Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 36

Search results for: bambara groundnut

36 Proximate Composition, Colour and Sensory Properties of Akara egbe Prepared from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Taiwo Tijani, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Mutiat A. Balogun, Fausat L. Kolawole, John K. Joseph


Bambara groundnut is an underutilised leguminous crop that has a similar composition to cowpea. Hence, it could be used in making traditional snack usually produced from cowpea paste. In this study, akara egbe, a traditional snack was prepared from Bambara groundnut flour or paste. Cowpea was included as the reference sample. The proximate composition and functional properties of the flours were studies as well as the proximate composition and sensory properties of the resulting akara egbe. Protein and carbohydrate were the main components of Bambara groundnut and cowpea grains. Ash, fat and fiber contents were low. Bambara groundnut flour had higher protein content (23.71%) than cowpea (19.47%). In terms of functional properties, the oil absorption capacity (0.75 g oil/g flour) of Bambara groundnut flour was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the cowpea (0.92 g oil/g flour), whereas, Cowpea flour absorbed more water (1.59 g water/g flour) than Bambara groundnut flour (1.12 g/g). The packed bulk density (0.92 g/mL) of Bambara groundnut was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than cowpea flour (0.82 g/mL). Akara egbe prepared from Bambara groundnut flour showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher protein content (23.41%) than the sample made from Bambara groundnut paste (19.35%). Akara egbe prepared from cowpea paste had higher ratings in aroma, colour, taste, crunchiness and overall acceptability than those made from cowpea flour or Bambara groundnut paste or flour. Bambara groundnut can produce akara egbe with comparable nutritional and sensory properties to that made from cowpea.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Cowpea, Snack, Sensory properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
35 Evaluation of Raw Diatomaceous Earth and Plant Powders in the Control of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) on Stored Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) (Verdc.) Seeds

Authors: Ibrahim Nasiru Dole, Audu Abdullahi, Dike Michiel Chidozie, Lawal Mansur


Bambara groundnut is an important grain legume and the seeds in storage suffer infestation by Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of raw diatomaceous earth (RDE) and plant powders (Jatropha curcas (L.), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh.) and Melia azedarach (L.) against C. subinnotatus infesting stored bambara groundnut seeds. Rearing of the insects and the experiments were conducted in Agricultural Biology Laboratory of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto - Nigeria under ambient conditions (29-33oC and a relative humidity of 44-56%). Four treatments at three levels: RDE at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g while plant powders at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g, standard/check (2.0 g of Actellic dust), and a control. These were separately admixed with 100 g of sterilized seeds in glass jars. Each jar was later infested with thirty, 1-2-days old C. subinnotatus of mixed sexes. Adult mortality was assessed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, F1 and F2 progenies, seed damage, weight loss and viability were also assessed after 90 days. Eighty-nine (89%) percent adult mortality was recorded in the highest dose of RDE after 96 hours of exposure. These treatments significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed F1 and F2 progenies emergence in relation to the control. The control suffered significantly (P < 0.05) higher seed damage (51.0 %) and weight loss (40.8%) thereby recording lower seed germination. Therefore, RDE and plant powders could be used against C. subinnotatus on stored bambara groundnut seeds.

Keywords: bambara, callosobruchus subinnotatus, plant powders, raw diatomaceous earth,

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
34 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh


Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: bambara groundnut, maize, fortification, complementary food

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33 Evaluation of Rhizobia for Nodulation, Shoot and Root Biomass from Host Range Studies Using Soybean, Common Bean, Bambara Groundnut and Mung Bean

Authors: Sharon K. Mahlangu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Rural households in Africa depend largely on legumes as a source of high-protein food due to N₂-fixation by rhizobia when they infect plant roots. However, the legume/rhizobia symbiosis can exhibit some level of specificity such that some legumes may be selectively nodulated by only a particular group of rhizobia. In contrast, some legumes are highly promiscuous and are nodulated by a wide range of rhizobia. Little is known about the nodulation promiscuity of bacterial symbionts from wild legumes such as Aspalathus linearis, especially if they can nodulate cultivated grain legumes such as cowpea and Kersting’s groundnut. Determining the host range of the symbionts of wild legumes can potentially reveal novel rhizobial strains that can be used to increase nitrogen fixation in cultivated legumes. In this study, bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to induce root nodules on their homologous hosts. Seeds were surface-sterilized with alcohol and sodium hypochlorite and planted in sterile sand contained in plastic pots. The pot surface was covered with sterile non-absorbent cotton wool to avoid contamination. The plants were watered with nitrogen-free nutrient solution and sterile water in alternation. Three replicate pots were used per isolate. The plants were grown for 90 days in a naturally-lit glasshouse and assessed for nodulation (nodule number and nodule biomass) and shoot biomass. Seven isolates from each of Kersting’s groundnut and cowpea and two from Rooibos tea plants were tested for their ability to nodulate soybean, mung bean, common bean and Bambara groundnut. The results showed that of the isolates from cowpea, where VUSA55 and VUSA42 could nodulate all test host plants, followed by VUSA48 which nodulated cowpea, Bambara groundnut and soybean. The two isolates from Rooibos tea plants nodulated Bambara groundnut, soybean and common bean. However, isolate L1R3.3.1 also nodulated mung bean. There was a greater accumulation of shoot biomass when cowpea isolate VUSA55 nodulated common bean. Isolate VUSA55 produced the highest shoot biomass, followed by VUSA42 and VUSA48. The two Kersting’s groundnut isolates, MGSA131 and MGSA110, accumulated average shoot biomass. In contrast, the two Rooibos tea isolates induced a higher accumulation of biomass in Bambara groundnut, followed by common bean. The results suggest that inoculating these agriculturally important grain legumes with cowpea isolates can contribute to improved soil fertility, especially soil nitrogen levels.

