Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3005

Search results for: complementary food

3005 Deficiencies in Vitamin A and Iron Supply Potential of Selected Indigenous Complementary Foods of Infants in Uganda

Authors: Richard Kajjura, Joyce Kikafunda, Roger Whitehead

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous complementary recipes for children (6-23 months) are bulky and inextricably linked. The potential contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs is not well investigated in Uganda. Less is known whether children in Uganda are living with or without adequate supply of vitamin A and iron nutrients. In this study, vitamin A and iron contents were assessed in the complementary foods fed to infants aged 6-11 months in a Peri-urban setting in Kampala District in Central Uganda. Objective: Assessment of vitamin A and iron contents of indigenous complementary foods of children as fed and associated demographic factor. Method: In a cross sectional study design, one hundred and three (153) households with children aged 6-11 months were randomly selected to participate in the assessment. Complementary food samples were collected from the children’s mothers/caretakers at the time of feeding the child. The mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, occupation and sex collected a semi-qualitative questionnaire. The Vitamin A and iron contents in the complementary foods were analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer for vitamin A and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for iron samples. The data was analyzed using Gene-stat software program. Results: The mean vitamin A content was 97.0± 72.5 µg while that of iron was 1.5 ± 0.4 mg per 100g of food sample as fed. The contribution of indigenous complementary foods found was 32% for vitamin A and 15% iron of the recommended dietary allowance. Age of children was found to be significantly associated Vitamin A and Iron supply potential. Conclusion: The contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs was low. Complementary foods in Uganda are more likely to be deficient in vitamin A and iron content. Nutrient dense dietary supplementation should be intervened in to make possible for Ugandan children attain full growth potential.

Keywords: indigenous complementary food, infant, iron, vitamin A

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3004 Development and Evaluation of New Complementary Food from Maize, Soya Bean and Moringa for Young Children

Authors: Berhan Fikru

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The objective of this study was to develop new complementary food from maize, soybean and moringa for young children. The complementary foods were formulated with linear programming (LP Nutri-survey software) and Faffa (corn soya blend) use as control. Analysis were made for formulated blends and compared with the control and recommended daily intake (RDI). Three complementary foods composed of maize, soya bean, moringa and sugar with ratio of 65:20:15:0, 55:25:15:5 and 65:20:10:5 for blend 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The blends were formulated based on the protein, energy, mineral (iron, zinc an calcium) and vitamin (vitamin A and C) content of foods. The overall results indicated that nutrient content of faffa (control) was 16.32 % protein, 422.31 kcal energy, 64.47 mg calcium, 3.8 mg iron, 1.87mg zinc, 0.19 mg vitamin A and 1.19 vitamin C; blend 1 had 17.16 % protein, 429.84 kcal energy, 330.40 mg calcium, 6.19 mg iron, 1.62 mg zinc, 6.33 mg vitamin A and 4.05 mg vitamin C; blend 2 had 20.26 % protein, 418.79 kcal energy, 417.44 mg calcium, 9.26 mg iron, 2.16 mg zinc, 8.43 mg vitamin A and 4.19 mg vitamin C whereas blend 3 exhibited 16.44 % protein, 417.42 kcal energy, 242.4 mg calcium, 7.09 mg iron, 2.22 mg zinc, 3.69 mg vitamin A and 4.72 mg vitamin C, respectively. The difference was found between all means statically significance (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that the faffa control and blend 3 were preferred by semi-trained panelists. Blend 3 had better in terms of its mineral and vitamin content than FAFFA corn soya blend and comparable with WFP proprietary products CSB+, CSB++ and fulfills the WHO recommendation for protein, energy and calcium. The suggested formulation with Moringa powder can therefore be used as a complementary food to improve the nutritional status and also help solve problems associated with protein energy and micronutrient malnutrition for young children in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia.

Keywords: corn soya blend, proximate composition, micronutrient, mineral chelating agents, complementary foods

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3003 Child Feeding Practices of Mothers (Childbearing) and Exploration of Their Household Food Insecurity in a Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Mamun

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Background: The current situation of Ensuring WHO recommended feeding practices for infant and young children which is becoming a challenge nowadays in many developing countries, especially in areas where household food security is at risk. Because many households of the developing countries often encounter severe food insecurity hence provision of adequate child nutrition is threatened. Aim: The study aimed to assess the child feeding practices of 0-24 months childbearing mothers and explore their household food insecurity in a coastal region of Bangladesh. Methods: This study was conducted in Suborno Char (one of the coastal suburbs in Noakhali District in Bangladesh) from October 2019 to April 2020. A total of 400 mothers were selected with their children of 0-24 months following a cross sectional study sampling procedure of the population. Data were collected through a standard questionnaire and analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS version 20.0.0. Results: The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, timely initiation of complementary feeding, and giving foods from four food groups to the children were 53.5%, 75.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. Mother's level of education showed a strong association with the child feeding practices of the mothers. Mothers of severely food insecure households showed lower odds in exclusive breastfeeding practice (COR 0.233 at 95% CI 0.083, 0.655; and AOR 0.478 at 95% CI 0.133, 1.713) than mothers of food secured households. Similar results have also been found in case of timely initiation of complementary feeding and minimum dietary diversity of the children.

