Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: peanuts

10 Effects from Maillard Reactions on the Alleginicity of Peanuts

Authors: Khadija Radhi


Food allergy is a serious public health problem, especially in developed countries. As one of the most significant allergies, peanut allergy was investigated in this research. Peanut was mixed with treacle under different heating conditions. The results of glycation analyses revealed that proteins from peanuts interacted with the carbohydrates. Further studies also indicated that Millard reactions were determined by different heating treatment. It is noted that denatured peanut proteins accelerated the first stage of Millard reactions but prevented the third one. From the ELISA results, it was found that Millard reactions between proteins with sugars had no effects on the allergenicity of peanuts. Besides, there was no significant difference in allergenicity between digested and non-digested peanut proteins. However, pre-boiled peanut with denatured proteins displayed lower allergenicity after mixing with sugars. Such results indicated that denaturation is the key factor to reduce the allergenicity of the peanut proteins and it seemed that the second-staged Maillard products had less allergenicity.

Keywords: allergenicity, heating treatment, peanut, Maillard reaction

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9 Health Burden of Disease Assessment for Minimizing Aflatoxin Exposure in Peanuts

Authors: Min-Pei Ling


Aflatoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite with high toxicity capable of contaminating various types of food crops. It has been identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chronic aflatoxin exposure has caused a worldwide public food safety concern. Peanuts and peanut products are the major sources of aflatoxin exposure. Therefore, some reduction interventions have been developed to minimize contamination through the peanut production chain. The purpose of this study is to estimate the efficacy of interventions in reducing the health impact of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. The estimated total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) was calculated using FDA-iRISK online software. Six aflatoxin reduction strategies were evaluated, including good agricultural practice (GAP), biocontrol, Purdue Improved Crop Storage packaging, basic processing, ozonolysis, and ultraviolet irradiation. The results indicated that basic processing could prevent huge public health loss of 4,079.7–21,833 total DALYs per year, which accounted for 39.6% of all decreased total DALYs. GAP and biocontrol were both effective strategies in the farm field, while the other three interventions were limited in reducing total DALYs. In conclusion, this study could help farmers, processing plants, and government policymakers to alleviate aflatoxin contamination issues in the peanut production chain.

Keywords: aflatoxin, health burden, disability-adjusted life-years, peanuts

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8 Assessment of Zinc Content in Nuts by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Method

Authors: Katarzyna Socha, Konrad Mielcarek, Grzegorz Kangowski, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Jolanta Soroczynska, Maria H. Borawska


Nuts have high nutritional value. They are a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins (B₁, B₆, E, K) and minerals: magnesium, selenium, zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential element for proper functioning and development of human organism. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, Zn has an influence on immunological and central nervous system. It also affects proper functioning of reproductive organs and has beneficial impact on the condition of skin, hair, and nails. The objective of this study was estimation of Zn content in edible nuts. The research material consisted of 10 types of nuts, 12 samples of each type: almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts. The samples of nuts were digested in concentrated nitric acid using microwave mineralizer (Berghof, Germany). The concentration of Zn was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry method with Zeeman background correction (Hitachi, Japan). The accuracy of the method was verified on certified reference material: Simulated Diet D. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. For comparison between the groups, t-Student test was used. The highest content of Zn was shown in pine nuts and cashews: 78.57 ± 21.9, 70.02 ± 10,2 mg/kg, respectively, significantly higher than in other types of nuts. The lowest content of Zn was found in macadamia nuts: 16.25 ± 4.1 mg/kg. The consumption of a standard 42-gram portion of almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, peanuts, pecans, and pine nuts covers the daily requirement for Zn above 15% of recommended daily allowances (RDA) for women, while in the case of men consumption all of the above types of nuts, except peanuts. Selected types of nuts can be a good source of Zn in the diet.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometry, microelement, nuts, zinc

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7 Effects of Roasting as Preservative Method on Food Value of the Runner Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea

Authors: M. Y. Maila, H. P. Makhubele


Roasting is one of the oldest preservation method used in foods such as nuts and seeds. It is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Groundnut seeds, also known as peanuts when sun dried or roasted, are among the oldest oil crops that are mostly consumed as a snack, after roasting in many parts of South Africa. However, roasting can denature proteins, destroy amino acids, decrease nutritive value and induce undesirable chemical changes in the final product. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of various roasting times on the food value of the runner groundnut seeds. A constant temperature of 160 °C and various time-intervals (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were used for roasting groundnut seeds in an oven. Roasted groundnut seeds were then cooled and milled to flour. The milled sundried, raw groundnuts served as reference. The proximate analysis (moisture, energy and crude fats) was performed and the results were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant content was determined using HPLC. Mineral (cobalt, chromium, silicon and iron) contents were determined by first digesting the ash of sundried and roasted seed samples in 3M Hydrochloric acid and then determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All results were subjected to ANOVA through SAS software. Relative to the reference, roasting time significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced moisture (71%–88%), energy (74%) and crude fat (5%–64%) of the runner groundnut seeds, whereas the antioxidant content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased (35%–72%) with increasing roasting time. Similarly, the tested mineral contents of the roasted runner groundnut seeds were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced at all roasting times: cobalt (21%–83%), chromium (48%–106%) and silicon (58%–77%). However, the iron content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) unaffected. Generally, the tested runner groundnut seeds had higher food value in the raw state than in the roasted state, except for the antioxidant content. Moisture is a critical factor affecting the shelf life, texture and flavor of the final product. Loss of moisture ensures prolonged shelf life, which contribute to the stability of the roasted peanuts. Also, increased antioxidant content in roasted groundnuts is essential in other health-promoting compounds. In conclusion, the overall reduction in the proximate and mineral contents of the runner groundnuts seeds due to roasting is sufficient to suggest influences of roasting time on the food value of the final product and shelf life.

Keywords: dry roasting, legume, oil source, peanuts

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6 Evaluation of Nuts as a Source of Selenium in Diet

Authors: Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Jakub M. Bołtryk, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puścion-Jakubik, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Maria H. Borawska


Selenium (Se) is an essential element for human health. As an integral part of glutathione peroxidase, it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Unfortunately, Se dietary intake is often insufficient, especially in regions where the soil is low in Se. Therefore, in search for good sources of Se, the content of this element in food products should be monitored. Food product can be considered as a source of Se when its standard portion covers above 15% of recommended daily allowance. In the case of nuts, 42g is recognized as the standard portion. The aim of this study was to determine the Se content in nuts and to answer the question of whether the studied nuts can be considered as a source of Se in the diet. The material for the study consisted of 10 types of nuts (12 samples of each one): almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. The nuts were mineralized using microwave technique (Berghof, Germany). The content of Se was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method with electrothermal atomization in a graphite tube with Zeeman background correction (Hitachi, Japan). The accuracy of the method was verified on certified reference material: Simulated Diet D. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.05 level. The highest content of Se was found in Brazil nuts (4566.21 ± 3393.9 µg/kg) and the lowest in almonds (36.07 ± 18.8 µg/kg). A standard portion (42g) of almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts covers the recommended daily allowance for Se respectively in: 2, 192, 28, 2, 16, 7, 4, 3, 12, 6%. Brazil nuts, cashews and macadamia nuts can be considered as a good source of Se in diet.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometry, diet, nuts, selenium

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5 Common Used Non-Medical Practice and Perceived Benefits in Couples with Fertility Problems in Turkey