Keywords: legumes, nitrogen fixation, nodulation, rhizobia

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32 Leaf Photosynthesis and Water-Use Efficiency of Diverse Legume Species Nodulated by Native Rhizobial Isolates in the Glasshouse

Authors: Lebogang Jane Msiza, Felix Dapare Dakora


Photosynthesis is a process by which plants convert light energy to chemical energy for metabolic processes. Plants are known for converting inorganic CO₂ in the atmosphere to organic C by photosynthesis. A decrease in stomatal conductance causes a decrease in the transpiration rate of leaves, thus increasing the water-use efficiency of plants. Water-use efficiency in plants is conditioned by soil moisture availability and is enhanced under conditions of water deficit. This study evaluated leaf photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in 12 legume species inoculated with 26 rhizobial isolates from soybean, 15 from common bean, 10 from cowpea, 15 from Bambara groundnut, 7 from lessertia and 10 from Kersting bean. Gas-exchange studies were used to measure photosynthesis and water-use efficiency. The results revealed a much higher photosynthetic rate (20.95µmol CO₂ m-2s-1) induced by isolated tutpres to a lower rate (7.06 µmol CO₂ m-2s-1) by isolate mgsa 88. Stomatal conductance ranged from to 0.01 mmol m-2.s-1 by mgsa 88 to 0.12 mmol m-2.s-1 by isolate da-pua 128. Transpiration rate also ranged from 0.09 mmol m-2.s-1 induced by da-pua B2 to 3.28 mmol m-2.s-1 by da-pua 3, while water-use efficiency ranged from 91.32 µmol CO₂ m-1 H₂O elicited by mgsa 106 to 4655.50 µmol CO₂ m-1 H₂O by isolate tutswz 13. The results revealed the highest photosynthetic rate in soybean and the lowest in common bean, and also with higher stomatal conductance and transpiration rates in jack bean and Bambara groundnut. Pigeonpea exhibited much higher water-use efficiency than all the tested legumes. The findings showed significant differences between and among the test legume/rhizobia combinations. Leaf photosynthetic rates are reported to be higher in legumes with high stomatal conductance, which suggests that legume productivity can be improved by manipulating leaf stomatal conductance.

Keywords: legumes, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water-use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
31 The Effects of Root Zone Supply of Aluminium on Vegetative Growth of 15 Groundnut Cultivars Grown in Solution Culture

Authors: Mosima M. Mabitsela


Groundnut is preferably grown on light textured soils. Most of these light textured soils tend to be highly weathered and characterized by high soil acidity and low nutrient status. One major soil factor associated with infertility of acidic soils that can negatively depress groundnut yield is aluminium (Al) toxicity. In plants Al toxicity damages root cells, leading to inhibition of root growth as a result of the suppression of cell division, cell elongation and cell expansion in the apical meristem cells of the root. The end result is that roots become stunted and brittle, root hair development is poor, and the root apices become swollen. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aluminium (Al) toxicity on a range of groundnut varieties. Fifteen cultivars were tested in incremental aluminum (Al) supply in an ebb and flow solution culture laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were six aluminium (Al) treatments viz. 0 µM, 1 µM, 5.7 µM, 14.14 µM, 53.18 µM, and 200 µM. At 1 µM there was no inhibitory effect on the growth of groundnut. The inhibition of groundnut growth was noticeable from 5.7 µM to 200 µM, where the severe effect of aluminium (Al) stress was observed at 200 µM. The cultivars varied in their response to aluminium (Al) supply in solution culture. Groundnuts are one of the most important food crops in the world, and its supply is on a decline due to the light-textured soils that they thrive under as these soils are acidic and can easily solubilize aluminium (Al) to its toxic form. Consequently, there is a need to develop groundnut cultivars with high tolerance to soil acidity.

Keywords: aluminium toxicity, cultivars, reduction, root growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
30 Preliminary Studies on the Potentials of Bambara nut (Voandzeia substerranea) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as Imitation Milk

Authors: Onuoha Gideon


The preliminary studies on the potentials of Bambara nut and pigeon pea as imitation milk were investigated. Bambara nut and Pigeon pea milk were produced from two separate unit operations; Bambara nut seed was cooked, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (BCM) and another batch was toasted at moderate temperature, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (BTM). Pigeon pea seed was cooked, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (PCM) and another batch was toasted at moderate temperature, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (PTM). The result of the proximate analysis on the milk samples on wet basis showed that the protein content ranged from 28.56 – 26.77, the crude fibre ranged from 6.28 – 1.85, the ash content ranged from 5.22 – 1.17, the fat content ranged from 2.71 – 1.12, the moisture content ranged from 95.93 – 93.83, the carbohydrate content ranged from 67.62 – 58.83. The functional analysis on the milk samples showed that emulsification capacity ranged from 43.21 – 38.66, emulsion stability ranged from 34.10 – 25.00, the specific gravity ranged from 997.50 – 945.00, the foaming capacity ranged from 3,500 to 2,250, the measurement of viscosity ranged from 0.017 – 0.007, the pH range from 5.55 – 5.25, the measurement of dispersibility range from 11.00 – 7.00, the total soluble solid ranged from 4.00 to 1.75, the total titratable acidity ranged from 0.314 – 0.328. The sensory evaluation report showed that in terms of flavor, sample BCM and PCM value were significantly different from sample BTM and PTM. In terms of colour, sample BCM showed a significant difference from samples BTM, PCM and PTM. In term of texture, sample BCM was significantly different from samples BTM, PCM and PTM. The general acceptability shows that sample BCM was significantly different from other the samples and was the most accepted. The microbial analysis indicated that the microbial load increases with time. Bacterial count ranged from 1.3 x 105 – 1.20 x 106 to 1.6 x 105 – 1.06 x 106, fungal count ranged from 4.0 x 105 – 8.0 x 105 to 4.0 x 105 – 7.0 x 105. The studies showed that BCM was the most preferred.