Keywords: household food insecurity, exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, maternal education, mothers age, household income

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3002 Distributing Complementary Food Supplement - Yingyangbao Reducing the Anemia in Young Children in a County of Sichuan Province after Wenchuan Earthquake

Authors: Lijuan Wang, Junsheng Huo, Jing Sun, Wenxian Li, Jian Huang, Lin Ling, Yiping Zhou, Chengyu Huang, Jifang Hu

Abstract:

Backgrounds and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of highly nutrient-dense complementary food supplement-Yingyangbao, at the time of 3 months after Wenchuan earthquake, on the anemia of young children in a county in Sichuan province. Methods: The young children aged 6-23 months in the county were fed one sachet Yingyangbao per day. Yingyangbao were distributed for 15 months for free. The children entering 6 months age would be included. The length, weight and hemoglobin of the children aged 6-29 months were assessed at baseline (n=257) and Yingyangbao intervention for 6 (n=218) and 15 months (n=253) by cluster sampling. Growth status has not been described in the paper. The analysis was conducted based on 6-11, 12-17, 18-23 and 24-29 months. Results: It showed that the hemoglobin concentration in each group among the 4 groups increased by 4.9, 6.4, 8.0, 9.5 g/L after 6 months and 12.7, 11.4, 16.7, 15.7 g/L after 15 months compared to the baseline, respectively. The total anemia prevalence in each group was significantly lower after 6 and 15 months than the baseline (P<0.001), except the 6-11 months group after 6 months because of fewer Yingyangbao consumption. Total moderate anemia rate decreased from 18.3% to 5.5% after 6 months, and kept decreasing to 0.8% after another 9 months. The hemoglobin concentration was significantly correlated with the amount of Yingyangbao consumption(P<0.001) The anemia rate was significantly different based on the Yingyangbao compliance (P<0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that Yingyangbao which contains quality protein, vitamins and micronutrients intervened 15 months could be effective for the improvement of anemia of young children. The study provides the support that the application of the complementary food supplements to reduce the anemia of young children in the emergency of natural disaster.

Keywords: young children, anemia, nutrition intervention, complementary food supplements, Yingyangbao

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3001 From Past to Present Awareness about Complementary Therapies

Authors: Olcay Çam, Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Hacer Demirkol

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Complementary and alternative medicine are important for human health. It has stood out that from past to present people have resorted to particularly Turkish bath houses, cupping therapy, mud bath, hirudotheraphy and healing waters for the purpose of recovering from diseases and refresh their souls. Now, methods such as herbal treatments, massage, aromatherapy, prayer, meditation, yoga and thermal springs have been recently observed to be the most frequently used complementary therapies in Turkey. These methods are not known by people exactly. As a result, complementary therapies are applied along with the modern therapies in Turkey, we are considered to be effective in maintaining and improving individuals’ health.

Keywords: complementary therapy, health, health services, modern therapies

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3000 Healthy, Breast Fed Bangladeshi Children Can Regulate Their Food Consumption in Each Meal and Feeding Duration When Offered with Varied Energy Density and Feeding Frequency of Complementary Foods

Authors: M. Munirul Islam, Makhduma Khatun M., Janet M. Peerson, Tahmeed Ahmed, M. Abid Hossain Mollah, Kathryn G. Dewey, Kenneth H. Brown

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Information is required on the effects of dietary energy density (ED) and feeding frequency (FF) of complementary foods (CF) on food consumption during individual meals and time expended in child feeding. We evaluated the effects of varied ED and FF of CFs on food intake and time required for child feeding during individual meals. During 9 separate, randomly ordered dietary periods lasting 3-6 days each, we measured self-determined intakes of porridges by 18 healthy, breastfed children 8-11 mo old who were fed coded porridges with energy densities of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 kcal/g, during 3, 4, or 5 meals/d. CF intake was measured by weighing the feeding bowl before and after every meal. Children consumed greater amounts of CFs per meal when they received diets with lower ED (p = 0.044) and fewer meals per day (p < 0.001). Food intake was less during the first meal of the day than the other meals. Greater time was expended per meal when fewer meals were offered. Time expended per meal did not vary by ED, but the children ate the lower ED diets faster (p = 0.019). Food intake velocity was also greater when more meals were offered per day (p = 0.005). These results provide further evidence of young children’s ability to regulate their energy intakes, even during infancy; and they convey information on factors that affect the amount of time that caregivers must devote to child feeding.

