BTZ) of different concentrations, and it was observed that H929 cells were resistant to BTZ, while U266 cells were not viable. Investigations into how BTZ targets these cells were conducted, and it was observed that BTZ affects the PARP-Caspase3 pathway as well as PRL-3-Leo1 pathways. These pathways regulate cell proliferation and cell cycle, respectively. Hence, we are able to show the mechanism of how BTZ affects cells and also the role PRL-3 plays on downstream oncogenes such as cyclin-D1 and c-MYC. More importantly, this investigation into PRL-3 in BTZ resistance will be highly applicable in the future as the first clinical trials of PRL-3 antibody (PRL3-zumab) are ongoing at the National University Hospital, Singapore (NUHS). This would mean that understanding the mechanism of resistance through PRL-3, which has yet to be studied, will demonstrate the potential of PRL-3 in developing novel strategies to improve the treatment of MM.

Keywords: drug resistance, hematology, multiple myeloma, oncogene

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29 Sickle Cell Disease: Review of Managements in Pregnancy and the Outcome in Ampang Hospital, Selangor

Authors: Z. Nurzaireena, K. Azalea, T. Azirawaty, S. Jameela, G. Muralitharan

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The aim of this study is the review of the management practices of sickle cell disease patients during pregnancy, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcome at Ampang Hospital, Selangor. The study consisted of a review of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease under follow up at the Hematology Clinic, Ampang Hospital over the last seven years to assess their management and maternal-fetal outcome. The results of the review show that Ampang Hospital is considered the public hematology centre for sickle cell disease and had successfully managed three pregnancies throughout the last seven years. Patients’ presentations, managements and maternal-fetal outcome were compared and reviewed for academic improvements. All three patients were seen very early in their pregnancy and had been given a regime of folic acid, antibiotics and thrombo-prophylactic drugs. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal well being was done by the hematologists and obstetricians. Among the patients, there were multiple admissions during the pregnancy for either a painful sickle cell bone crisis, haemolysis following an infection and anemia requiring phenotype- matched blood and exchange transfusions. Broad spectrum antibiotics coverage during and infection, hydration, pain management and venous-thrombolism prophylaxis were mandatory. The pregnancies managed to reach near term in the third trimester but all required emergency caesarean section for obstetric indications. All pregnancies resulted in live births with good fetal outcome. During post partum all were nursed closely in the high dependency units for further complications and were discharged well. Post partum follow up and contraception counseling was comprehensively given for future pregnancies. Sickle cell disease is uncommonly seen in the East, especially in the South East Asian region, yet more cases are seen in the current decade due to improved medical expertise and advance medical laboratory technologies. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for sickle cell patients as increased thrombosis event and risk of infections can lead to multiple crisis, haemolysis, anemia and vaso-occlusive complications including eclampsia, cerebrovasular accidents and acute bone pain. Patients mostly require multiple blood product transfusions thus phenotype-matched blood is required to reduce the risk of alloimmunozation. Emphasizing the risks and complications in preconception counseling and establishing an ultimate pregnancy plan would probably reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality to the mother and unborn child. Early management for risk of infection, thromboembolic events and adequate hydration is mandatory. A holistic approach involving multidisciplinary team care between the hematologist, obstetricians, anesthetist, neonatologist and close nursing care for both mother and baby would ensure the best outcome. In conclusion, sickle cell disease by itself is a high risk medical condition and pregnancy would further amplify the risk. Thus, close monitoring with combine multidisciplinary care, counseling and educating the patients are crucial in achieving the safe outcome.

