Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6412

Search results for: chemical oxygen demand (COD)

6412 Physico-Chemical and Phytoplankton Analyses of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Musa Muhammad, Muhammad Kabiru Abubakar

Abstract:

Monthly changes in Phytoplankton periodicity, nutrient levels, temperature, pH, suspended solids, dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria were studied for a period of six months (July-Dec.-2011). Physico-chemical result showed that temperature and pH ranged between17-25˚C and 5.5-7.5, while dissolved solids and suspended solids ranged between 95-155 mg/L and 0.13-112 mg/L respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ion concentrations were within the ranges of 3.5-3.6 mg/L, 4.8-7.2 mg/L, 8.10-12.30 mg/L, 21-58µΩ/cm, 0.2-8.1 mg/L, 2.4-18.1 mg/L, and 1.22-15.60 mg/L respectively. A total of 4514 Org/L phytoplankton were recorded, of which four classes of algae were identified. These comprised of Chlorophyta (44.1%), Cyanophyta(30.62%), Bacillariophyta(3.2%), Euglenophyta (32.1%). Descriptive statistics of the result showed that phytoplankton count varied with variation of physico-chemical parameters at 5% level during the study period. The abundance and distribution of the algae varied with the variation in the physico-chemical parameters. Pearson correlation showed that temperature and nutrients were significantly correlated with phytoplankton, while DO, sulphate and pH were insignificantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation with COD and phytoplankton.

Keywords: correlation, phytoplankton, physico chemical, kazaure dam

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6411 Landfill Leachate Wastewater Treatment by Fenton Process

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Narumon Soparatana, Supinya Sutthima, Worapong Pattayawan, Saroj Klangkongsub, Songkiat Roddang, Pluek Wongpanich

Abstract:

The leachate wastewater is high contaminant water; hence it needs to be treated. The objective of this research was to determine the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, Phosphate (PO₄³⁻), Ammonia (NH₃) and color in leachate wastewater in the landfill area. The experiments were carried out in the optimum condition by pH, the Fenton reagent dosage (concentration of dosing Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂). The optimum pH is 3, the optimum [Fe²⁺]/[COD] and [H₂O₂]/[COD₀] = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅)/Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ratio can be adjusted to 1 for landfill leachate wastewater (BOD₅/COD = 0.11). From the results, the Fenton process shall be investigated further to achieve the removal of phosphates in addition to COD and color.

Keywords: landfill leachate treatment, open dumpsite, Fenton process, wastewater treatment

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6410 Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Ugbogui River, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Iyagbaye O. Rich, Omoigberale O. Michael, Iyagbaye A. Louis

Abstract:

The physical, chemical parameters and some trace contents of Ugbogui in Edo State, Nigeria were investigated from August 2015 to April 2016. Four stations were studied from upstream to downstream using standard methods. A total of thirty-three (33) physical and chemical characteristics and trace metal contents were examined; Air and water temperatures, depth, transparency, colour, turbidity, flow velocity, pH, total alkalinity, conductivity and dissolved solids etc. Other includes dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, biochemical oxygen demand, chloride, phosphate, sodium, nitrate, sulphate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, vanadium and chromium. Eleven (11) parameters exhibited clear seasonal variations. However, there were high significant differences (p < 0.01) in the values of depth, colour, total suspended solid, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium and cadmium among the stations. The anthropogenic activities had negatively impacted at station 3 of the river, although most of the recorded values were still within permissible limits.