Keywords: imitation milk, Bambara nut, Pigeon pea, proximate composition

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29 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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28 Structural Strength Potentials of Nigerian Groundnut Husk Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Mortar

Authors: F. A. Olutoge, O.R. Olulope, M. O. Odelola


This study investigates the strength potentials of groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement in mortar and also develops a predictive model using Artificial Neural Network. Groundnut husks sourced from Ogbomoso, Nigeria, was sun dried, calcined to ash in a furnace at a controlled temperature of 600⁰ C for a period of 6 hours, and sieved through the 75 microns. The ash was subjected to chemical analysis and setting time test. Fine aggregate (sand) for the mortar was sourced from Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The cement: GHA constituents were blended in ratios 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 %. The sum of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ content in GHA is 26.98%. The compressive strength for mortars PC, GHA5, GHA10, GHA15, and GHA20 ranged from 6.3-10.2 N/mm² at 7days, 7.5-12.3 N/mm² at 14 days, 9.31-13.7 N/mm² at 28 days, 10.4-16.7 N/mm² at 56days and 13.35- 22.3 N/mm² at 90 days respectively, PC, GHA5 and GHA10 had competitive values up to 28 days, but GHA10 gave the highest values at 56 and 90 days while GHA20 had the lowest values at all ages due to dilution effect. Flexural strengths values at 28 days ranged from 1.08 to 1.87 N/mm² and increased to a range of 1.53-4.10 N/mm² at 90 days. The ANN model gave good prediction for compressive strength of the mortars. This study has shown that groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement improves the strength properties of mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, groundnut husk ash, mortar, pozzolanic index

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
27 Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Groundnut Hulls

Authors: Olumuyiwa Ayoola Kokapi, Olugbenga Solomon Bello


Dyes are organic compounds with complex aromatic molecular structure that resulted in fast colour on a substance. Dye effluent found in wastewater generated from the dyeing industries is one of the greatest contributors to water pollution. Groundnut hull (GH) is an agricultural material that constitutes waste in the environment. Environmental contamination by hazardous organic chemicals is an urgent problem, which is partially solved through adsorption technologies. The choice of groundnut hull was promised on the understanding that some materials of agricultural origin have shown potentials to act as Adsorbate for hazardous organic chemicals. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of groundnut hull to adsorb Crystal violet dye through kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The prepared groundnut hulls was characterized using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, and effect of temperature were studied. Equilibrium time for the adsorption process was attained in 80 minutes. Adsorption isotherms used to test the adsorption data were Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° of the adsorption processes were determined. The results showed that the uptake of dye by groundnut hulls occurred at a faster rate, corresponding to an increase in adsorption capacity at equilibrium time of 80 min from 0.78 to 4.45 mg/g and 0.77 to 4.45mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L for pH 3.0 and 8.0 respectively. High regression values obtained for pseudo-second-order kinetic model, sum of square error (SSE%) values along with strong agreement between experimental and calculated values of qe proved that pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted more than pseudo first-order kinetic model. The result of Langmuir and Freundlich model showed that the adsorption data fit the Langmuir model more than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study demonstrated the feasibility, spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process due to negative values of free energy change (∆G) at all temperatures and positive value of enthalpy change (∆H) respectively. The positive values of ∆S showed that there was increased disorderliness and randomness at the solid/solution interface of crystal violet dye and groundnut hulls. The present investigation showed that, groundnut hulls (GH) is a good low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, crystal violet dye, groundnut halls, kinetics

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26 Efficacy of DAPG Producing Fluorescent Pseudomonas for Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficacy, Bio-Control of Soil-Borne Diseases and Yield of Groundnut