Keywords: complementary foods, energy density, feeding frequency, young children

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2999 An Exploration of Health Promotion Approach to Increase Optimal Complementary Feeding among Pastoral Mothers Having Children between 6 and 23 Months in Dikhil, Djibouti

Authors: Haruka Ando

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Undernutrition of children is a critical issue, especially for people in the remote areas of the Republic of Djibouti, since household food insecurity, inadequate child caring and feeding, unhealthy environment and lack of clean water, as well as insufficient maternal and child healthcare, are underlying causes which affect. Nomadic pastoralists living in the Dikhil region (Dikhil) are socio-economically and geographically more vulnerable due to displacement, which in turn worsens the situation of child stunting. A high prevalence of inappropriate complementary feeding among pastoral mothers might be a significant barrier to child growth. This study aims to identify health promotion intervention strategies that would support an increase in optimal complementary feeding among pastoral mothers of children aged 6-23 months in Dikhil. There are four objectives; to explore and to understand the existing practice of complementary feeding among pastoral mothers in Dikhil; to identify the barriers in appropriate complementary feeding among the mothers; to critically explore and analyse the strategies for an increase in complementary feeding among the mothers; to make pragmatic recommendations to address the barriers in Djibouti. This is an in-depth study utilizing a conceptual framework, the behaviour change wheel, to analyse the determinants of complementary feeding and categorize health promotion interventions for increasing optimal complementary feeding among pastoral mothers living in Dikhil. The analytical tool was utilized to appraise the strategies to mitigate the selected barriers against optimal complementary feeding. The data sources were secondary literature from both published and unpublished sources. The literature was systematically collected. The findings of the determinants including the barriers of optimal complementary feeding were identified: heavy household workload, caring for multiple children under five, lack of education, cultural norms and traditional eating habits, lack of husbands' support, poverty and food insecurity, lack of clean water, low media coverage, insufficient health services on complementary feeding, fear, poor personal hygiene, and mothers' low decision-making ability and lack of motivation for food choice. To mitigate selected barriers of optimal complementary feeding, four intervention strategies based on interpersonal communication at the community-level were chosen: scaling up mothers' support groups, nutrition education, grandmother-inclusive approach, and training for complementary feeding counseling. The strategies were appraised through the criteria of effectiveness and feasibility. Scaling up mothers' support groups could be the best approach. Mid-term and long-term recommendations are suggested based on the situation analysis and appraisal of intervention strategies. Mid-term recommendations include complementary feeding promotion interventions are integrated into the healthcare service providing system in Dikhil, and donor agencies advocate and lobby the Ministry of Health Djibouti (MoHD) to increase budgetary allocation on complementary feeding promotion to implement interventions at a community level. Moreover, the recommendations include a community health management team in Dikhil training healthcare workers and mother support groups by using complementary feeding communication guidelines and monitors behaviour change of pastoral mothers and health outcome of their children. Long-term recommendations are the MoHD develops complementary feeding guidelines to cover sector-wide collaboration for multi-sectoral related barriers.

Keywords: Afar, child food, child nutrition, complementary feeding, complementary food, developing countries, Djibouti, East Africa, hard-to-reach areas, Horn of Africa, nomad, pastoral, rural area, Somali, Sub-Saharan Africa

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2998 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız

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The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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2997 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano

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Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: floating active resistor, complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror

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2996 Multiplying Vulnerability of Child Health Outcome and Food Diversity in India

Authors: Mukesh Ravi Raushan

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Despite consideration of obesity as a deadly public health issue contributing 2.6 million deaths worldwide every year developing country like India is facing malnutrition and it is more common than in Sub-Saharan Africa. About one in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India. The paper assess the nutritional health among children using data from total number of 43737 infant and young children aged 0-59 months (µ = 29.54; SD = 17.21) of the selected households by National Family Health Survey, 2005-06. The wasting was measured by a Z-score of standardized weight-for-height according to the WHO child growth standards. The impact of education with place of residence was found to be significantly associated with the complementary food diversity score (CFDS) in India. The education of mother was positively associated with the CFDS but the degree of performance was lower in rural India than their counterpart from urban. The result of binary logistic regression on wasting with WHO seven types of recommended food for children in India suggest that child who consumed the milk product food (OR: 0.87, p<0.0001) were less likely to be malnourished than their counterparts who did not consume, whereas, in case of other food items as the child who consumed food product of seed (OR: 0.75, p<0.0001) were less likely to be malnourished than those who did not. The nutritional status among children were negatively associated with the protein containing complementary food given the child as those child who received pulse in last 24 hour were less likely to be wasted (OR: 0.87, p<0.00001) as compared to the reference categories. The frequency to feed the indexed child increases by 10 per cent the expected change in child health outcome in terms of wasting decreases by 2 per cent in India when place of residence, education, religion, and birth order were controlled. The index gets improved as the risk for malnutrition among children in India decreases.