Keywords: anthropogenic activities, Nigeria, permissible limits, physical and chemical parameters, trace metal, water quality

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6409 Water Quality Assessment of Owu Falls for Water Use Classification

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh

Abstract:

Waterfalls create an ambient environment for tourism and relaxation. They are also potential sources for water supply. Owu waterfall located at Isin Local Government, Kwara state, Nigeria is the highest waterfall in the West African region, yet none of its potential usefulness has been fully exploited. Water samples were taken from two sections of the fall and were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The results obtained include pH (6.71 ± 0.1), Biochemical oxygen demand (4.2 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chemical oxygen demand (3.07 ± 0.01 mg/l), Dissolved oxygen (6.59 ± 0.6 mg/l), Turbidity (4.43 ± 0.11 NTU), Total dissolved solids (8.2 ± 0.09 mg/l), Total suspended solids (18.25 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chloride ion (0.48 ± 0.08 mg/l), Calcium ion (0.82 ± 0.02 mg/l)), Magnesium ion (0.63 ± 0.03 mg/l) and Nitrate ion (1.25 ± 0.01 mg/l). The results were compared to the World Health Organisations standard for drinking water and the Nigerian standard for drinking water. From the comparison, it can be deduced that due to the Biochemical oxygen demand value, the water is not suitable for drinking unless it undergoes treatment. However, it is suitable for other classes of water usage.

Keywords: Owu falls, waterfall, water quality, water quality parameters, water use

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6408 Established Novel Approach for Chemical Oxygen Demand Concentrations Measurement Based Mach-Zehner Interferometer Sensor

Authors: Su Sin Chong, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, Hamzah Arof

Abstract:

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) plays a vital role determination of an appropriate strategy for wastewater treatment including the control of the quality of an effluent. In this study, a new sensing method was introduced for the first time and developed to investigate chemical oxygen demand (COD) using a Mach-Zehner Interferometer (MZI)-based dye sensor. The sensor is constructed by bridging two single mode fibres (SMF1 and SMF2) with a short section (~20 mm) of multimode fibre (MMF) and was formed by tapering the MMF to generate evanescent field which is sensitive to perturbation of sensing medium. When the COD concentration increase takes effect will induce changes in output intensity and effective refractive index between the microfiber and the sensing medium. The adequacy of decisions based on COD values relies on the quality of the measurements. Therefore, the dual output response can be applied to the analytical procedure enhance measurement quality. This work presents a detailed assessment of the determination of COD values in synthetic wastewaters. Detailed models of the measurement performance, including sensitivity, reversibility, stability, and uncertainty were successfully validated by proficiency tests where supported on sound and objective criteria. Comparison of the standard method with the new proposed method was also conducted. This proposed sensor is compact, reliable and feasible to investigate the COD value.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, environmental sensing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor, online monitoring

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6407 Impact of Biological Treatment Effluent on the Physico-Chemical Quality of a Receiving Stream in Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Asibor Godwin, Adeniyi Funsho

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the impact of biological treated effluent on the physico-chemical properties of receiving waterbodies and also to establish its suitability for other purposes. It focused on the changes of some physic-chemical variables as one move away from the point of discharge downstream of the waterbodies. Water samples were collected from 14 sampling stations made up of the untreated effluent, treated effluent and receiving streams (before and after treated effluent discharge) over a period of 6 months spanning the dry and rainy seasons. Analyses were carried out on the following: temperature, turbidity, pH, conductivity, major anions and cation, dissolved oxygen, percentage oxygen Saturation, biological oxygen demand (BOD), solids (total solids, suspended solids and dissolved solids), nitrates, phosphates, organic matter and flow discharge using standard analytical methods. The relationships between investigated sites with regards to their physico-chemical properties were analyzed using student-t statistics. Also changes in the treated effluent receiving streams after treated effluent outfall was discussed fully. The physico-chemical water quality of the receiving water bodies meets most of the general water requirements for both domestic and industrial uses. The untreated effluent quality was shown to be of biological origin based on the biological oxygen demand, chloride, dissolved oxygen, total solids, pH and organic matter. The treated effluent showed significant improvement over the raw untreated effluent based on most parameters assessed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the physico-chemical quality of untreated effluent and the treated effluent for the most of the investigated physico-chemical quality. The difference between the discharged treated effluent and the unimpacted section of the receiving waterbodies was also significant (p<0.05) for the most of the physico-chemical parameters.

