Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: fortification

36 Effect of Fortification of Expressed Human Breast Milk with Olive Oil and Skimmed Milk in Improving Weight Gain in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates and Shortening Their Length of Hospital Stay

Authors: Sumrina Kousar


Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of fortification of expressed human breast milk with olive oil and skimmed milk in improving weight gain in very low birth weight neonates and shortening their length of hospital stay. Study Design and place: A randomized controlled trial was carried out at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore from March 2018 to March 2019. Methods: Neonates admitted with very low birth weight and gestational age of < 34 weeks were included in the study. Sixty babies were enrolled using non-probability consecutive sampling; a random number table was used to allocate them into a fortification group and a control group. The control group received expressed milk alone, while olive oil 1 ml twice daily and skimmed milk 1 gram in every third feed were added to expressed milk in the fortification group. Data was analyzed on SPSS 20. Proportions were compared by applying the chi-square test. An independent sample t-test was applied for comparing means. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study comprised of 60 neonates, with 30 in each of the groups. Weight gain was 24.83±5.63 in the fortification group and 11.72±3.95 in the control group (p =< 0.001). Mean hospital stay was 20.5716.511 in the fortification group and 27.678.89 in the control group (p =< 0.043). Conclusion: Olive oil and skimmed milk fortification of breast milk was effective for weight gain and reducing the length of hospital stay in very low birth weight neonates.

Keywords: fortification, olive oil, skimmed milk, weight gain

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35 Improvement of Total Phenolic Contents and Anti-oxidative Properties of Ricegrass (Oryza sativa L.) using Selenium Bio-fortification

Authors: Rattanamanee Chomchan, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Panupong Puttarak


Ricegrass or young rice sprouts can be introduced as one of functional product since cereal sprouts have been much interested in this era due to their high nutritive values. Bio-fortification of selenium is one strategy to improve plant bioactive compounds. However, the level of selenium used are varied among species of plants, hence, the proper level need to be investigated. In this current study, influence of selenium bio-fortification hydroponically in the form of sodium selenite following the range 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Se/L on growth characteristics, selenium content, total extractable phenolic content (TPC) accumulation, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative properties of ricegrass were investigated. Results revealed that selenium bio-fortified exogenously increased the accumulation of selenium in ricegrass by 5.3 fold at 40 mg Se/L treatment without significant changes in leaves biomass at harvesting day while root part weight were slightly decreased when increased selenium level, respectively. Selenium at low concentration (10 and 20 mg Se/L) can stimulate the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in young ricegrass as measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay. Conversely, higher level of selenium fortification reduced the accumulation of phenolics in ricegrass afterward by acting as pro-oxidant. Moreover, highest significant reduction in oxidative stress, measured as malondialdehyde content was also observed at 20 mg Se/L treatment which in correlation to high TPC and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, selenium bio-fortification can be used as a technique to improve precious to ricegrass.

Keywords: antioxidant activities, bio-fortification, ricegrass, selenium

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34 Development of a Rice Fortification Technique Using Vacuum Assisted Rapid Diffusion for Low Cost Encapsulation of Fe and Zn