Authors: Basavaraj Yenagi, P. Nagaraju, C. R. Patil


Groundnut (Arachis hypohaea L.) is called as “King of oilseeds” and one of the most important food and cash crops in Indian subcontinent. Yield and quality of oil are negatively correlated with poor or imbalanced nutrition and constant exposure to both biotic and abiotic stress factors. Variety of diseases affect groundnut plant, most of them are caused by fungi and lead to severe yield loss. Imbalanced nutrition increases the concerns of environmental deterioration which includes soil fertility. Among different microbial antagonists, Pseudomonas is common member of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria microflora present in the rhizosphere of groundnut. These are known to produce a beneficial effect on groundnut due to their high metabolic activity leading to the production of enzymes, exopolysaccharides, secondary metabolites, and antibiotics. The ability of pseudomonas lies on their ability to produce antibiotic metabolites such as 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). DAPG can inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens namely collar rot and stem rot and also increase the availability of plant nutrients through increased solubilization and uptake of nutrients. Hence, the present study was conducted for three consecutive years (2014 to 2016) in vertisol during the rainy season to assess the efficacy of DAPG producing fluorescent pseudomonas for enhancing nutrient use efficacy, bio-control of soil-borne diseases and yield of groundnut at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad farm. The experiment was laid out in an RCBD with three replications and seven treatments. The mean of three years data revealed that the effect of DAPG-producing producing fluorescent pseudomonas enhanced groundnut yield, uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus and nutrient use efficiency and also found to be effective in bio-control of collar rot and stem rot incidence leading to increase pod yield of groundnut. Higher dry pod yield of groundnut was obtained with DAPG 2(3535 kg ha-1) closely followed by DAPG 4(3492 kg ha-1), FP 98(3443 kg ha-1), DAPG 1(3414 kg ha-1), FP 86(3361 kg ha-1) and Trichoderma spp. (3380 kg ha-1) over control(3173 kg ha-1). A similar trend was obtained with other growth and yield attributing parameters. N uptake ranged from 8.21 percent to FP 86 to 17.91 percent with DAPG 2 and P uptake ranged between 5.56 percent with FP 86 to 16.67 percent with DAPG 2 over control. The first year, there was no incidence of collar rot. During the second year, the control plot recorded 2.51 percent incidence and it ranged from 0.82 percent to 1.43 percent in different DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas treatments. The similar trend was noticed in the third year with lower incidence. The stem rot incidence was recorded during all the three years. Mean data indicated that the control plot recorded 2.65 percent incidence and it ranged from 0.71 percent to 1.23 percent in different DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas treatments. The increase in net monetary benefits ranged from Rs.5975 ha-1 to Rs.11407 ha 1 in different treatments. Hence, as a low-cost technology, seed treatment with available DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas has a beneficial effect on groundnut for enhancing groundnut yield, nutrient use efficiency and bio-control of soil-borne diseases.

Keywords: groundnut, DAPG, fluorescent pseudomonas, nutrient use efficiency, collar rot, stem rot

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25 Variation in N₂ Fixation and N Contribution by 30 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties Grown in Blesbokfontein Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Authors: Titus Y. Ngmenzuma, Cherian. Mathews, Feilx D. Dakora


In Africa, poor nutrient availability, particularly N and P, coupled with low soil moisture due to erratic rainfall, constitutes the major crop production constraints. Although inorganic fertilizers are an option for meeting crop nutrient requirements for increased grain yield, the high cost and scarcity of inorganic inputs make them inaccessible to resource-poor farmers in Africa. Because crops grown on such nutrient-poor soils are micronutrient deficient, incorporating N₂-fixing legumes into cropping systems can sustainably improve crop yield and nutrient accumulation in the grain. In Africa, groundnut can easily form an effective symbiosis with native soil rhizobia, leading to marked N contribution in cropping systems. In this study, field experiments were conducted at Blesbokfontein in Mpumalanga Province to assess N₂ fixation and N contribution by 30 groundnut varieties during the 2018/2019 planting season using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The results revealed marked differences in shoot dry matter yield, symbiotic N contribution, soil N uptake and grain yield among the groundnut varieties. The percent N derived from fixation ranged from 37 to 44% for varieties ICGV131051 and ICGV13984. The amount of N-fixed ranged from 21 to 58 kg/ha for varieties Chinese and IS-07273, soil N uptake from 31 to 80 kg/ha for varieties IS-07947 and IS-07273, and grain yield from 193 to 393 kg/ha for varieties ICGV15033 and ICGV131096, respectively. Compared to earlier studies on groundnut in South Africa, this study has shown low N₂ fixation and N contribution to the cropping systems, possibly due to environmental factors such as low soil moisture. Because the groundnut varieties differed in their growth, symbiotic performance and grain yield, more field testing is required over a range of differing agro-ecologies to identify genotypes suitable for different cropping environments

Keywords: ¹⁵N natural abundance, percent N derived from fixation, amount of N-fixed, grain yield

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24 Effect of Palm Bunch Ash and Neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) Leaf Powder on Termite Infestation in Groundnut Field

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, C. P. Ekwe, G. O. Ihejirika, S. A. Dialoke, O. P. Onyewuchi, C. P. Anyanwu, I. E. Kalu


As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development, especially during prolonged dry spell. Effect of palm bunch ash and neem(Azardirachta indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0tons/ha and three rates of neem leaf powder at 0.0(control), 1.0, 2.0 tons/ha respectively. Data were collected on percentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result shows that there were no significant (P= 0.05) differences in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch ash and neem leaf powder applications. Contrarily, palm bunch ash at 2.0 tons/ha recorded the least termite incidence especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) and 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm bunch ash at 2.0tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively. Control plots on the other hand consistently maintained highest termite severity throughout the trial with the highest value at 2 and 12WAP (1.56). Conclusively, palm bunch ash exhibited highest depressive action against termite on groundnut especially at higher application value (2.0tons/ha).