Keywords: eflluent, Opa River, physico-chemical, waterbody

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6406 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge

Abstract:

Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

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6405 Determination of the Oxidative Potential of Organic Materials: Method Development

Authors: Jui Afrin, Akhtarul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, the solution of glucose, yeast and glucose yeast mixture are being used as sample solution for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general COD determination method used to determine the different rang of oxidative potential. But in this work has shown to determine the definite oxidative potential for different concentration for known COD value and wanted to see the difference between experimental value and the theoretical value for evaluating the method drawbacks. In this study, made the values of oxidative potential like 400 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 700 mg/L and 800mg/L for various sample solutions and determined the oxidative potential according to our developed method. Plotting the experimental COD values vs. sample solutions of various concentrations in mg/L to draw the curve. From these curves see that the curves for glucose solution is not linear; its deviate from linearity for the lower concentration and the reason for this deviation is unknown. If these drawback can be removed this method can be effectively used to determine Oxidative Potential of Industrial wastewater (such as: Leather industry wastewater, Municipal wastewater, Food industry wastewater, Textile wastewater, Pharmaceuticals waste water) that’s why more experiment and study required.

Keywords: bod (biological oxygen demand), cod (chemical oxygen demand), oxidative potential, titration, waste water, development

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6404 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager

Abstract:

In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

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6403 Detergent Removal from Rinsing Water by Peroxi Electrocoagulation Process

Authors: A. Benhadji, M. Taleb Ahmed

Abstract:

Among the various methods of treatment, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) are the most promising ones. In this study, Peroxi Electrocoagulation Process (PEP) was investigated for the treatment of detergent wastewater. The process was compared with electrooxidation treatment. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) was high 7584 mgO2.L-1, while the biochemical oxygen demand was low (250 mgO2.L-1). This wastewater was hardly biodegradable. Electrochemical process was carried out for the removal of detergent using a glass reactor with a volume of 1 L and fitted with three electrodes. A direct current (DC) supply was used. Samples were taken at various current density (0.0227 A/cm2 to 0.0378 A/cm2) and reaction time (1-2-3-4 and 5 hour). Finally, the COD was determined. The results indicated that COD removal efficiency of PEP was observed to increase with current intensity and reached to 77% after 5 h. The highest removal efficiency was observed after 5 h of treatment.

Keywords: AOP, COD, detergent, PEP, wastewater

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6402 Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater on Artichoke Crop

Authors: G. Disciglio, G. Gatta, A. Libutti, A. Tarantino, L. Frabboni, E. Tarantino

Abstract:

Results of a field study carried out at Trinitapoli (Puglia region, southern Italy) on the irrigation of an artichoke crop with three types of water (secondary-treated wastewater, SW; tertiary-treated wastewater, TW; and freshwater, FW) are reported. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the irrigation water, and on soil and yield samples. The levels of most of the chemical parameters, such as electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, Na+, Ca2+, Mg+2, K+, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand over 5 days, NO3 –N, total N, CO32, HCO3, phenols and chlorides of the applied irrigation water were significantly higher in SW compared to GW and TW. No differences were found for Mg2+, PO4-P, K+ only between SW and TW. Although the chemical parameters of the three irrigation water sources were different, few effects on the soil were observed. Even though monitoring of Escherichia coli showed high SW levels, which were above the limits allowed under Italian law (DM 152/2006), contamination of the soil and the marketable yield were never observed. Moreover, no Salmonella spp. were detected in these irrigation waters; consequently, they were absent in the plants. Finally, the data on the quantitative-qualitative parameters of the artichoke yield with the various treatments show no significant differences between the three irrigation water sources. Therefore, if adequately treated, municipal wastewater can be used for irrigation and represents a sound alternative to conventional water resources.

Keywords: artichoke, soil chemical characteristics, fecal indicators, treated municipal wastewater, water recycling

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6401 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari

Abstract:

A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.

Keywords: bisphenol A, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model, chemical oxygen demand

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6400 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani

Abstract:

In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.