Keywords: CFDS, food diversity index, India, logistic regression

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2995 Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Complementary Food from Fermented Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean and Orange-Flesh Sweet Potato Blends

Authors: N. C. Okoronkwo, I. E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, C. P. Agbata

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Childhood malnutrition is one of the most persistent public health problems throughout developing countries, including Nigeria. Demographic and Health survey data from twenty-one developing countries indicated that poor complementary feeding of children aged 6- 23 months contributes to negative growth trends. To reduce malnutrition among children in the society, formulation of complimentary food rich in essential nutrient for optimum growth and development of infants is essential. This study focused on the evaluation of complementary food produced by solid-state fermentation of Acha and Soybean using Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) using Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). The raw materials were soaked separately, each in four volumes of 0.9M acetic acid for 16 hours, rinsed with clean water, steam cooked and cooled. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out by inoculating Acha and Soybean with spore suspension (1x 10⁶spores/ml) of Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and OFSP with spore suspension (1x 106spores/ml) of Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). Fermentation which lasted for 72hours was carried out with 24hours sampling. The samples were blended in the following ratios: Acha and soybean 100: 100 (AS), Acha/soybean and OFSP 50: 50(ASO), made into gruel and compared with a commercial infant formula (Cerelac) which served as the control (CTRL). The samples were analyzed for proximate composition using AOAC methods and sensory attributes using a hedonic scale. Results showed that moisture, crude protein, fibre and ash content increased significantly (p<0.05) as fermentation progressed, while carbohydrate and fat content decreased. The protein, moisture, fibre and ash content ranged from 17.10-19.02%, 54.97-56.27%, 7.08-7.60% and2.09-2.38%, respectively, while carbohydrate and fat content ranged from 12.95-10.21% and 5.81-4.52%, respectively. In sensory scores, there were no significant (p>0.05) difference between the average mean scores of colours, texture and consistency of the samples. The sensory score for the overall acceptability ranged from 6.20-7.80. Sample CTRL had the highest score, while sample ASO had the least score. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between samples CTRL and AS. Solid-state fermentation improved the nutritional content and flavour of the developed complementary food, which is needed for infant growth and development.

Keywords: Complementary food, malnutrition, proximate composition, solid-state fermentation

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2994 Infant and Young Child-Feeding Practices in Mongolia

Authors: Otgonjargal Damdinbaljir

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Background: Infant feeding practices have a major role in determining the nutritional status of children and are associated with household socioeconomic and demographic factors. In 2010, Mongolia used WHO 2008 edition of Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices for the first time. Objective: To evaluate the feeding status of infants and young children under 2 years old in Mongolia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by cluster random sampling. The data on breastfeeding and complementary food supplement of the 350 infants and young children aged 0-23 months in 21 provinces of the 4 economic regions of the country and capital Ulaanbaatar city were collected through questionnaires. The feeding status was analyzed according to the WHO 2008 edition of Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Analysis of data: Survey data was analysed using the PASW statistics 18.0 and EPI INFO 2000 software. For calculation of overall measures for the entire survey sample, analyses were stratified by region. Age-specific feeding patterns were described using frequencies, proportions and survival analysis. Logistic regression was done with feeding practice as dependent and socio demographic factors as independent variables. Simple proportions were calculated for each IYCF indicator. The differences in the feeding practices between sexes and age-groups, if any, were noted using chi-square test. Ethics: The Ethics Committee under the auspices of the Ministry of Health approved the study. Results: A total of 350 children aged 0-23 months were investigated. The rate of ever breastfeeding of children aged 0-23 months reached up to 98.2%, while the percentage of early initiation of breastfeeding was only 85.5%. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months, continued breastfeeding for 1 year, and continued breastfeeding for 2 years were 71.3%, 74% and 54.6%, respectively. The median time of giving complementary food was the 6th month and the weaning time was the 9th month. The rate of complementary food supplemented from 6th-8th month in time was 80.3%. The rates of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods among children aged 6-23 months were 52.1%, 80.8% (663/813) and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The main problems revealed from the study were inadequate category and frequency of complementary food, and the low rate of consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods were the main issues to be concerned on infant feeding in Mongolia. Our findings have highlighted the need to encourage mothers to enrich their traditional wheat- based complementary foods add more animal source foods and vegetables.