Keywords: anaemia, haemoglobinopathies, pregnancy, sickle cell disease

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28 Gold Nanoparticle: Synthesis, Characterization, Clinico-Pathological, Pathological and Bio-Distribution Studies in Rabbits

Authors: M. M. Bashandy, A. R. Ahmed, M. El-Gaffary, Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman

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This study evaluated the acute toxicity and tissue distribution of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in male rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to single dose of AuNPs (300 µg/ kg). Toxic effects were assessed via general behavior, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters and histopathological examination of various rabbits’ organs. Tissue distribution of AuNPs was evaluated at a dose of 300 µg/ kg in male rabbit. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine gold concentrations in tissue samples collected at predetermined time intervals. After one week, AuNPs exerted no obvious acute toxicity in rabbits. However, inflammatory reactions in lung and liver cells were induced in rabbits treated at the300 µg/ kg dose level. The highest gold levels were found in the spleen, followed by liver, lungs and kidneys. These results indicated that AuNPs could be distributed extensively to various tissues in the body, but primarily in the spleen and liver.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, toxicity, pathology, hematology, liver function, kidney function

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27 Haematological Alterations in Anemic Bali Cattle Raised in Semi-Intensive Husbandry System

Authors: Jully Handoko, B. Kuntoro, E. Saleh, Sadarman

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Most farmers in Bangkinang Seberang sub district raise Bali cattle in semi-intensive husbandry system. The farmers believe that raising such a way is economical and quite effective. The farmers do not need to provide forage and plant feed crops. Furthermore, the raising method is considered not to interfere with the main job. Screening for anemia in Bali cattle of Bangkinang Seberang subdistrict, Kampar regency, Riau, Indonesia, had been conducted. The aim of the study was to analyze hematological alterations in the anemic Bali cattle. A number of 75 Bali cattle were screened for anemia on the basis of Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. The other hematological parameters that were measured including packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The screening showed that 18 (24.00%) of Bali cattle were anemic. Levels of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC in anemic Bali cattle were 7.15±1.61 g/dl, 21.15±4.16%, 3.72±1.10x106/µl, 52.75±4.13 fl, 17.31±1.86 pg and 32.77±1.69 g/dl respectively. Hematological values of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in anemic Bali cattle compared to non-anemic Bali cattle.

Keywords: anemia, Bali cattle, alterations, hematology

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26 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Feed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: N. S. Okoro

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An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 2% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that hematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P < 0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23g/dl) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: hematology, internal organs, Pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

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25 Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Mystroxylon aethiopicum Root Bark Aqueous Extract in Albino Mice

Authors: Mhuji Kilonzo

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Acute oral toxicity of Mystroxylon aethiopicum root bark aqueous was evaluated in albino mice of either sex. In this study, five groups of mice were orally treated with doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract. The mortality, signs of toxicity and body weights were observed individually for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks study, all animals were sacrificed, and the hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as organ weights relative to body weight of each animal, were determined. No mortality, signs of toxicity and abnormalities in vital organs were observed in the entire period of study for both treated and control groups of mice. Additionally, there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in the blood hematology and biochemical analysis. However, the body weights of all mice increased significantly. The Mystroxylon aethiopicum root bark aqueous extract were found to have a high safe margin when administered orally. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: acute oral toxicity, albino mice, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, safety

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24 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

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In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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23 Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Erythrocytes of Channa punctatus (Bloch) Exposed to Mercuric Chloride

Authors: Shweta Maheshwari, Anish Dua

Abstract:

Hematological changes reflect the adverse effects of heavy metals on fish. Hematology is a valuable tool to evaluate pathological condition of the fish. It helps in diagnosing the structural and functional status of fish exposed to toxicants. Morphological alteration in erythrocytes due to environmental stress can be studied through ultra-structural analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of mercuric chloride on red blood cells of an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus. Fish were subjected to chronic experiments using three sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (0.020mg/L, 0.027mg/L, 0.040mg/L) for a period of 15, 30 and 60 days. Exposed fish of all the three concentrations were subjected to a recovery period of 30 days. A control was maintained in tap water simultaneously. For SEM analysis, blood from caudal vein of fish was taken and examined at an accelerating voltage of 20kV. Scanning electron micrographs revealed elliptical shaped erythrocytes of control fish. Alterations in the erythrocyte morphology such as presence of spherocytes, membrane internalization, crenation of membrane and development of lobopodial projections were observed in the exposed fish. The study revealed that ultra-structural analysis appears to be a sensitive method to evaluate the toxicity of various toxicants to fish.