Keywords: El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio, treatment

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6399 Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji

Abstract:

Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.

Keywords: surface water, drinking water, water quality, pollution, Thomas reservoir, Kano

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
6398 Characterization of Brewery Wastewater Composition

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo, Sheena Kumari, Feroz M. Swalaha, Faizal Bux

Abstract:

With the competing demand on water resources and water reuse, discharge of industrial effluents into the aquatic environment has become an important issue. Much attention has been placed on the impact of industrial wastewater on water bodies worldwide due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic matter in the receiving water bodies. The scope of the present work is to assess the physic-chemical composition of the wastewater produced from one of the brewery industry in South Africa. This is to estimate the environmental impact of its discharge into the receiving water bodies or the municipal treatment plant. The parameters monitored for the quantitative analysis of brewery wastewater include biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, ammonia, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, and alkalinity content. In average, the COD concentration of the brewery effluent was 5340.97 mg/l with average pH values of 4.0 to 6.7. The BOD and the solids content of the wastewater from the brewery industry were high. This means that the effluent is very rich in organic content and its discharge into the water bodies or the municipal treatment plant could cause environmental pollution or damage the treatment plant. In addition, there were variations in the wastewater composition throughout the monitoring period. This might be as a result of different activities that take place during the production process, as well as the effects of the peak period of beer production on the water usage.

Keywords: Brewery wastewater, environmental pollution, industrial effluents, physic-chemical composition

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6397 Modeling of Processes Running in Radical Clusters Formed by Ionizing Radiation with the Help of Continuous Petri Nets and Oxygen Effect

Authors: J. Barilla, M. Lokajíček, H. Pisaková, P. Simr

Abstract:

The final biological effect of ionizing particles may be influenced strongly by some chemical substances present in cells mainly in the case of low-LET radiation. The influence of oxygen may be particularly important because oxygen is always present in living cells. The corresponding processes are then running mainly in the chemical stage of radio biological mechanism. The radical clusters formed by densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particles are mainly responsible for final biological effect. The damage effect depends then on radical concentration at a time when the cluster meets a DNA molecule. It may be strongly influenced by oxygen present in a cell as oxygen may act in different directions: at small concentration of it the interaction with hydrogen radicals prevails while at higher concentrations additional efficient oxygen radicals may be formed. The basic radical concentration in individual clusters diminishes, which is influenced by two parallel processes: chemical reactions and diffusion of corresponding clusters. The given simultaneous evolution may be modeled and analyzed well with the help of Continuous Petri nets. The influence of other substances present in cells during irradiation may be studied, too. Some results concerning the impact of oxygen content will be presented.

Keywords: radiobiological mechanism, chemical phase, DSB formation, Petri nets

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6396 Improvement of Water Quality of Al Asfar Lake Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Jamal Radaideh

Abstract:

Al-Asfar Lake is located about 14 km east of Al-Ahsa and is one of the most important wetland lakes in the Al Ahsa/Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ahsa is may be the largest oasis in the world, having an area of 20,000 hectares, in addition, it is of the largest and oldest agricultural centers in the region. The surplus farm irrigation water beside additional water supplied by treated wastewater from Al-Hofuf sewage station is collected by a drainage network and discharged into Al-Asfar Lake. The lake has good wetlands, sand dunes as well as large expanses of open and shallow water. Salt tolerant vegetation is present in some of the shallow areas around the lake, and huge stands of Phragmites reeds occur around the lake. The lake presents an important habitat for wildlife and birds, something not expected to find in a large desert. Although high evaporation rates in the range of 3250 mm are common, the water remains in the evaporation lakes during all seasons of the year is used to supply cattle with drinking water and for aquifer recharge. Investigations showed that high concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity discharge to Al Asfar Lake from the D2 drain exist. It is expected that the majority of BOD, COD and N originates from wastewater discharge and leachate from surplus irrigation water which also contribute to the majority of P and salinity. The significant content of nutrients and biological oxygen demand reduces available oxygen in the water. The present project aimed to improve the water quality of the lake using constructed wetland trains which will be built around the lake. Phragmites reeds, which already occur around the lake, will be used.