Authors: R. A. C. H. Seneviratne, M. Gunawardana, R. P. N. P. Rajapakse


To address the micronutrient deficiencies in the Asian region, the World Food Program in its current mandate highlights the requirement of employing efficient fortification of micronutrients in rice, under the program 'Scaling-up Rice Fortification in Asia'. The current industrial methods of rice fortification with micronutrients are not promising due to poor permeation or retention of fortificants. This study was carried out to develop a method to improve fortification of micronutrients in rice by removing the air barriers for diffusing micronutrients through the husk. For the purpose, soaking stage of paddy was coupled with vacuum (- 0.6 bar) for different time periods. Both long and short grain varieties of paddy (BG 352 and BG 358, respectively) initially tested for water uptake during hot soaking (70 °C) under vacuum (28.5 and 26.15%, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of non-vacuum conditions (25.24 and 25.45% respectively), exhibiting the effectiveness of water diffusion into the rice grains through the cleared pores under negative pressure. To fortify the selected micronutrients (iron and zinc), paddy was vacuum-soaked in Fe2+ or Zn2+ solutions (500 ppm) separately for one hour, and continued soaking for another 3.5 h without vacuum. Significantly (P<0.05) higher amounts of Fe2+ and Zn2+ were observed throughout the soaking period, in both short and long grain varieties of rice compared to rice treated without vacuum. To achieve the recommended limits of World Food Program standards for fortified iron (40-48 mg/kg) and zinc (60-72 mg/kg) in rice, soaking was done with different concentrations of Fe2+ or Zn2+ for varying time periods. For both iron and zinc fortifications, hot soaking (70 °C) in 400 ppm solutions under vacuum (- 0.6 bar) during the first hour followed by 2.5 h under atmospheric pressure exhibited the optimum fortification (Fe2+: 46.59±0.37 ppm and Zn2+: 67.24±1.36 ppm) with a greater significance (P < 0.05) compared to the controls (Fe2+: 38.84±0.62 ppm and Zn2+: 52.55±0.55 ppm). This finding was further confirmed by the XRF images, clearly showing a greater fixation of Fe2+ and Zn2+ in the rice grains under vacuum treatment. Moreover, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among both Fe2+ and Zn2+ contents in fortified rice even after polishing and washing, confirming their greater retention. A seven point hedonic scale showed that the overall acceptability for both iron and zinc fortified rice were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the parboiled rice without fortificants. With all the drawbacks eliminated, per kilogram cost will be less than US$ 1 for both iron and zinc fortified rice. The new method of rice fortification studied and developed in this research, can be claimed as the best method in comparison to other rice fortification methods currently deployed.

Keywords: fortification, vacuum assisted diffusion, micronutrients, parboiling

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33 Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera LAM) Leaves Extract on Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Fullfat and Lowfat Yoghurt

Authors: B. F. Muhammad, A. M. Abdulqadeer


The current study determined the effect of fortification using Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaves Extract (MLE) at different inclusion levels (0, 6, 8, and 10% v/v) on physicochemical and sensory properties of fullfat (FFY) and lowfat (LFY) yoghurt. The results revealed significantly higher protein (p<0.01), fat (p<0.001) and pH in FFY compared to LFY. The MLE inclusion significantly (p<0.001) increased fat contents of the yoghurt types. The pH of LFY produced with 6% MLE was significantly the lowest (p<0.001). The concentration of Mg (21.0 mg/100g), Na (63.0 mg/100g), Ca (173.0 mg/100g), P (416.7 mg/100g), Cu (0.59 mg/100g), Co (0.30 mg/100g), Fe (1.13 mg/100g), and Mn (0.059 mg/100g) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in 10% MLE inclusion level for both FFY and LFY. Also, Mg, Na, Cu and Fe showed significant (p<0.001) negative correlation in fullfat and positive in lowfat yoghurt. The sensory assessment revealed that taste, flavour, colour, texture, and overall acceptability of yoghurt produced with 6% MLE (rated as liked very much) was significantly (p<0.001) better than that produced with 8 and 10% (rated liked slightly). It was concluded that fortification of FFY and LFY with 6% MLE produced acceptable yoghurt that has high nutritional value.

Keywords: moringa, fortification, yoghurt, bioactive compounds

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32 Can Bone Resorption Reduce with Nanocalcium Particles in Astronauts?

Authors: Ravi Teja Mandapaka, Prasanna Kumar Kukkamalla


Poor absorption of calcium, elevated levels in serum and loss of bone are major problems of astronauts during space travel. Supplementation of calcium could not reveal this problem. In normal condition only 33% of calcium is absorbed from dietary sources. In this paper effect of space environment on calcium metabolism was discussed. Many surprising study findings were found during literature survey. Clinical trials on ovariectomized mice showed that reduction of calcium particles to nano level make them more absorbable and bioavailable. Control of bone loss in astronauts in critical important In Fortification of milk with nana calcium particles showed reduces urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline levels. Dietary calcium and supplementation do not show much retention of calcium in zero gravity environment where absorption is limited. So, the fortification of foods with nano calcium particles seemed beneficial for astronauts during and after space travel in their speedy recovery.