Keywords: groundnut, incidence, neem, palm, severity, termites

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
23 Effects of Roasting as Preservative Method on Food Value of the Runner Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea

Authors: M. Y. Maila, H. P. Makhubele


Roasting is one of the oldest preservation method used in foods such as nuts and seeds. It is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Groundnut seeds, also known as peanuts when sun dried or roasted, are among the oldest oil crops that are mostly consumed as a snack, after roasting in many parts of South Africa. However, roasting can denature proteins, destroy amino acids, decrease nutritive value and induce undesirable chemical changes in the final product. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of various roasting times on the food value of the runner groundnut seeds. A constant temperature of 160 °C and various time-intervals (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were used for roasting groundnut seeds in an oven. Roasted groundnut seeds were then cooled and milled to flour. The milled sundried, raw groundnuts served as reference. The proximate analysis (moisture, energy and crude fats) was performed and the results were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant content was determined using HPLC. Mineral (cobalt, chromium, silicon and iron) contents were determined by first digesting the ash of sundried and roasted seed samples in 3M Hydrochloric acid and then determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All results were subjected to ANOVA through SAS software. Relative to the reference, roasting time significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced moisture (71%–88%), energy (74%) and crude fat (5%–64%) of the runner groundnut seeds, whereas the antioxidant content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased (35%–72%) with increasing roasting time. Similarly, the tested mineral contents of the roasted runner groundnut seeds were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced at all roasting times: cobalt (21%–83%), chromium (48%–106%) and silicon (58%–77%). However, the iron content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) unaffected. Generally, the tested runner groundnut seeds had higher food value in the raw state than in the roasted state, except for the antioxidant content. Moisture is a critical factor affecting the shelf life, texture and flavor of the final product. Loss of moisture ensures prolonged shelf life, which contribute to the stability of the roasted peanuts. Also, increased antioxidant content in roasted groundnuts is essential in other health-promoting compounds. In conclusion, the overall reduction in the proximate and mineral contents of the runner groundnuts seeds due to roasting is sufficient to suggest influences of roasting time on the food value of the final product and shelf life.

Keywords: dry roasting, legume, oil source, peanuts

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22 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad


Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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21 Effect of Synthetic L-Lysine and DL-Methionine Amino Acids on Performance of Broiler Chickens

Authors: S. M. Ali, S. I. Mohamed


Reduction of feed cost for broiler production is at most importance in decreasing the cost of production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of synthetic amino acids (L-lysine – DL-methionine) instead of super concentrate and groundnut cake versus meat powder as protein sources. A total of 180 male broiler chicks (Cobb – strain) at 15 day of age (DOA) were selected according to their average body weight (380 g) from a broiler chicks flock at Elbashair Farm. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups of 30 chicks. Each group was further sub divided into three replicates with 10 birds. Six experimental diets were formulated. The first diet contained groundnut cake and super concentrate as the control (GNC + C); in the second diet, meat powder and super concentrate (MP + C) were used. The third diet contained groundnut cake and amino acids (GNC + AA); the forth diet contained meat powder and amino acids (MP + AA). The fifth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and super concentrate (GNC + MP + C) and the sixth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and amino acids (GNC + MP + AA). The formulated rations were randomly assigned for the different sub groups in a completely randomized design of six treatments and three replicates. Weekly feed intake, body weight and mortality were recorded and body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment (49 DOA), nine birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Live body weight, carcass weight, head, shank, and some internal organs (gizzard, heart, liver, small intestine, and abdominal fat pad) weights were taken. For the overall experimental period the (GNC + C +MP) consumed significantly (P≤0.01) the highest cumulative feed while the (MP + AA) group consumed the lowest amount of feed. The (GNC + C) and the (GNC + AA) groups had the heaviest live body weight while (MP + AA) had the lowest live body weight. The overall FCR was significantly (P≤0.01) the best for (GNC + AA) group while the (MP + AA) reported the worst FCR. However, the (GNC + AA) had significantly (P≤0.01) the lowest AFP. The (GNC + MP + Con) group had the highest dressing % while the (MP + AA) group had the lowest dressing %. It is concluded that amino acids can be used instead of super concentrate in broiler feeding with perfect performance and less cost and that meat powder is not advisable to be used with amino acids.

Keywords: broiler chickens, DL-lysine, methionine, performance

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20 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.


Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

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19 Field Efficacy Evaluation and Synergistic Effect of Two Rodenticides Zinc Phosphide and Brodifacoum against Field Rats of the Pothwar Region, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, David Galbraith, Tariq Mahmood


Rodenticides are often included as part of an integrated pest management approach for managing rodent species since they are relatively quick and inexpensive to apply. The current field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of formulated baits of zinc phosphide (2%) and the second generation anticoagulant brodifacoum (0.005%) against field rats inhabiting a wheat-groundnut cropping system. Burrow baiting was initiated at the early flowering stages of the respective crops, and continued through three growth stages (tillering / peg formation, flowering, and maturity). Three treatments were done at equal time intervals, with the final baiting being about 2 weeks before harvest. Treatment efficacy of the trials was assessed through counts of active rodent burrows before and after treatments at the three growth stages of these crops. The results indicated variable degrees of reduction in burrow activities following the three bait applications. The reductions in rodent activity in wheat were: 88.8% (at tillering), 92%, (at flowering/grain formation), and 95.5% (at maturity). In groundnut, the rodent activities were reduced by 91.8%, 93.5% and 95.8% at sowing, peg formation, and maturity stages, respectively. The estimated mortality at all three growth stages of both wheat and groundnut ranged between 60-85%. We recommend that a field efficacy study should be conducted with zinc phosphide and brodifacoum bait formulations to determine their field performance in the reduction of agricultural damage by rodent pest species. It is a promising alternative approach for use of the most potent second-generation anticoagulant (brodifacoum) in resistance management, particularly with respect to reducing environmental risks and secondary poisoning.