Keywords: Al Asfar lake, constructed wetland, water quality, water treatment

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6395 Treatment Performance of Waste Stabilization Ponds: A Look at Physic-Chemical Parameters in Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Adu-Ofori, Richard Amfo-Otu, Isaac O. A. Hodgson

Abstract:

The study was conducted to determine the treatment performance of waste stabilization ponds in Akosombo. A total of 15 samples were taken for four consecutive months from the inlet, facultative pond and outlet of maturation pond. The samples were preserved and transported to Water Research Institute for laboratory analysis. The wastewater quality parameters analysed to assess the treatment performance were total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and phosphate. The results of the laboratory analysis showed that the ponds achieved TSS, BOD and COD removals of about 30, 82 and 75 per cent respectively. Statistically, the BOD (t = 10.27, p = 6.68 x 10-6) and COD (t = 4.23, p = 0.0029) of the raw sewage were significantly different from the total effluent at 95% confidence interval. The ammonia and phosphate removal was as high as 92% and 84% respectively. The quality parameters analysed for the final effluent from the Waste Stabilisation Pond was within the EPA guideline values. The general treatment performances were very good with respect to the parameters studied and does not pose threat to the receiving water body. A further study to examine the bacteriological treatment performance was recommended.

Keywords: waste stabilization pond, wast water, treatment performance, nutrient, Ghana

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6394 Non-Adiabatic Silica Microfibre Sensor for BOD/COD Ratio Measurement

Authors: S. S. Chong, A. R. Abdul Aziz, S. W. Harun, H. Arof

Abstract:

A miniaturized non-adiabatic silica microfiber is proposed for biological oxygen demand (BOD) ratio chemical oxygen demand (COD) sensing for the first time. BOD and COD are two main parameters to justify quality of wastewater. A ratio, BOD:COD can usually be established between the two analytical methods once COD and BOD value has been gathered. This ratio plays a vital role to determine appropriate strategy in wastewater treatment. A non-adiabatic microfiber sensor was formed by tapering the SMF to generate evanescent field where sensitive to perturbation of sensing medium. Because difference ratio BOD and COD contain in solution, this may induced changes of effective refractive index between microfiber and sensing medium. Attenuation wavelength shift to right with 0.5 nm and 3.5 nm while BOD:COD equal to 0.09 and 0.18 respectively. Significance difference wavelength shift may relate with the biodegradability of analyte. This proposed sensor is compact, reliable and feasible to determine the BOD:COD. Further research and investigation should be proceeded to enhance sensitivity and precision of the sensor for several of wastewater online monitoring.

Keywords: non-adiabatic fiber sensor, environmental sensing, biodegradability, evanescent field

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6393 Feasibility of Iron Scrap Recycling with Considering Demand-Supply Balance

Authors: Reina Kawase, Yuzuru Matsuoka

Abstract:

To mitigate climate change, to reduce CO2 emission from steel sector, energy intensive sector, is essential. One of the effective countermeasure is recycling of iron scrap and shifting to electric arc furnace. This research analyzes the feasibility of iron scrap recycling with considering demand-supply balance and quantifies the effective by CO2 emission reduction. Generally, the quality of steel made from iron scrap is lower than the quality of steel made from basic oxygen furnace. So, the constraint of demand side is goods-wise steel demand and that of supply side is generation of iron scap. Material Stock and Flow Model (MSFM_demand) was developed to estimate goods-wise steel demand and generation of iron scrap and was applied to 35 regions which aggregated countries in the world for 2005-2050. The crude steel production was estimated under two case; BaU case (No countermeasures) and CM case (With countermeasures). For all the estimation periods, crude steel production is greater than generation of iron scrap. This makes it impossible to substitute electric arc furnaces for all the basic oxygen furnaces. Even though 100% recycling rate of iron scrap, under BaU case, CO2 emission in 2050 increases by 12% compared to that in 2005. With same condition, 32% of CO2 emission reduction is achieved in CM case. With a constraint from demand side, the reduction potential is 6% (CM case).