Keywords: nano calcium, astronauts, fortification, supplementation

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31 The Promising Way to Minimize the Negative Effects of Iron Fortification

Authors: M. Juffrie, Siti Helmyati, Toto Sudargo, B. J. Istiti Kandarina


Background: Iron fortification is one potential way to overcome anemia but it can cause gut microbiota imbalance. Probiotics addition can increase the growth of good gut bacteria while prebiotics can support the probiotics growth. Tempeh is rich in nutrients required for hemoglobin synthesis, such as protein, vitamin B12, vitamin C, zinc, iron and copper. Objective: To know the efficacy of fermented tempeh extract fortified with iron and synbiotic in maintain gut microbiota balance. Methods: Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract was made using Lactobacillus plantarum Dad13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides. A total of 32 anemic Wistar rats underwent the iron repletion phase then divided into 4 groups, given: 1) Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract with 50 ppm Fe/NaFeEDTA (Na), 2) Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract with 50 ppm Fe/FeSO4 (Fe), 3) Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract (St), and 4) not receive any interventions (Co). Rats were feed AIN-93 free Fe during intervention. Gut microbiota was measured with culture technique using selective media agar while hemoglobin concentration (Hb) was measured with photometric method before and after intervention. Results: There were significant increase in Hb after intervention in Na, Fe, and St, 6.85 to 11.80; 6.41 to 11.48 and 6.47 to 11.03 mg/dL, respectively (p <0.05). Co did not show increase in Hb (6.40 vs. 6.28 mg/dL). Lactobacilli increased in all groups while both of Bifidobacteria increased and E. coli decreased only in Na and St groups. Conclusion: Iron fortification of fermented synbiotic tempeh extract can increase hemoglobin concentrations in anemic animal, increase Lactobacilli and decrease E. coli. It can be an alternative solution to conduct iron fortification without deteriorate the gut microbiota.

Keywords: tempeh, synbiotic, iron, haemoglobin, gut microbiota

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30 Effect of Iron Fortification on the Antibacterial Activity of Synbiotic Fermented Milk

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Euis Nurdiyawati, Joko Susilo, Endri Yuliati, Siti Fadhilatun Nashriyah, Kurnia Widyastuti


Background: Iron fortification is one of the most effective and sustainable strategies to overcome anemia. It contradictively, has negative effect on gut microbiota balance. Pathogenic bacteria required iron for their growth. The iron source have greatly affect iron absorption in the intestine. Probiotic can inhibit the growth of pathogen. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, Indonesian local isolate provides many benefits for health while fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) provides selective substrates for probiotics’ growth. Objective: To determine the effect of iron fortification (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) on antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk. Methods: The antibacterial activity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Paper discs were soaked in three kinds of synbiotic fermented milk, which are: 1) fortified with NaFeEDTA, 2) FeSO4 and 3) control. Escherichia coli was inoculated on nutrient agar medium. The ability of inhibition was shown by the formation of clear zone around the paper disc and measured in diameter (mm). Results: Synbiotic fermented milk fortified with iron (either NaFeEDTA or FeSO4) had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with diameter of clear zone were 6.53 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to control (10.73 mm), synbiotic fermented milk fortified with FeSO4 had similar antibacterial activity (p>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro, synbiotic fermented milk fortified with NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 had different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Iron fortification compound affected the antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk.

Keywords: lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, FOS, NaFeEDTA, FeSO4, antibacterial activity

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29 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Endri Yuliati, Siti Helmyati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin


Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, iron, zinc, growth

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28 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, Y. M. Goh, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi


The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, fillet, fish, fortification, lipid peroxidation

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27 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

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26 Rediscovery of Important Elements Contributing to Cultural Interchange Values Made during Restoration of Khanpur Gate

Authors: Poonam A. Trambadia, Ashish V. Trambadia


The architecture of sultanate period of Ahmedabad had evolved just before the establishment of Mughal rule in North India. After shifting the capital of the kingdom from Patan to Ahmedabad, when the buildings and structures were being built, an interesting cultural blend happened in architecture. Many sultanate buildings in Ahmedabad historic city have resemblance with Patan including the names. Outer fortification walls and Gates were built during the rule of the third ruler in the late 15th century. All the gates had sandstone slabs supported by three arched entrance in sandstone with wooden shutter. A restoration project of Khanpur Gate was initiated in 2016. The paper identifies some evidences and some hidden layers of structures as important elements of cultural interchange while some were just forgotten in the process. The recycling of pre-existing elements of structures are examined and compared. There were layers uncovered that were hidden behind later repairs using traditional brick arch, which was taken out in the process. As the gate had partially collapsed, the restoration included piece by piece dismantling and restoring in the same sequence wherever required. The recycled materials found in the process were recorded and provided the basis for this study. The gate after this discovery sets a new example of fortification Gate built in Sultanate era. The comparison excludes Maratha and British Period Gates to avoid further confusion and focuses on 15th – 16th century sultanate architecture of Ahmedabad.