Keywords: complementary feeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, minimum meal frequency

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2993 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh

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Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: bambara groundnut, maize, fortification, complementary food

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2992 Complementary and Traditional Medicine in Turkey

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer

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The purpose of this study is an explanation of using and expectation traditional and complementary medicine in Turkey in terms of regionally, cultural and social. Due to geopolitics position, at the intersection of the Middle East, Africa and Europe, Turkey has historically hosted many civilizations and cultures, and hosts many religions at the same time and therefore is very open to intercultural interaction. For this reason, the traditional medicine of Turkey contains traces of many civilizations rather than a traditional medicine of its own. In Turkey, complementary and traditional medicine are used actively. The aim of the study is to measure whether the patients have ever taken traditional medicine as a caretaker or for the supportive treatment of their diseases, and as a result, their expectations. This cross-sectional, paper-based survey study was conducted in 27 state hospitals and 29 family medicine clinics in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Patients who had an appointment in the waiting rooms that day were included. 77.4% of the patients participating in the study stated that they used traditional medicine at least 5 times in their life, 27.6% stated that traditional medicine was sufficient in some diseases, and 36.8% stated that traditional treatment was a part of normal treatment. Both faith and cultural approaches in Turkey always keep traditional medicine close to drugs. Another danger, apart from traditional medicine drugs that can interact with drugs, is that patients find it sufficient to use traditional and complementary medicine alone.

Keywords: complementary medicine, traditional medicine, medicine in Turkey, alternative medicine

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2991 Chemical, Biochemical and Sensory Evaluation of a Quadrimix Complementary Food Developed from Sorghum, Groundnut, Crayfish and Pawpaw Blends

Authors: Ogechi Nzeagwu, Assumpta Osuagwu, Charlse Nkwoala

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Malnutrition in infants due to poverty, poor feeding practices, and high cost of commercial complementary foods among others is a concern in developing countries. The study evaluated the proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions, antinutrients and functional properties, biochemical, haematological and sensory evaluation of complementary food made from sorghum, groundnut, crayfish and paw-paw flour blends using standard procedures. The blends were formulated on protein requirement of infants (18 g/day) using Nutrisurvey linear programming software in ratio of sorghum(S), groundnut(G), crayfish(C) and pawpaw(P) flours as 50:25:10:15(SGCP1), 60:20:10:10 (SGCP2), 60:15:15:10 (SGCP3) and 60:10:20:10 (SGCP4). Plain-pap (fermented maize flour)(TCF) and cerelac (commercial complementary food) served as basal and control diets. Thirty weanling male albino rats aged 28-35 days weighing 33-60 g were purchased and used for the study. The rats after acclimatization were fed with gruel produced with the experimental diets and the control with water ad libitum daily for 35days. Effect of the blends on lipid profile, blood glucose, haematological (RBC, HB, PCV, MCV), liver and kidney function and weight gain of the rats were assessed. Acceptability of the gruel was conducted at the end of rat feeding on forty mothers of infants’ ≥ 6 months who gave their informed consent to participate using a 9 point hedonic scale. Data was analyzed for means and standard deviation, analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range test and significance judged at 0.05, all using SPSS version 22.0. The results indicated that crude protein, fibre, ash and carbohydrate of the formulated diets were either comparable or higher than values in cerelac. The formulated diets (SGCP1- SGCP4) were significantly (P>0.05) higher in vitamin A and thiamin compared to cerelac. The iron content of the formulated diets SGCP1- SGCP4 (4.23-6.36 mg/100) were within the recommended iron intake of infants (0.55 mg/day). Phytate (1.56-2.55 mg/100g) and oxalate (0.23-0.35 mg/100g) contents of the formulated diets were within the permissible limits of 0-5%. In functional properties, bulk density, swelling index, % dispersibility and water absorption capacity significantly (P<0.05) increased and compared favourably with cerelac. The essential amino acids of the formulated blends were within the amino acid profile of the FAO/WHO/UNU reference protein for children 0.5 -2 years of age. Urea concentration of rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (19.48 mmol/L),(23.76 mmol/L),(24.07 mmol/L),(23.65 mmol/L) respectively was significantly higher than that of rat fed cerelac (16.98 mmol/L); however, plain pap had the least value (9.15 mmol/L). Rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (116 mg/dl), (119 mg/dl), (115 mg/dl), (117 mg/dl) respectively had significantly higher glucose levels those fed with cerelac (108 mg/dl). Liver function parameters (AST, ALP and ALT), lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL) and hematological parameters of rats fed with formulated diets were within normal range. Rats fed SGCP1 gained more weight (90.45 g) than other rats fed with SGCP2-SGCP4 (71.65 g, 79.76 g, 75.68 g), TCF (20.13 g) and cerelac (59.06 g). In all the sensory attributes, the control was preferred with respect to the formulated diets. The formulated diets were generally adequate and may likely have potentials to meet nutrient requirements of infants as complementary food.