Keywords: iron scrap recycling, CO2 emission reduction, steel demand, MSFM demand

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6392 A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Devendra Saroj, Judy Lee

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.

Keywords: abattoir wastewater, ultrasound, wastewater treatment, water disinfection

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6391 Degradation of Chlorpyrifos Pesticide in Aqueous Solution and Chemical Oxygen Demand from Real Effluent with Hydrodynamic Cavitation Approach

Authors: Shrikant Randhavane, Anjali Khambete

Abstract:

Use of Pesticides is vital in attaining food security and protection from harmful pests and insects in living environment. Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide is widely used worldwide for various purposes. Due to its wide use and applications, its residues are found in environmental matrices and persist in nature for long duration of time. This has an adverse effect on human, aquatic and living bodies. Use of different methodologies is need of an hour to treat such type of recalcitrant compound. The paper focuses on Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), a hybrid Advanced Oxidation Potential (AOP) method to degrade Chlorpyrifos in aqueous water. Obtained results show that optimum inlet pressure of 5 bars gave maximum degradation of 99.25% for lower concentration and 87.14% for higher concentration Chlorpyrifos solution in 1 hour treatment time. Also, with known initial concentrations, comparing treatment time with optimum pressure of 5 bars, degradation efficiency increases with Hydrodynamic Cavitation. The potential application of HC in removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from real effluent with venturi as cavitating device reveals around 40% COD removal with 1 hour of treatment time.

Keywords: advanced oxidation potential, cavitation, chlorpyrifos, COD

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6390 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste

Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo

Abstract:

Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.

Keywords: fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents, chitosan

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6389 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater bio-treatment , bio-sorption heavy metals, biological desalination, immobilized bacteria, free cell bacteria

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6388 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

Abstract:

This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

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6387 Purification of Bilge Water by Adsorption

Authors: Fatiha Atmani, Lamia Djellab, Nacera Yeddou Mezenner, Zohra Bensaadi

Abstract:

Generally, bilge waters can be briefly defined as saline and greasy wastewaters. The oil and grease are mixed with the sea water, which affects many marine species. Bilge water is a complex mixture of various compounds such as solvents, surfactants, fuel, lubricating oils, and hydraulic oils. It is resulted mainly by the leakage from the machinery and fresh water washdowns,which are allowed to drain to the lowest inner part of the ship's hull. There are several physicochemical methods used for bilge water treatment such as biodegradation electrochemical and electro-coagulation/flotation.The research herein presented discusses adsorption as a method to treat bilge water and eggshells were studied as an adsorbent. The influence of operating parameters as contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose (0,2 - 2g/l) on the removal efficiency of Chemical oxygen demand, COD, and turbidity was analyzed. The bilge wastewater used for this study was supplied by Harbour Bouharoune. Chemical oxygen demand removal increased from 26.7% to 68.7% as the adsorbent dose increased from 0.2 to 2 g. The kinetics of adsorption by eggshells were fast, reaching 55 % of the total adsorption capacity in ten minutes (T= 20°C, pH =7.66, m=2g/L). It was found that the turbidity removal efficiency decreased and 95% were achieved at the end of 90 min reaction. The adsorption process was found to be effective for the purification of bilge water and pseudo-second-order kinetic model was fitted for COD removal.

Keywords: adsorption, bilge water, eggshells and kinetics, equilibrium and kinetics

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6386 Evaluation of Combined System of Constructed Wetland/Expended Clay Aggregate in Greywater Treatment

Authors: Eya Hentati, Mona Lamine, Jalel Bouzid

Abstract:

In this study, a laboratory-scale was designed and fabricated to treat single house greywater in the north of Tunisia with a combination of physical and natural treatments systems. The combined system includes a bio-filter composed of LECA® (lightweight expanded clay aggregate) followed by a vertical up-flow constructed wetland planted with Iris pseudacorus and Typha Latifolia. Applied two hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with two different plants types showed that a bio-filter planted with Typha Latifolia has an optimum removal efficiency for degradation of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen and phosphate at HRT of 30 h. The optimum removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) ranged between 48-65%, between while the nutrients removal was in the range of 70% to 90%. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration, but this steel does not meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. Hence further improvement procedures are suggested.