Keywords: Ahmedabad World Heritage, fortification, Indo-Islamic style, Sultanate architecture, cultural interchange

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25 Micro-Nutrient Bio-Fortification in Sprouts Grown on Fortified Fiber Mats

Authors: J. Nyenhuis, J. Drelich


This research study was designed to determine if food crops could be bio-fortified with micro-nutrients by growing sprouts on mineral fortified fiber mats. Diets high in processed foods have been found to lack essential micro-nutrients for optimum human development and overall health. Some micro-nutrients such as copper (Cu) have been found to enhance the inflammatory response through its oxidative functions, thereby having a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes and related complications. Recycled cellulose fibers and clay saturated with micro-nutrient ions can be converted to a novel mineral-metal hybrid material in which the fiber mat becomes a carrier of essential micro-nutrients. The reduction of ionic to metallic copper was accomplished using hydrogen at temperatures ranging from 400o to 600oC. Copper particles with diameters ranging from ~1 to 400-500 nm reside on the recycled fibers that make up the mats. Seeds purchased from a commercial, organic supplier were germinated on the specially engineered cellulose fiber mats that incorporated w10 wt% clay fillers saturated with either copper particles or ionic copper. After the appearance of the first leaves, the sprouts were dehydrated and analyzed for Cu content. Nutrient analysis showed 1.5 to 1.6 increase in Cu of the sprouts grown on the fiber mats with copper particles, and 2.3 to 2.5 increase on mats with ionic copper as compared to the control samples. The antibacterial properties of materials saturated with copper ions at room temperature and at temperatures up to 400°C have been verified with halo method tests against Escherichia Coli in previous studies. E. coli is a known pathogenic risk in sprout production. Copper exhibits excellent antibacterial properties when tested on S. aureus, a pathogenic gram-positive bacterium. This has also been confirmed for the fiber-copper hybrid material in this study. This study illustrates the potential for the use of engineered mats as a viable way to increase the micro-nutrient composition of locally-grown food crops and the need for additional research to determine the uptake, nutritional implications and risks of micro-nutrient bio-fortification.

Keywords: bio-fortification, copper nutrient analysis, micro-nutrient uptake, sprouts and mineral-fortified mats

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24 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer


The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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23 Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability

Authors: Yichao Liang, Biye Chen, Xiang Li, Steven R. Dimler


This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.

Keywords: divalent cation salts, heat stability, milk protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, storage stability

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22 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh


Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: bambara groundnut, maize, fortification, complementary food

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21 Iodine Nutritional Knowledge of Food Handlers: A Capricorn and Waterberg District Study, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Solomon Ngoako Mabapa, Selekane Ananias Motadi, Nteseng Mailula, Hlekani Vanessa Mbhatsani, Lindelani Fhumudzani Mushaphi


Background: South Africa has indeed made good progress towards IDD elimination, as far as implementation of salt iodization and coverage of iodized salt are concerned, the education and promotion aspects of the iodized salt intervention are seriously lacking. Objective: To determine the iodine nutritional knowledge of food handlers at primary schools under the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn and Waterberg district. Design: This study included 300 food handlers recruited from 95 primary schools in Capricorn district and 105 primary schools in Waterberg district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Primary schools and study participants where conveniently selected. The data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Information obtained was on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, general knowledge on salt fortification and knowledge test. Results: The iodine knowledge for the food handlers in two districts was poor with the entire population’s iodine nutritional knowledge of 12% on the Lickert scale. The mean score on the Lickert scale for Capricorn and Waterberg districts was 17% and 8.6% respectively indicated poor iodine nutritional knowledge. Conclusion: The two districts had poor iodine nutritional knowledge. Giving nutrition education to the public on the importance of iodine and the consequences of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and continue advocacy on mass media on the iodine fortification as an intervention strategy to combat the escalating problem of micronutrient malnutrition control.