Keywords: biochemical, chemical evaluation, complementary food, quadrimix

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2990 Infant and Young Child Dietary Diversification Using Locally Available Foods after Nutrition Education in Rural Malawi

Authors: G. C. Phiri, E. A. Heil, A. A. Kalimbira, E. Muehlhoff, C. Masangano, B. M. Mtimuni, J. Herrmann, M. B. Krawinkel, I. Jordan

Abstract:

Background and objectives: High prevalence of undernutrition in Malawi is caused by poor complementary foods. Lack of knowledge of age appropriate food within the household might affect utilization of available resources. FAO-Malawi implemented nutrition education (NE) sessions in 200 villages in Kasungu and Mzimba districts from December 2012 to April 2013 targeting 15 caregivers per village of children aged 6-18 months, grandmothers, spouses and community leaders. Two trained volunteers per village facilitated 10 NE sessions on breastfeeding, food safety and hygiene and complementary feeding using locally available resources. This study assessed the reported dietary diversification practices of infant and young child after nutrition education and the factors that influenced adoption of the practice. Methodology: Questionnaire-based interviews with caregivers were conducted in 16 randomly selected villages (n=108) before training-(t1) and seven months after training-(t2). Knowledge score (KS) was calculated on the indicators breastfeeding, hygiene and complementary feeding. Count regression was performed using SPSS 22. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were separately conducted among caregivers and grandmothers in 4 villages. Content analysis was used to analyze FGDs data. Results: Following NE, caregivers' KS significantly increased (p<0.001) between t1 and t2 for breastfeeding (7.7 vs. 9.8, max=18), hygiene (3.8 vs. 5.9, max=7) and complementary feeding (10.2 vs. 16.2, max=26). Caregivers indicated that they stopped preparation of plain-refined maize meal porridge after they gained knowledge on dietary diversification of complementary foods. They learnt mushing and pounding of ingredients for enriched porridge. Whole-maize meal or potatoes were often enriched with vegetables, legumes, small fish or eggs and cooking oil. Children liked the taste of enriched porridge. Amount of enriched porridge consumed at each sitting increase among previously fussy-eater children. Meal frequency increased by including fruits as snacks in child’s diet. Grandmothers observed preparation of enriched porridge among the mothers using locally available foods. Grandmothers liked the taste of enriched porridge and not the greenish color of the porridge. Both grandmothers and mothers reported that children were playing independently after consuming enriched porridge and were strong and healthy. These motivated adoption of the practice. Conclusion: Increased knowledge and skill of preparation and utilisation of locally available foods promoted children’s dietary diversification. Children liking the enriched porridge motivated adoption of dietary diversification.

Keywords: behaviour change, complementary feeding, dietary diversification, IYCN

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2989 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, Daniel Gallego González, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García, María De Los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez

Abstract:

Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: chronic pain, complementary therapies, homeopathy, acupuncture analgesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
2988 Improving Mathematics and Engineering Interest through Programming

Authors: Geoffrey A. Wright

Abstract:

In an attempt to address shortcomings revealed in international assessments and lamented in legislation, many schools are reducing or eliminating elective courses, applying the rationale that replacing "non-essential" subjects with core subjects, such as mathematics and language arts, will better position students in the global market. However, there is evidence that systematically pairing a core subject with another complementary subject may lead to greater overall learning in both subjects. In this paper, we outline the methods and preliminary findings from a study we conducted analyzing the influence learning programming has on student mathematical comprehension and ability. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate in what ways two subjects might complement each other, and to better understand the principles and conditions that encourage what we call lateral transfer, the synergistic effect that occurs when a learner studies two complementary subjects.

Keywords: programming, engineering, technology, complementary subjects

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2987 Knowledge, Experiences, and Attitudes of Paediatric Nurses regarding Complementary Health Approaches Used by Themselves and Parents for Their Children in Turkey

Authors: Vildan Cırık, Emine Efe

Abstract:

Complementary health approaches are growing in popularity worldwide and play a substantial role in health care. It is very important for paediatric nurses to have knowledge of practices affecting the medical conditions of patients and to communicate with them through integrative nursing care. The purpose of this study was to determine paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of complementary health approaches (CHA) and their personal and professional attitudes to the use of complementary health approaches. This multicentre study was conducted with 1450 paediatric nurses in 18 hospitals in Turkey. Paediatric nurses included in the study were working in the following clinics: Paediatric Service, Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Haematology/Oncology. Data collection focused on the paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of CHA. A high proportion of our sample of paediatric nurses reported that they had used some form of CHA themselves; the most popular choices of CHA were prayer, massage, and vitamins techniques. Paediatric nurses reported positive experiences (drawing/music/art/dance therapies, prayer, herbs, thermal springs, massage, and reflexology) and negative experiences (herbs, thermal springs, prayer, and massage). This study may contribute to increased awareness of the potentially important role of paediatric nurses in the delivery of CHA. Paediatric nurses play important roles in helping patients to use complementary health approaches safely and accurately. Trainings on CHA should be organised, data collection forms including CHA should be created, and evidence-based studies should be focused towards improving the clinical practice of paediatric nurses.

Keywords: complementary health approaches, paediatric nurses, knowledge, experience, attitude, Turkey

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2986 Beam Coding with Orthogonal Complementary Golay Codes for Signal to Noise Ratio Improvement in Ultrasound Mammography

Authors: Y. Kumru, K. Enhos, H. Köymen

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the experimental results on using complementary Golay coded signals at 7.5 MHz to detect breast microcalcifications of 50 µm size. Simulations using complementary Golay coded signals show perfect consistence with the experimental results, confirming the improved signal to noise ratio for complementary Golay coded signals. For improving the success on detecting the microcalcifications, orthogonal complementary Golay sequences having cross-correlation for minimum interference are used as coded signals and compared to tone burst pulse of equal energy in terms of resolution under weak signal conditions. The measurements are conducted using an experimental ultrasound research scanner, Digital Phased Array System (DiPhAS) having 256 channels, a phased array transducer with 7.5 MHz center frequency and the results obtained through experiments are validated by Field-II simulation software. In addition, to investigate the superiority of coded signals in terms of resolution, multipurpose tissue equivalent phantom containing series of monofilament nylon targets, 240 µm in diameter, and cyst-like objects with attenuation of 0.5 dB/[MHz x cm] is used in the experiments. We obtained ultrasound images of monofilament nylon targets for the evaluation of resolution. Simulation and experimental results show that it is possible to differentiate closely positioned small targets with increased success by using coded excitation in very weak signal conditions.

Keywords: coded excitation, complementary golay codes, DiPhAS, medical ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2985 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon

Abstract:

Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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2984 Simple Assessments to Demystify Complementary Feeding: Leveraging a Successful Literacy Initiative Assessment Approach in Gujarat, India

Authors: Smriti Pahwa, Karishma Vats, Aditi Macwan, Jija Dutt, Sumukhi Vaid

Abstract:

Age approporiate complementary feeding has been stressed upon for sound young child nutrition and appropriate growth. National Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines, policies and programs indicate cognizance of the issue taken by the country’s government, policy makers and technical experts. However, it is important that ordinary people, the caregivers of young children too understand the importance of appropriate feeding. For this, an interface might be required where ordinary people could participate in assessing the gaps in IYCF as a first step to take subsequent action. In this context an attempt was made to extrapolate a citizen led learning level survey that has been involving around 25000 ordinary citizens to reach out to 600,000 children annually for over a decade in India. Based on this philosophy of involving ordinary people in simple assessments to produce understandable actionable evidence, a rapid diet assessment tool was developed and collected from caregivers of 90 < 3year children from two urban clusters in Ahmedabad and Baroda, Gujarat. Target sample for pilot was selected after cluster census. Around half the mothers reported that they had not yet introduced water or other fluids to their < 6 month babies. However, about a third were already feeding them food other than mother’s milk. Although complementary feeding was initiated in almost all (95%) children more than 6 months old, frequency was suboptimal in 60%; in 80% cases no measure was taken to either improve energy or nutrient density; only 33% were fed protective foods; Green Leafy Vegetables consumption was negligible (1.4%). Anganwadi food was not consumed. By engaging ordinary people to generate evidence and understand the gaps, such assessments have the potential to be used to generate useful evidence for action at scale as well as locally.

Keywords: citizen led, grass root engagement, IYCF (Infant and Young Child Feeding), rapid diet assessment, under nutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
2983 Modified Gold Screen Printed Electrode with Ruthenium Complex for Selective Detection of Porcine DNA

Authors: Siti Aishah Hasbullah

Abstract:

Studies on identification of pork content in food have grown rapidly to meet the Halal food standard in Malaysia. The used mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) approaches for the identification of pig species is thought to be the most precise marker due to the mtDNA genes are present in thousands of copies per cell, the large variability of mtDNA. The standard method commonly used for DNA detection is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method combined with gel electrophoresis but has major drawback. Its major drawbacks are laborious, need longer time and toxic to handle. Therefore, the need for simplicity and fast assay of DNA is vital and has triggered us to develop DNA biosensors for porcine DNA detection. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop electrochemical DNA biosensor based on ruthenium (II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(p-PIP)]2+ as DNA hybridization label. The interaction of DNA and [Ru(bpy)2(p-HPIP)]2+ will be studied by electrochemical transduction using Gold Screen-Printed Electrode (GSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and succinimide acrylic microspheres. The electrochemical detection by redox active ruthenium (II) complex was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA. Under optimized condition, this porcine DNA biosensor incorporated modified GSPE shows good linear range towards porcine DNA.