Keywords: brodifacoum, burrow baiting, second-generation anticoagulant, synergistic effect

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18 Effect of Feeding Camel Rumen Content on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens under Semi-Arid Condition

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Adamu, Aminu Maidala


One hundred and fifty (150) day old chicks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments birds and each treatment where replicated twice in groups of fifteen birds in each replicate. Camel rumen content (CRC) was included in the diets of broiler at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to replace maize and groundnut cake to evaluate the effect on the performance and hematological parameters at the starter and finisher phase. A completely randomized design was used and 600g of feed was given daily and water was given ad libitum. At the starter phase, the daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by the test ingredients, although T1(0% CRC) which serve as a control, were similar with T2(5% CRC), T3(10% CRC), and T4(15% CRC), while the lowest value was recorded in T5(20% CRC). The result indicates that up to 15% (CRC) level can be included in the starter diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without any effect on the performance. However, at the finisher phase, the daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio show no significant (F>0.05) difference among the dietary treatments. Similarly, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) also did not differ significantly (F>0.05) among the dietary treatments while hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) differs significantly. The differential counts of eosinophils, heterophils, and lymphocytes differ significantly among the treatment groups, while that of basophils and monocytes shows no significant difference among the treatment groups. This means up to 20% CRC inclusion level can be used to replaced maize and groundnut cake in the finisher diet without any adverse effect on the performance and hematological parameters of the chickens.

Keywords: camel, rumen content, growth, hematology

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
17 Symbiotic Functioning, Photosynthetic Induction and Characterisation of Rhizobia Associated with Groundnut, Jack Bean and Soybean from Eswatini

Authors: Zanele D. Ngwenya, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Legumes are a major source of biological nitrogen, and therefore play a crucial role in maintaining soil productivity in smallholder agriculture in southern Africa. Through their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in root nodules, legumes are a better option for sustainable nitrogen supply in cropping systems than chemical fertilisers. For decades, farmers have been highly receptive to the use of rhizobial inoculants as a source of nitrogen due mainly to the availability of elite rhizobial strains at a much lower compared to chemical fertilisers. To improve the efficiency of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis in African soils would require the use of highly effective rhizobia capable of nodulating a wide range of host plants. This study assessed the morphogenetic diversity, photosynthetic functioning and relative symbiotic effectiveness (RSE) of groundnut, jack bean and soybean microsymbionts in Eswatini soils as a first step to identifying superior isolates for inoculant production. According to the manufacturer's instructions, rhizobial isolates were cultured in yeast-mannitol (YM) broth until the late log phase and the bacterial genomic DNA was extracted using GenElute bacterial genomic DNA kit. The extracted DNA was subjected to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and a dendrogram constructed from the band patterns to assess rhizobial diversity. To assess the N2-fixing efficiency of the authenticated rhizobia, photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rates (E) were measured at flowering for plants inoculated with the test isolates. The plants were then harvested for nodulation assessment and measurement of plant growth as shoot biomass. The results of ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed the presence of high genetic diversity among the microsymbionts nodulating each of the three test legumes, with many of them showing less than 70% ERIC-PCR relatedness. The dendrogram generated from ERIC-PCR profiles grouped the groundnut isolates into 5 major clusters, while the jack bean and soybean isolates were grouped into 6 and 7 major clusters, respectively. Furthermore, the isolates also elicited variable nodule number per plant, nodule dry matter, shoot biomass and photosynthetic rates in their respective host plants under glasshouse conditions. Of the groundnut isolates tested, 38% recorded high relative symbiotic effectiveness (RSE >80), while 55% of the jack bean isolates and 93% of the soybean isolates recorded high RSE (>80) compared to the commercial Bradyrhizobium strains. About 13%, 27% and 83% of the top N₂-fixing groundnut, jack bean and soybean isolates, respectively, elicited much higher relative symbiotic efficiency (RSE) than the commercial strain, suggesting their potential for use in inoculant production after field testing. There was a tendency for both low and high N₂-fixing isolates to group together in the dendrogram from ERIC-PCR profiles, which suggests that RSE can differ significantly among closely related microsymbionts.

Keywords: genetic diversity, relative symbiotic effectiveness, inoculant, N₂-fixing

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16 Evaluation of Different Food Baits by Using Kill Traps for the Control of Lesser Bandicoot Rat (Bandicota bengalensis) in Field Crops of Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain, Tariq Mahmood


The lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis) is widely distributed and a serious agricultural pest in Pakistan. It has wide adaptation with rice-wheat-sugarcane cropping systems of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and wheat-groundnut cropping system of Pothwar area, thus inflicting heavy losses to these crops. Comparative efficacies of four food baits (onion, guava, potato and peanut butter smeared bread/Chapatti) were tested in multiple feeding tests for kill trapping of this rat species in the Pothwar Plateau between October 2013 to July 2014 at the sowing, tilling, flowering and maturity stages of wheat, groundnut and millet crops. The results revealed that guava was the most preferred bait as compared to the rest of three, presumably due to particular taste and smell of the guava. The relative efficacies of all four tested baits guava also scoring the highest trapping success of 16.94 ± 1.42 percent, followed by peanut butter, potato, and onion with trapping successes of 10.52 ± 1.30, 7.82 ± 1.21 and 4.5 ± 1.10 percent, respectively. In various crop stages and season-wise the highest trapping success was achieved at maturity stages of the crops, presumably due to higher surface activity of the rat because of favorable climatic conditions, good shelter, and food abundance. Moreover, the maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season and maturity stages of millet and groundnut match with monsoon/autumn breeding peak of the lesser bandicoot rat in Pothwar area. The preferred order among four baits tested was guava > peanut butter > potato > onion. The study recommends that the farmers should periodically carry out rodent trapping at the beginning of each crop season and during non-breeding seasons of this rodent pest when the populations are low in numbers and restricted under crop boundary vegetation, particularly during very hot and cold months.