Keywords: food handlers, nutritional knowledge, iodine, National School Nutrition Programme

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20 Multiple Strategies in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Result from Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Maryam Shahrooz


Background: Nowadays the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has taken on a growing trend. Studies have shown the relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) status and Mets in children. Also studies have recorded that exerting strategies for vitamin D status improvement can help prevent Mets in children. This study investigated multiple strategies of prevention of Mets resulting from VDD in children. Methods: This review study has been done by using keywords related to the topic and 54 articles were found (2000-2015) that 25 were selected according to the indicators of Mets, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D and attention to children environment and life style. Results: Studies have suggested the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with waist circumference (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01), HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). An inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and HOMA-IR (p = 0.006) and insulin (P = 0.002) has been proved in overweight group. Higher HOMASDS and triglycerides found in vitamin D deficient obese children compared to control group without VDD (p=0.04). After supplementation with vitamin D, serum TG concentration decreases significantly (p=0.04), and improves insulin resistance (p=0.02). The prevalence of VDD is associated with time of watching TV (P < 0.01), hours of physical activity per week (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P < 0.001) soda intake (P < 0.001), and milk intake per day (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the beneficial role of vitamin D in prevention of Mets and proven relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and Mets indicators, we can prevent childhood Mets through the application of appropriate strategies such as supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D and positive changes in children life style with especial attention to physical activity in exposure of sunlight and their environment condition.

Keywords: children, metabolic syndrome, prevention strategies, vitamin D

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19 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani


Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: pectin, xanthan gum, guar gum, laying hen, cholesterol

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18 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana


Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

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17 Antioxidant Potential, Nutritional Value and Sensory Profiles of Bread Fortified with Kenaf Leaves

Authors: Kar Lin Nyam, Phey Yee Lim


The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant potential, nutritional composition, and functional properties of kenaf leaves powder. Besides, the effect of kenaf leaves powder in bread qualities, properties, and consumer acceptability were evaluated. Different formulations of bread fortified with 0%, 4% and 8% kenaf leaves powder, respectively were produced. Physical properties of bread, such as loaf volume, dough expansion, crumb colour, and bread texture, were determined. Nine points hedonic scale was utilized in sensory evaluation to determine the best formulation (the highest overall acceptability). Proximate composition, calcium content, and antioxidant properties were also determined for the best formulation. 4% leaves powder bread was the most preferred by the panelists followed by control bread, and the least preferred was being 8% leaves powder bread. 4% leaves powder bread had significantly higher value of DPPH radical scavenging capacity (8.05 mg TE/100g), total phenolic content (12.88 mg GAE/100g) and total flavonoid content (13.26 mg QE/100g) compared to control bread (1.38 mg TE/100g, 8.17 mg GAE/100g, and 8.77 mg QE/100g respectively). Besides, 4% leaves powder bread also showed higher in calcium content and total dietary fiber compared to control bread. Kenaf leaves powder is suitable to be used as a source of natural antioxidant for fortification and nutrient improver in bread.

Keywords: dietary fibre, calcium, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content

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16 Calcium Uptake and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Rice Straw-Based Substrate Enriched with Natural Sources

Authors: Arianne V. Julian, Michael R. Umagat, Renato G. Reyes


Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, is an excellent source of protein and other minerals but inherently contains low calcium level. Calcium plays several vital functions in human health; therefore, adequate daily intake is necessary. Supplementation of growth substrate is a significant approach in mushroom production to improve nutritional content and yield. This study focused on the influence of varying concentrations of Ca supplementation derived from natural sources including agricultural lime, eggshell and oyster shell in rice straw-based formulation for the production of P. ostreatus. The effect of Ca supplementation on the total yield and Ca content were obtained. Results revealed that these natural sources increased both the yield and Ca of P. ostreatus. Mushroom grown in substrate with 8-10% agricultural lime and 6% eggshell powder produced the highest yields while using oyster shell powder did not vary with the control. Meanwhile, substrate supplementation using agricultural lime and eggshell powder in all concentrations have increased Ca in fruiting bodies. However, Ca was not absorbed in the oyster shell powder-supplemented substrate. These findings imply the potential of agricultural lime and eggshell powder in the production of Ca-enriched mushrooms resulting in higher yield.

Keywords: calcium fortification, mushroom production, natural sources, Pleurotus ostreatus

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15 Characteristic of Taro (Colocasia esculenta), Seaweed (Gracilaria Sp.), and Fishes Bone Collagens Flour Based Analog Rice