Keywords: gold, screen printed electrode, ruthenium, porcine DNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
2982 Improvement and Miniaturization RFID Patch Antenna by Inclusion the Complementary Metamaterials

Authors: Seif Naoui, Lassaad Latrach, Ali Gharsallah

Abstract:

This paper is specialized to highlight the method of miniaturization and improvement the patch antenna by using the complementary metamaterial. This method is presented by a simple technique is composed a structure of patch antenna integrated in its surface a cell of complementary split ring resonator. This resonator is placed at the middle of the radiating patch in parallel with the transmission line and with a variable angle of orientation. The objective is to find the ultimate angle where the best results are obtained on improving the characteristics of the considered antenna. This motif widespread at the traceability applications by wireless communication for RFID technology at the operation frequency 2.45 GHz. Our contribution is based on studies empirical often presented in this article. All simulation results were made by the CST Microwave Studio.

Keywords: complimentary split ring resonators, computer simulation technology microwave studio, metamaterials patch antennas, microstrip patch antenna, radio frequency identification

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2981 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Vector Modulator for Beamforming System

Authors: J. S. Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) vector modulator for beamforming system. The vector modulator features a 360° phase and gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB with a root mean square phase and amplitude error of only 2.2° and 0.45 dB, respectively. These features make it a suitable for wireless backhaul system in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. It draws a current of 20.4 mA from a 1.2 V supply. The total chip size is 1.87x1.34 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, vector modulator, beamforming, 802.11ac

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2980 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2979 Re-Defining Food Waste and Food Waste Management in the Food Service Sector: A Case Study in a University Food Service Unit

Authors: Boineelo P. Lefadola, Annemarie T. Viljoen, Gerrie E. Du Rand

Abstract:

The food service sector wastes staggering quantities of food. More than one-third of food produced today gets wasted. This is both perplexing and daunting given that not all that is wasted is accounted for when measuring food waste. It is recognised that the present food waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really take into account all food waste generated. The contention is that food waste in the food service sector can be prevented or reduced if we have an explicit food waste definition in the context of food service. This study, therefore, explores the definition of the concept of food waste in the food service sector and its implications on sustainable food waste management strategies. An ethnographic research approach was adopted. A university food service unit was selected as a research site. Data collection techniques employed included document analyses, participant observations, focus group discussions with front-of-house and back-of-house staff, and one-on-one interviews with staff on managerial positions. A grounded theory approach was applied to analyse data. The concept of food waste was constructed differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, BOH and FOH staff drew upon socio-cultural implications. This study lays the foundation for a harmonised definition of the concept of food waste in food service.

Keywords: food service, food waste, food waste management, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2978 Recursive Doubly Complementary Filter Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ding-Chen Chung

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal design of recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design using a metaheuristic based optimization technique. Based on the theory of DC digital filters using two recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs), the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an objective function which is a weighted sum of the phase response errors of the designed DAFs. To deal with the stability of the recursive DC filters during the design process, we can either impose some necessary constraints on the phases of the recursive DAFs. Through a frequency sampling and a weighted least squares approach, the optimization problem of the objective function can be solved by utilizing a population based stochastic optimization approach. The resulting DC digital filters can possess satisfactory frequency response. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: doubly complementary, digital all-pass filter, weighted least squares algorithm, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 570
2977 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Half-Plane Recursive Doubly Complementary Digital Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou, Yuan-Hau Yang

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design. We present a structure of 2-D recursive DC filters by using 2-D symmetric half-plane (SHP) recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive DC digital lattice filter is that the resulting 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter provides better performance than the existing 2-D SHP recursive DC digital filter. Moreover, the proposed structure possesses a favorable 2-D DC half-band (DC-HB) property that allows about half of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF’s coefficients to be zero. This leads to considerable savings in computational burden for implementation. To ensure the stability of a designed 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter, some necessary constraints on the phase of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF during the design process are presented. Design of a 2-D diamond-shape decimation/interpolation filter is presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, sampling rate conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2976 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova

Abstract:

This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: food security, national security, agriculture, public resources, economic security

Procedia PDF Downloads 216