Keywords: constructed wetland, greywater treatment, nutriments, organics

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6385 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, ammonium, NH₄-N, chemical oxygen demand, COD, greywater, nitrate, NO₃-N, total suspended solids, TSS

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6384 The Risk Assessments of Water Quality in Selected White Water River in Malaysia

Authors: Jaffry Zakaria, Nor Azlina Hasbullah

Abstract:

The research on water quality based on 'Water Quality Index' (WQI) has been on the run along Kampar River in Perak State of Malaysia. This study was conducted to achieve several key objective that determe the value of the parameters that were studied based on Water Quality Index (WQI). The parameters include Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Suspended Solids. In this study, three sampling stations were selected. Through observations from the researchers, several pollutions were found occurring along the research area such as the disposal of waste water directly without treatment from villagers, widespread dumping of solid waste and the development of the surrounding areas that contributed to the pollution of Sungai Kampar in Perak, Malaysia. Sungai Kampar is commonly used for water recreational activities as well as for bathing purposes. Results showed that Sungai Kampar is classified under category III. According to Interim National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia (INWQS), rivers in the third grade are clean but not suitable for river recreational activities. Therefore, there is a requirement to investigate and analysis the water quality of all white water rivers in Malaysia focusing on the area of water activities. The combination of technology and risk management based on risk assessments can help the recreational industry to survive in future.

Keywords: risk assessments, White Water River, water quality index (WQI), Interim National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia (INWQS)

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6383 Studies on the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K. Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole

Abstract:

Studies on some aspects of the physico-chemical parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria was carried out from January to December, 2011. The aim was to investigate some of the physico-chemical parameters relevant to life and health of fish in the water body. Six (6) sampling sites were selected at random which covered Northern (Faku and Awuru), middle (Old Gbajibo and Shankade) and southern zones (New Gbajibo and Jebba dam} of Jebba Lake. Sampling was carried out for the period of 12 Months. The Physico-chemical parameters that were considered were water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, water transparency, phosphate and nitrate. They were all measured using standard methods. The results showed that water temperature values ranged between 26.06 ± 0.15a in Jebba lake site to 27.34 ± 0.12b in Shankade sampling site, depth varied from 8.08m to 31.64m, water current was between 20.10.62 cm/sec and 26.46 cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from0.46±0.01 m in New Gbajibo, while the highest mean value was 0.53 ± 0.04 m in Jebba dam., pH varied from 6.49 ± 0.01 and 7.59,5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.The dissolved oxygen varied between 5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.,The mean conductivity value was highest in Faku and Jebba with 128.8 ± 0.32 and 128.8 ± 0.42homs/cm) respectively, Alkalinity ranged 43.00±0.02 to33.30±0.32 mg/l., The nitrate-nitrogen range (2.37 ± 0.08 – 6.40 ± 0.50mg/l)., The mean values of phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) recorded varied between 0.18 ± 0.00 mg/l in Faku to 0.47 + 0.10 mg/l in Old Gbajibo.The highest mean value for total dissolved solids was 57.88 ± 0.28 mg/l in Shankade, while the lowest mean value of 39.17 ± 0.42 mg/l was recorded in Faku. Free CO2 ranged from 1.75 mg/l to 2.94 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.25 mg/l and 5.41 mg/l and nitrate-nitrogen concentration was between 2.37 mg/l and 6.40 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Jebba were within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted.

Keywords: Jebba Lake, water quality, secchi disc, DO meter, sampling sites, physico-chemical parameters

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