Authors: Y. S. Darmanto, P. H. Riyadi, S. Susanti


Recently, approximately 9.1 million people of 237.56 million of Indonesian population suffer diabetes. Such condition was caused by high rice consumption of most Indonesian people. It has been known that rice contains low amylose, high calorie, and possesses hyperglycemic properties. Through this study, we tried to solve that problem by creating a super food in order to provide an alternative healthy and balanced diet. We formulated Taro and Seaweed flour based analog rice that fortified by various fishes bone collagens. Corms of Taro contain easily digestible starch and seaweed is rich in fiber, vitamin, and mineral. That mixture was fortified with collagen-containing unique amino acids such as glysine, lysine, alanine, arginine, proline, and hydroxyprolin. Subsequently, super analog rice was characterized about its nutritional composition such are proximate analyses, water, dietary fiber and amylose content. Furthermore, its morphological structure was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy while the level of consumer preferences was performed by hedonic test. Results demonstrated that fortification by using various fishes bone collagen into analog rice were significantly different in nutritional composition, morphological structure as well as its preferences. Thus, this study was expected as new avenue in functional food discovery especially in the treatment and prevention of diabetic diseases.

Keywords: analogue rice, taro, seaweed, collagen

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14 Cryogenic Grinding of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Peel and Its Effect on Chemical and Morphological Characteristics

Authors: Bhupinder Kaur, P. P. Srivastav


The fruit and vegetable industries are responsible for producing huge amount of waste, which is a problem to environmental safety and should be utilized efficiently. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important commercially grown fruit and referred as the “King of fruits”. In 2015, India was the largest producer (18.506 MT) of mangoes and out of which 9.16 % lost during post-harvest handling. The mango kernel and peel represent approximately 17-22% and 7-22% of the overall mass of fruit respectively and discarded as waste. Hence, an attempt has been made with three mango cultivars (Langra, Dashehari, Fazli) to investigate the effect of cryogenic grinding on various characteristics of mango peel powder (MPP). The cryogenic grinding is an emerging technology which is used for retention of beneficial volatile and bioactive components. The feed rate was highest for Langra followed by Chausa. The samples have 2-4% fat along with significant amount of protein (4-6%) and crude fiber (9-13%). Mango peel is also a good source of minerals such as calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium. Interestingly, the significant amount of essential minerals like phosphorus and chlorine in all the varieties was found with the highest value in Langra (phosphorus 10.83% and chlorine 2.41%) which are not reported earlier. SEM analysis revealed the surface morphology and shape of the particles. Waste utilization is a promising measure from both an environmental and economic point of view. Chemical characterization of the samples indicated its potential to be used for the fortification of food products which in turn reduces hazards due to waste and improve functional quality of the foods.

Keywords: cryogenic grinding, morphological, mineral composition, SEM

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13 Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of Arch Dam Based on Response Surface Method

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong


Earthquake is one of the main loads threatening dam safety. Once the dam is damaged, it will bring huge losses of life and property to the country and people. Therefore, it is very important to research the seismic safety of the dam. Due to the complex foundation conditions, high fortification intensity, and high scientific and technological content, it is necessary to adopt reasonable methods to evaluate the seismic safety performance of concrete arch dams built and under construction in strong earthquake areas. Structural seismic vulnerability analysis can predict the probability of structural failure at all levels under different intensity earthquakes, which can provide a scientific basis for reasonable seismic safety evaluation and decision-making. In this paper, the response surface method (RSM) is applied to the seismic vulnerability analysis of arch dams, which improves the efficiency of vulnerability analysis. Based on the central composite test design method, the material-seismic intensity samples are established. The response surface model (RSM) with arch crown displacement as performance index is obtained by finite element (FE) calculation of the samples, and then the accuracy of the response surface model (RSM) is verified. To obtain the seismic vulnerability curves, the seismic intensity measure 𝑆𝑎(𝑇1) is chosen to be 0.1~1.2g, with an interval of 0.1g and a total of 12 intensity levels. For each seismic intensity level, the arch crown displacement corresponding to 100 sets of different material samples can be calculated by algebraic operation of the response surface model (RSM), which avoids 1200 times of nonlinear dynamic calculation of arch dam; thus, the efficiency of vulnerability analysis is improved greatly.