Keywords: Bandicota bengalensis, efficacy, food baits, Pothwar

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15 Potentiality of Biohythane Process for the Gaseous Energy Recovery from Organic Wastes

Authors: Debabrata Das, Preeti Mishra


A two-phase anaerobic process combining biohydrogen followed by biomethane (biohythane technology) serves as an environment-friendly and economically sustainable approach for the improved valorization of organic wastes. Suitability of the pure cultures like Klebsiela pneumonia, C. freundii, B. coagulan, etc. and mixed acidogenic cultures for the biohydrogen production was already studied. The characteristics of organic wastes play a critical role in biohydrogen production. The choice of an appropriate combination of complementary organic wastes can vastly improve the bioenergy generation besides achieving the significant cost reduction. Suitability and economic viability of using the groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC), distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS) and algal biomass (AB) as a co-substrate were studied for a biohythane production. Results show that maximum gaseous energy of 20.7, 9.3, 16.7 and 15.6 % was recovered using GDOC, MDOC, DDGS and AB in the two stage biohythane production, respectively. Both GDOC and DDGS were found to be better co-substrates as compared to MDOC and AB in terms of hythane production, respectively. The maximum cumulative hydrogen and methane production of 150 and 64 mmol/L were achieved using GDOC. Further, 98 % reduction in substrate input cost (SIC) was achieved using the co-supplementation procedure.

Keywords: Biohythane, algal biomass, distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS), groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC)

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14 In vitro Control of Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton the Early Leaf Spot Disease Pathogen of Groundnut by the Extracts from Six Medicinal Plants

Authors: Matthew Omoniyi Adebola, Jude E Amadi


Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most popular commercial crops in Nigeria. Its suc-cessful production has been drastically affected by early leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphae-rella arachidis Deighton. In vitro control of the pathogen by six medicinal plants (Entada afri-cana, Vitex doniana, Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Acalypha hispida and Nuaclea lati-folia) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using cold and hot wa-ter and alcohol. The pathogen was isolated from ground nut infected with early leaf spot disease. The results revealed a great significant difference (P<0.05) in yield of extracts between cold water, hot water, and alcohol extracts. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in percentage concentrations of the various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. Flavonoids per-centage concentration was the highest (0.68 - 1.95%) followed by saponnin(0.09-1.53%) in N. latifolia extracts. Steroiods had the least percentage concentrations (0.00- 0.09%)followed by terpenoids(0.02–0.71%) and proanthocyannin (0.05 – 0.86%). N. latifolia extracts produced the highest percentage concentrations (0.07–1.95%) of all the phytochemicals followed by A. indi-ca(0.05–1.64%)and least concentrations were obtained in A. hispidia(0.09 – 0.87%)and V. do-niana (0.00–0.88%). The extracts inhibited spore germination and growth of M. arachidis. The inhibition by alcohol extracts was high and significantly different (P>0.05) from cold and hot water extracts. Alcohol extract of L. inermis gave 100% spore germination inhibition followed by N. latifolia and A.indica with 97.75% and 85.60% inhibition respectively. Therefore, field trials of these six medicinal plants on the control of early leaf spot disease of ground nut are rec-ommended.

Keywords: groundnut, phytochemicals, medicinal plants, extracts, inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
13 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad


Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: food composite, nutrient utilization, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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12 Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems

Authors: Sidramappa Gaddnakeri, Lokanath Malligawad


Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.

Keywords: cropping systems, production systems, cowpea, safflower, greengram, pigeonpea, groundnut, cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
11 Evaluating Habitat Manipulation as a Strategy for Rodent Control in Agricultural Ecosystems of Pothwar Region, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Tariq Mahmood


Habitat manipulation is an important technique that can be used for controlling rodent damage in agricultural ecosystems. It involves intentionally manipulation of vegetation cover in adjacent habitats around the active burrows of rodents to reduce shelter, food availability and to increase predation pressure. The current study was conducted in the Pothwar Plateau during the respective non-crop period of wheat-groundnut (post-harvested and un-ploughed/non-crop fallow lands) with the aim to assess the impact of the reduction in vegetation height of adjacent habitats (field borders) on rodent’s richness and abundance. The study area was divided into two sites viz. treated and non-treated. At the treated sites, habitat manipulation was carried out by removing crop cache, and non-crop vegetation’s over 10 cm in height to a distance of approximately 20 m from the fields. The trapping sessions carried out at both treated and non-treated sites adjacent to wheat-groundnut fields were significantly different (F 2, 6 = 13.2, P = 0.001) from each other, which revealed that a maximum number of rodents were captured from non-treated sites. There was a significant difference in the overall abundance of rodents (P < 0.05) between crop stages and between treatments in both crops. The manipulation effect was significantly observed on damage to crops, and yield production resulted in the reduction of damage within the associated croplands (P < 0.05). The outcomes of this study indicated a significant reduction of rodent population at treated sites due to changes in vegetation height and cover which affect important components, i.e., food, shelter, movements and increased risk sensitivity in their feeding behavior; therefore, they were unable to reach levels where they cause significant crop damage. This method is recommended for being a cost-effective and easy application.