Authors: S. Fata, M. A. Tokat, N. Bagardi, B. Yilmaz


Nowadays, various traditional practices are used throughout the world with aim to improve fertility. Various traditional remedies, acupuncture, religious practices such as sacrifice are frequently used. Studies often evaluate the traditional practices used by the women. But the use of this non-medical practice by couples and specific application reasons of this methods has been less investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the common used non-medical practices and determine perceived benefits by couples with fertility problems in Turkey. This is a descriptive study. Research data were collected between May-July 2016, in Izmir Ege Birth Education and Research Hospital Assisted Reproduction Clinic, from 151 couples with fertility problem. Personal Information Form and Non-Medical Practices Used for Fertility Evaluation Form was used. Number 'GOA 2649' permission letter from Dokuz Eylul University Non-Invasive Research Ethics Board, permission letter from the institution and the written consent from participants has been received to carry out the study. In the evaluation of the data, frequencies and proportions analysis were used. The average age of women participating in the study was 32.87, the 35.8% were high school graduates, 60.3% were housewife and the 58.9% lived in city. The 30.5% of husbands were high school graduates, the 96.7% were employed and the 60.9% lived in city. The 78.1% of couples lived as a nuclear family, the average marriage year was 7.58, in 33.8% the fertility problem stems from women, 42.4% of them received a diagnosis for 1-2 years, 35.1% were being treated for 1-2 years. The 35.8% of women reported use of non-medical applications. The 24.4% of women used figs, onion cure, hacemat, locust, bee-pollen milk, the 18.2% used herbs, the 13.1% vowed, the 12.1% went to the tomb, the 10.1% did not bath a few days after the embryo transfer, the 9.1% used thermal water baths, the 5.0% manually corrected the womb, the 5.0% printed amulets by Hodja, the 3.0% went to the Hodja/pilgrims. Among the perceived benefits of using non-medical practices; facilitate pregnancy and implantation, improve oocyte quality were the most recently expressed. Women said that they often used herbs to develop follicles, did not bath after embryo transfer with aim to provide implantation, and used thermal waters to get rid of the infection. Compared to women, only the 25.8% of men used the non-medical practice. The 52.1% reported that they used peanuts, hacemat, locust, bee-pollen milk, the 14.9% used herbs, the 12.8% vowed, the 10.1% went to the tomb, the 10.1% used thermal water baths. Improve sperm number, motility and quality were the most expected benefits. Men said that they often used herbs to improve sperm number, used peanuts, hacemat, locust, bee-pollen milk to improve sperm motility and quality. Couples in Turkey often use non-medical practices to deal with fertility problems. Some of the practices considered as useful can adversely affect health. Healthcare providers should evaluate the use of non-medical practices and should inform if the application is known adverse effects on health.

Keywords: fertility, couples, non-medical practice, perceived benefit

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4 Co-Limitation of Iron Deficiency in Stem Allantoin and Amino-N Formation of Peanut Plants Intercropped with Cassava

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Weibo Yang


Co-limitation of iron (Fe) deficiency in legume nitrogen fixation process is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine how peanut plants cope with Fe deficiency with the rhizobial inoculants and N-nutrient treatments. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 4.6±0.7) and deficient in Fe (9.2±2.3 mg/kg). Peanut plants were intercropped with cassava. The inoculants and N treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. Peanut root nodulation, stem allantoin, amino acids and plant N derived from fixation (P) reduced with declining soil Fe concentrations. The treatment interactions were significant on relative ureide % and peanut yields (P<0.05). Residual fixed N from peanut plants was beneficial to cassava plants. It was concluded that co-variance of Fe deficiency could influence peanut N fixation efficiency and rhizobia and N inputs could help improving peanut tolerance to Fe deficiency stress.

Keywords: amino acids, plant N derived from N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, peanuts, cassava

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3 Sorption Properties of Biological Waste for Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Lucia Rozumová, Ivo Šafařík, Jana Seidlerová, Pavel Kůs


Biosorption by biological waste materials from agriculture industry could be a cost-effective technique for removing metal ions from wastewater. The performance of new biosorbent systems, consisting of the waste matrixes which were magnetically modified by iron oxide nanoparticles, for the removal of lead ions from an aqueous solution was tested. The use of low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods. This article deals with the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions by modified waste products - orange peels, sawdust, peanuts husks, used tea leaves and ground coffee sediment. Magnetically modified waste materials were suspended in methanol and then was added ferrofluid (magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). This modification process gives the predictions for the formation of the smart materials with new properties. Prepared material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and pore size analyzer. Studies were focused on the sorption and desorption properties. The changes of iron content in magnetically modified materials after treatment were observed as well. Adsorption process has been modelled by adsorption isotherms. The results show that magnetically modified materials during the dynamic sorption and desorption are stable at the high adsorbed amount of lead ions. The results of this study indicate that the biological waste materials as sorbent with new properties are highly effective for the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: biological waste, sorption, metal ions, ferrofluid