Keywords: high concrete arch dam, performance index, response surface method, seismic vulnerability analysis, vector-valued intensity measure

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12 Enhanced Iron Accumulation in Chickpea Though Expression of Iron-Regulated Transport and Ferritin Genes

Authors: T. M. L. Hoang, G. Tan, S. D. Bhowmik, B. Williams, A. Johnson, M. R. Karbaschi, Y. Cheng, H. Long, S. G. Mundree


Iron deficiency is a worldwide problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Currently, two major approaches namely iron supplementation and food fortification have been used to combat this issue. These measures, however, are limited by the economic status of the targeted demographics. Iron biofortification through genetic modification to enhance the inherent iron content and bioavailability of crops has been employed recently. Several important crops such as rice, wheat, and banana were reported successfully improved iron content via this method, but there is no known study in legumes. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important leguminous crop that is widely consumed, particularly in India where iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent. Chickpea is also an ideal pulse in the formulation of complementary food between pulses and cereals to improve micronutrient contents. This project aims at generating enhanced ion accumulation and bioavailability chickpea through the exogenous expression of genes related to iron transport and iron homeostasis in chickpea plants. Iron-Regulated Transport (IRT) and Ferritin genes in combination were transformed into chickpea half-embryonic axis by agrobacterium–mediated transformation. Transgenic independent event was confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. T3 leaves and seeds of transgenic chickpea were assessed for iron contents using LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry). The correlation between transgene expression levels and iron content in T3 plants and seeds was assessed using qPCR. Results show that iron content in transgenic chickpea expressing the above genes significantly increased compared to that in non-transgenic controls.

Keywords: iron biofortification, chickpea, IRT, ferritin, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, LA-ICP-MS, ICP-OES

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11 Potentialities of Onopordum Tauricum (Willd.) as Milk Clotting Agent

Authors: Massimo Mozzon, Nadia Raffaelli


Proteases from herbs, woody plants, and trees are exploited for cheesemaking in several countries, especially in South Europe and West Africa. Particularly, “thistles” belonging to several genera within the Asteraceae family (Cynara, Silybum, Centaurea, Carlina, Cirsium, Onopordum) are traditionally used in Mediterranean countries for clotting raw ewe’s and goat’s milk. For the first time, the clotting performance of an aqueous extract from flowers of Onopordum tauricum Willd. (Taurian thistle, bull cottonthistle) were tested in milk of different origin (cow, goat, ewe). The vegetable material was collected in the Central Apennines range, between the Marche and Umbria regions. A response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to study the effect of the curdling variables (temperature, pH, amount of enzymatic extract) on the technological performance of the thistle extract. A three-step procedure for the purification of the enzyme (ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography) was also carried out. The milk clotting activity (MCA) of O. tauricum crude extracts was strongly affected by temperature, pH and by the interaction between these two variables, according to a second-order response surface model, while the milk/coagulant ratio did not affect in a significant way the clotting properties. Experimental data showed that the addition of 10 mM CaCl2 reduced the clotting time of ewe’s, goat’s, and cow’s milk by about 3-fold, 8-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, at 35°C and pH 6.7-6.8. After purification, an enzymatic preparation very close to homogeneity was obtained, which showed a major band at about 30 kDa when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The identity of the enzyme as an aspartic protease was confirmed by inhibition studies. Cheese-making trials were carried out to check the scale-up (1 to 5 L of milk; 37 °C; 10 mM CaCl2 fortification) and set the recipe: 35-45% of curd yields were recorded, according to curd cutting and pressing.

Keywords: milk clotting activity, Onopordum tauricum, plant proteases, vegetable rennet

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10 Extraction and Encapsulation of Carotenoids from Carrot

Authors: Gordana Ćetković, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Vanja Šeregelj, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić


The color of food is one of the decisive factors for consumers. Potential toxicity of artificial food colorants has led to the consumers' preference for natural products over products with artificial colors. Natural pigments have many bioactive functions, such as antioxidant, provitamin and many other. Having this in mind, the acceptability of natural colorants by the consumers is much higher. Being present in all photosynthetic plant tissues carotenoids are probably most widespread pigments in nature. Carrot (Daucus carota) is a good source of functional food components. Carrot is especially rich in carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotene and lutein. For this study, carrot was extracted using classical extraction with hexane and ethyl acetate, as well as supercritical CO₂ extraction. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by estimation of carotenoid yield determined spectrophotometrically. Classical extraction using hexane (18.27 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) was the most efficient method for isolation of carotenoids, compared to ethyl acetate classical extraction (15.73 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) and supercritical CO₂ extraction (0.19 mg β-carotene/100 g DM). Three carrot extracts were tested in terms of antioxidant activity using DPPH and reducing power assay as well. Surprisingly, ethyl acetate extract had the best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals (AADPPH=120.07 μmol TE/100 g) while hexane extract showed the best reducing power (RP=1494.97 μmol TE/100 g). Hexane extract was chosen as the most potent source of carotenoids and was encapsulated in whey protein by freeze-drying. Carotenoid encapsulation efficiency was found to be high (89.33%). Based on our results it can be concluded that carotenoids from carrot can be efficiently extracted using hexane and classical extraction method. This extract has the potential to be applied in encapsulated form due to high encapsulation efficiency and coloring capacity. Therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: carotenoids, carrot, extraction, encapsulation