Keywords: Channa punctatus, erythrocytes, mercuric chloride, scanning electron microscopy

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22 Growth Performance and Economy of Production of Pullets Fed on Different Energy Based Sources

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, A. Ogunbameru, F. P. Agbaye, R. O. Odunukan

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the growth performance and economics of pullets fed on different dietary energy sources. A total of 300 Harco black was used for this experiment. The birds were completely randomized and divided into four diet treatment groups. Each treatment group had three replicates of twenty-five birds per replicate. Four diets containing maize, spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit was formulated to represent diet 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Diet 1 containing maize is the control, while diet 2, 3, and 4 contains spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit waste meal at 100% replacement for maize on weight for weight basis. Performance indices on Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economy of production were measured. Blood samples were also collected for heamatology and serum biochemistry assessment. The result of the experiment indicated that different dietary energy source fed to birds significantly (P < 0.05) affect feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The best cost of feed per kilogram of body weight gain was obtained in Spaghetti based diet (₦559.30). However, the best performance were obtained from diet 1(maize), it can be concluded that spaghetti as a replacement for maize in diet of pullet is most economical and profitable for production without any deleterious effects attached. Blood parameters of birds were not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by the use of the dietary energy sources used in this experiment.

Keywords: growth performance, spaghetti, noodles, biscuit, profit, hematology, serum biochemistry

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21 The Factors That Influence the Self-Sufficiency and the Self-Efficacy Levels among Oncology Patients

Authors: Esra Danaci, Tugba Kavalali Erdogan, Sevil Masat, Selin Keskin Kiziltepe, Tugba Cinarli, Zeliha Koc

Abstract:

This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner to determine that factors that influence the self-efficacy and self-sufficiency levels among oncology patients. The research was conducted between January 24, 2017 and September 24, 2017 in the oncology and hematology departments of a university hospital in Turkey with 179 voluntary inpatients. The data were collected through the Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale and a 29-question survey, which was prepared in order to determine the sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients. The Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale is a Likert-type scale with 23 articles. The scale scores range between 23 and 115. A high final score indicates a good self-sufficiency/self-efficacy perception for the individual. The data were analyzed using percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA, Mann Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and Tukey test. The demographic data of the subjects were as follows: 57.5% were male and 42.5% were female, 82.7% were married, 46.4% were primary school graduate, 36.3% were housewives, 19% were employed, 93.3% had social security, 52.5% had matching expenses and incomes, 49.2% lived in the center of the city. The mean age was 57.1±14.6. It was determined that 22.3% of the patients had lung cancer, 19.6% had leukemia, and 43.6% had a good overall condition. The mean self-sufficiency/self-efficacy score was 83,00 (41-115). It was determined that the patients' self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores were influenced by some of their socio-demographic and clinical properties. This study has found that the patients had high self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores. It is recommended that the nursing care plans should be developed to improve their self-sufficiency/self-efficacy levels in the light of the patients' sociodemographic and clinical properties.

Keywords: oncology, patient, self-efficacy, self-sufficiency

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20 Impact of Environmental Changes on Blood Parameters in the Pelophylax ridibundus

Authors: Murat Tosunoglu, Cigdem Gul, Nurcihan Hacioglu, Nurdan Tepeova

Abstract:

Amphibian and Reptilian species are influenced by pollution and habitat destruction. Blood parameters of Amphibia species were particularly affected by the negative environmental conditions. Studied frog samples 36 clinically normal Pelophylax ridibundus individuals were captured along the Biga Stream between April–June 2014. When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. locality was a "contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples of the live specimens were obtained in the laboratory within one day of their capture. The blood samples were taken from the etherized frogs by means of ventriculus punctures, via heparinized hematocrit capillaries. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (444210.52-426846.15 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (4215.78-4684.61 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (29.25-29.43 %), hemoglobin concentration (7.76-7.22 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (637.64-719.99 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (184.78-174.75 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (29.44-24.82 %), glucose (103.74-124.13 mg/dl), urea (87.68-81.72 mg/L), cholesterol (148.20-197.39 mg/dl), creatinine (0.29-0.28 mg/dl), uric acid (10.26-7.55 mg/L), albumin (1.13-1.39 g/dl), calcium (11.45-9.70 mg/dl), triglyceride (135.23-155.85 mg/dl), total protein (4.26-3.73 g/dl), phosphorus (6.83-17.86 mg/dl), and magnesium (0.95-1.06 mg/dl). The some hematological parameters in P. ridibundus specimens are given for the first time in this study. No water quality dependent variation was observed in clinic hematology parameters measured.

Keywords: Pelophylax ridibundus, hematological parameters, biochemistry, freshwater quality

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19 The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation

Authors: Bing-Fang Lee, Srinivasan Periasamy, Ming-Yie Liu

Abstract:

Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.

Keywords: acute liver injury, melatonin, shift work, sleep deprivation

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18 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef

Abstract:

Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

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17 Lower Limb Oedema in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Authors: Mihai-Ionut Firescu, Mark A. P. Carson

Abstract:

We present a case of inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) associated with bilateral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). In adult patients with BWS presenting with bilateral lower limb oedema, specific aetiological factors should be considered. These include cardiomyopathy and intraabdominal tumours. Congenital malformations of the IVC, through causing relative venous stasis, can lead to lower limb oedema either directly or indirectly by favouring lower limb venous thromboembolism; however, they are yet to be reported as an associated feature of BWS. Given its life-threatening potential, the prompt initiation of treatment for bilateral DVT is paramount. In BWS patients, however, this can prove more complicated. Due to overgrowth, the above-average birth weight can continue throughout childhood. In this case, the patient’s weight reached 170 kg, impacting on anticoagulation choice, as direct oral anticoagulants have a limited evidence base in patients with a body mass above 120 kg. Furthermore, the presence of IVCA leads to a long-term increased venous thrombosis risk. Therefore, patients with IVCA and bilateral DVT warrant specialist consideration and may benefit from multidisciplinary team management, with hematology and vascular surgery input. Conclusion: Here, we showcased a rare cause for bilateral lower limb oedema, respectively bilateral deep venous thrombosis complicating IVCA in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The importance of this case lies in its novelty, as the association between IVC agenesis and BWS has not yet been described. Furthermore, the treatment of DVT in such situations requires special consideration, taking into account the patient’s weight and the presence of a significant, predisposing vascular abnormality.

Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, bilateral deep venous thrombosis, inferior vena cava agenesis, venous thromboembolism

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16 Some Hematological Parameters of the Mauremys rivulata in Two Different Water Quality in the Biga Stream (Çanakkale, Turkey)

Authors: Cigdem Gul, Murat Tosunoglu, Nurcihan Hacioglu

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The contamination or desiccation of fresh waters also has a negative effect on freshwater turtles like other fresh water-dependent species. In order to conserve those species, which are confronted with such negative conditions, it is necessary to know beforehand the biology and the physiology of species. In this study, a comprehensive health assessment was conducted on a total of 20 clinically normal individuals free living Western Caspian Turtle (Mauremys rivulata) captured from two different freshwater localities in the Biga stream (Çanakkale-Turkey). When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. Locality was a “contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples for hematological and biochemical analyses were obtained from the dorsal coccygeal vein. A total of 1-2 mL of blood was collected from each of the specimens via needle. After the required procedures had been performed, the turtles were put back in the same localities. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (512600-582666.66 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (5920-5980 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (24-24.66 %), hemoglobin concentration (6.52-6.35 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (466.20-468.98 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (125.77-113.84 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (28.25-26.49 %), glucose (94.43-87.43 mg/dl), creatinine (0.23-0.3241 mg/dl), uric acid (12.59-10.48 mg/L), albumin (1.46-1.25 g/dl), calcium (8.67-9.59 mg/dl), triglyceride (95.55-75.21 mg/dl), and total protein (4.85-3.45 g/dl). When an examination was made depending on the water quality of freshwater, variations were detected in hematology and biochemistry values, but not found significant difference.