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2 Triplex Detection of Pistacia vera, Arachis hypogaea and Pisum sativum in Processed Food Products Using Probe Based PCR

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün, Emrah Yalazi̇, Emine Altinkaya, Cengiz Ataşoğlu


In recent years, food allergies which cause serious health problems affect to public health around the world. Foodstuffs which contain allergens are either intentionally used as ingredients or are encased as contaminant in food products. The prevalence of clinical allergy to peanuts and nuts is estimated at about 0.4%-1.1% of the adult population, representing the allergy to pistachio the 7% of the cases of tree nut causing allergic reactions. In order to protect public health and enforce the legislation, methods for sensitive analysis of pistachio and peanut contents in food are required. Pea, pistachio and peanut are used together, to reduce the cost in food production such as baklava, snack foods.DNA technology-based methods in food analysis are well-established and well-roundedtools for species differentiation, allergen detection. Especially, the probe-based TaqMan real-time PCR assay can amplify target DNA with efficiency, specificity, and sensitivity.In this study, pistachio, peanut and pea were finely ground and three separate series of triplet mixtures containing 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 mg kg-1 of each sample were prepared for each series, to a final weight of 100 g. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted with the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. TaqMan probes were designed for triplex determination of ITS, Ara h 3 and pea lectin genes which are specific regions for identification pistachio, peanut and pea, respectively.The real-time PCR as quantitative detected pistachio, peanut and pea in these mixtures down to the lowest investigated level of 0.1, 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1, respectively. Also, the methods reported here are capable of detecting of as little as 0.001% level of peanut DNA, 0,000001% level of pistachio DNA and 0.000001% level of pea DNA. We accomplish that the quantitative triplex real-time PCR method developed in this study canbe applied to detect pistachio, peanut and peatraces for three allergens at once in commercial food products.

Keywords: allergens, DNA, real-time PCR, TaqMan probe

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1 The Ecosystem of Food Allergy Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

Authors: Eimar Yadir Quintero Tapias


Background: Science is not generally self-correcting; many clinical studies end with the same conclusion "more research is needed." This study hypothesizes that first, we need a better appraisal of the available (and unavailable) evidence instead of creating more of the same false inquiries. Methods: Systematic review of study records using the following Boolean operators: (food OR nut OR milk OR egg OR shellfish OR wheat OR peanuts) AND (allergy OR allergies OR hypersensitivity OR hypersensitivities). Variables included the status of the study (e g., active and completed), availability of results, sponsor type, sample size, among others. To determine the rates of non-publication in journals indexed by PubMed, an advanced search query using the specific Number of Clinical Trials (e.g., NCT000001 OR NCT000002 OR...) was performed. As a prophylactic measure to prevent P-hacking, data analyses only included descriptive statistics and not inferential approaches. Results: A total of 2092 study records matched the search query described above (date: September 13, 2019). Most studies were interventional (n = 1770; 84.6%) and the remainder observational (n = 322; 15.4%). Universities, hospitals, and research centers sponsored over half of these investigations (n = 1208; 57.7%), 308 studies (14.7%) were industry-funded, and 147 received NIH grants; the remaining studies got mixed sponsorship. Regarding completed studies (n = 1156; 55.2%), 248 (21.5%) have results available at the registry site, and 417 (36.1%) matched NCT numbers of journal papers indexed by PubMed. Conclusions: The internal and external validity of human research is critical for the appraisal of medical evidence. It is imperative to analyze the entire dataset of clinical studies, preferably at a patient-level anonymized raw data, before rushing to conclusions with insufficient and inadequate information. Publication bias and non-registration of clinical trials limit the evaluation of the evidence concerning therapeutic interventions for food allergy, such as oral and sublingual immunotherapy, as well as any other medical condition. Over half of the food allergy human research remains unpublished.

Keywords: allergy, clinical trials, immunology, systematic reviews

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