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9 Rheological and Crystallization Properties of Dark Chocolate Formulated with Essential Oil of Orange and Carotene Extracted from Pineapple Peels

Authors: Mayra Pilamunga, Edwin Vera


The consumption of dark chocolate is beneficial due to its high content of flavonoids, catechins, and procyanidins. To improve its properties, fortification of chocolate with polyphenols, anthocyanins, soy milk powder and other compounds has been evaluated in several studies. However, to our best knowledge, the addition of carotenes to chocolate has not been tested. Carotenoids, especially ß-carotene and lutein, are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables so that they could be extracted from agro-industrial waste, such as fruit processing. On the other hand, limonene produces crystalline changes of cocoa butter and improves its consistency and viscosity. This study aimed to evaluate the production of dark chocolate with the addition of carotenes extracted from an agro industrial waste and to improve its rheological properties and crystallization, with orange essential oil. The dried and fermented cocoa beans were purchased in Puerto Quito, Ecuador, and had a fat content of 51%. Six types of chocolates were formulated, and two formulations were chosen, one at 65% cocoa and other at 70% cocoa, both with a solid: fat ratio of 1.4:1. With the formulations selected, the influence of the addition of 0.75% and 1.5% orange essential oil was evaluated, and analysis to measure the viscosity, crystallization and sensory analysis were done. It was found that essential oil does not generate significant changes in the properties of chocolate, but has an important effect on aroma and coloration, which changed from auburn to brown. The best scores on sensory analysis were obtained for the samples formulated with 0.75% essential oil. Prior to the formulation with carotenes, the extraction of these compounds from pineapple peels were performed. The process was done with and without a previous enzymatic treatment, with three solid-solvent ratios. The best treatment was using enzymes in a solids-solvent ratio of 1:12.5; the extract obtained under these conditions had 4.503 ± 0.214 μg Eq. β-carotene/mL. This extract was encapsulated with gum arabic and maltodextrin, and the solution was dried using a freeze dryer. The encapsulated carotenes were added to the chocolate in an amount of 1.7% however 60,8 % of them were lost in the final product.

Keywords: cocoa, fat crystallization, limonene, carotenoids, pineapple peels

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8 Distribution of Antioxidants between Sour Cherry Juice and Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Gordana Ćetković, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Milica Vinčić


In recent years, interest in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, increased the advantages of the functional food products. Bioactive components help to maintain health and prevention of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and many other degenerative diseases. Recent research has shown that the fruit pomace, a byproduct generated from the production of juice, can be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds. The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing of functional foods represents an important new step for the food industry. Sour cherries have considerable nutritional, medicinal, dietetic and technological value. According to the production volume of cherries, Serbia ranks seventh in the world, with a share of 7% of the total production. The use of sour cherry pomace has so far been limited to animal feed, even though it can be potentially a good source of polyphenols. For this study, local variety of sour cherry cv. ‘Feketićka’ was chosen for its more intensive taste and deeper red color, indicating high anthocyanin content. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and reducing power of sour cherry juice and pomace were compared using spectrophotometrical assays. According to the results obtained, 66.91% of total polyphenols, 46.77% of flavonoids, 46.77% of total anthocyanins and 47.88% of anthocyanin monomers from sour cherry fruits have been transferred to juice. On the other hand, 29.85% of total polyphenols, 33.09% of flavonoids, 53.23% of total anthocyanins and 52.12% of anthocyanin monomers remained in pomace. Regarding radical scavenging activity, 65.51% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherries were exported to juice, while 34.49% was left in pomace. However, reducing power of sour cherry juice was much stronger than pomace (91.28% and 8.72% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherry fruits, respectively). Based on our results it can be concluded that sour cherry pomace is still a rich source of natural antioxidants, especially anthocyanins with coloring capacity, therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, pomace, sour cherry

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7 Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)

Authors: Amanda T. Badaró, Douglas F. Barbin, Sofia T. Garcia, Maria Teresa P. S. Clerici, Amanda R. Ferreira


Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.

Keywords: Chemometrics, fiber, linear discriminant analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy, principal component analysis, semolina

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