Keywords: biochemistry, freshwater quality, hematological parameters, Mauremys rivulata.

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15 Effects of Different Processing Methods of Typha Grass on Feed Intake Milk Yield/Composition and Blood Parameters of Diry Cows

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Lawan, Aminu Maidala

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Abstract 16 healthy lactating cows will be randomly selected for the trial and will be randomly divided in to 4 groups with 4 cows in each. They will be kept under similar management condition (conventional management system). Animals of relatively same weight and age will be used. After 11days for adaptation, feed intake and performance of the experimental animals will be determine. Milk sample will be collected at each milking in the morning and afternoon to determine; Milk yield, Milk fat percentage, Solid not fat percentage, Total solid percentage of milk. Cows dung will be observe to determine; Score 1 very loose watery stool, Score 2 semi solid with undigested raw material, Score 3 semi solid with less undigested raw material, Score 4 solid with very less undigested raw material, Score 5 good dung no undigested raw material. At the end of the experiment, blood samples will be analyzed for full blood counts and differentials {White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Platelets (PLT), Lymphocytes (LYM), Basophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes Proportion (MXD) and Neutrophils (NEUT)} using automated hematology analyzer. Serum samples will be analyzed for heat shock transcription factors, heat shock proteins and hormones (Serum glucocorticoid, prolactin and cortisol). Moreover, biochemical analysis will also be conducted to check for Total protein (TP), Albumen (ALB), Globulin (GBL), Total cholesterol (TCH), glucose (G), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and pH. Keywords: Lactating cows, milk composition, dung score and blood parameters.

Keywords: Lactating cows , Milk yield , Dung score , Blood parameters

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14 The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Performance Traits, Carcass Quality, Gut Morphology and Haematological Parameters of Broilers Fed Wet Diet

Authors: Farhad Ahmadi, Vafa Pahlavani, Pejman Bidar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) on carcass quality, blood parameters, and gut morphology in broiler chickens feeding wet diets. This research was conducted by total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) were distributed into a completely randomized design inclusion of 5 treatments in 4 replicated and 15 birds in each from 1 to 42 d. The experimental diets contain: 1) diet-based on corn-soybean dry (without Nano-ZnO), 2) dry diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 3) wet diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 4) dry diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO, 5) wet diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO to wet diet. The results indicated that trail diets had no significant effect on carcass and fraction cuts in 21 age (P > 0.05). Wet feeding increased (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, gizzard, proventriculus, breast, wing and SI weight index so that the birds fed wet diet contain 50mg/kg of Nano-ZnO had the highest (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, breast, wing, and gut weights at 42d compared other treatments. The birds fed diet contain 25mg/kg Nano-ZnO had the higher (P < 0.05) leg weight and lowest gizzard and gut weight than others treatment. Wet diet inclusion of 50mg Nano-ZnO increased (P < 0.05) liver weight on d 42. Experimental treatments had no significant effect on blood hematology on 21 and 42. The lymphocyte count had increased (P < 0.05) in dry than wet diet, however, monocyte Percent had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in dry and increased in wet diets. The birds of height and height: crypts villi ratio had significantly (P < 0.05) increased on d 42, so that the highest and lowest villus height observed in 50 mg Nano-ZnO to form dry and control, respectively. In conclusion, the results of indicated that used of Nano-ZnO and wet feeding had no effect on performance parameters. Wet diet caused increased monocyte percent and 50 mg level Nano-ZnO to form dry caused increased height of villi.

Keywords: broiler, blood, gut, performance, nanoparticles

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