Keywords: agricultural ecosystems, crop damage, habitat manipulation, rodents, trapping

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10 Phylogenetic Relationships of Aproaerema Simplexella (Walker) and the Groundnut Leaf Miner Aproaerema Modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Collected from Australia, India, Mozambique, and South Africa

Authors: Makhosi Buthelezi


Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene analyses linked the South African groundnut leaf miner (GLM) to the Australian soya bean moth Aproaerema simplexella (Walker) and Indian Aproaerema modicella (Deventer). Thus, the genetic relatedness of GLM, A. simplexela, and A. modicella was examined by performing mitochondrial and nuclear (COI, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB), nuclear ribosomal 28S (28S) and intergenic spacer elongation factor-1 alpha ( EF-1 ALPHA) on 44 specimens collected from South Africa, four from Mozambique, and three each from single locations in India and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) methods. All of the datasets of the five DNA gene regions that were sequenced were also analyzed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to find the closest matches for inclusion in the phylogenetic trees as outgroups and for purposes of information. In the phylogenetic trees for COI, COII, cytb and EF-1 ALPHA, a similar pattern was observed in the way that the sequences assembled into different groups; i.e., some sequences of A. simplexella from Australia were grouped separately from the others, but some Australian sequences grouped with those of the GLM from South Africa, India, and Mozambique. In the phylogenetic tree for 28S, all sequences from South Africa, Australia, India, and Mozambique grouped together and formed one group. For COI, genetic pairwise distance ranged from 0.97 to 3.60 %, for COII it ranged from 0.19% to 2.32%, for cytb it ranged from 0.25 to 9.77% and for EF-1 ALPHA it ranged 0.48 to 6.99%. Results of this study indicate that these populations are genetically related and presumably constitute a single species. Thus, further molecular and morphological studies need to be undertaken in order to resolve this apparent conundrum on the taxonomy of these populations.

Keywords: aproaerema modicella, aproaerema simplexella, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA

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9 Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Trans Fat Content and Oxidative Parameters of Groundnut Oil

Authors: Akanksha Jain, Santosh J. Passi, William Selvamurthy, Archna Singh


Heating/frying at elevated temperatures cause numerous physiochemical reactions including oxidative deterioration and trans fatty acid (TFA) formation; however Indian data on these parameters are scanty. The present study was designed to assess the effect of constant heating/frying on formation of TFAs and oxidative stability in groundnut oil. 750 mL of the oil was heated in a large iron karahi (utensil similar to a wok) and freshly cut potato strips were fried constantly at varying temperatures (160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC, 220ºC, 230ºC). In each case, the oil sample was drawn after one hour and stored at –20ºC until analysed. While TFA was estimated using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (AOCS official method Ce 1h–05), other chemical parameters were assessed by AOCS official methods. Oil samples subjected to heating/frying at varying temperatures demonstrated a significant increase in TFAs (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.01) while there was a corresponding decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). Frying process demonstrated greater TFA formation (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.11±0.01g/100g; at 230ºC it being 2.33±0.05g/100g) as compared to heating alone (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.07g±0.01/100g; at 230ºC it being 0.47±0.02g/100g), indicating that there was a significant difference in the generation of TFAs during the two thermal treatments (heating vs. frying; p=0.05). With increasing temperatures, acid value, p-anisidine value and total oxidation (TOTOX) value registered a significant increase (p < 0.01); however, peroxide value was found to be inconsistent. Thus, the formation of TFA and various oxidative parameters (except peroxide value) is directly influenced by the temperature of heating/frying. Since TFA formation and poor oxidative stability of oils can pose serious health concerns, food safety agencies/organizations need to devise appropriate policies, stringent food laws/standards and impose necessary safety regulations to curb oil abuse during the process of heating and frying. There is a dire need to raise consumer awareness regarding deleterious health effects of TFA and oxidative deterioration of oils at elevated temperatures employed during heating/frying procedures.

Keywords: cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oxidative stability, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid

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8 Chemical, Biochemical and Sensory Evaluation of a Quadrimix Complementary Food Developed from Sorghum, Groundnut, Crayfish and Pawpaw Blends

Authors: Ogechi Nzeagwu, Assumpta Osuagwu, Charlse Nkwoala


Malnutrition in infants due to poverty, poor feeding practices, and high cost of commercial complementary foods among others is a concern in developing countries. The study evaluated the proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions, antinutrients and functional properties, biochemical, haematological and sensory evaluation of complementary food made from sorghum, groundnut, crayfish and paw-paw flour blends using standard procedures. The blends were formulated on protein requirement of infants (18 g/day) using Nutrisurvey linear programming software in ratio of sorghum(S), groundnut(G), crayfish(C) and pawpaw(P) flours as 50:25:10:15(SGCP1), 60:20:10:10 (SGCP2), 60:15:15:10 (SGCP3) and 60:10:20:10 (SGCP4). Plain-pap (fermented maize flour)(TCF) and cerelac (commercial complementary food) served as basal and control diets. Thirty weanling male albino rats aged 28-35 days weighing 33-60 g were purchased and used for the study. The rats after acclimatization were fed with gruel produced with the experimental diets and the control with water ad libitum daily for 35days. Effect of the blends on lipid profile, blood glucose, haematological (RBC, HB, PCV, MCV), liver and kidney function and weight gain of the rats were assessed. Acceptability of the gruel was conducted at the end of rat feeding on forty mothers of infants’ ≥ 6 months who gave their informed consent to participate using a 9 point hedonic scale. Data was analyzed for means and standard deviation, analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range test and significance judged at 0.05, all using SPSS version 22.0. The results indicated that crude protein, fibre, ash and carbohydrate of the formulated diets were either comparable or higher than values in cerelac. The formulated diets (SGCP1- SGCP4) were significantly (P>0.05) higher in vitamin A and thiamin compared to cerelac. The iron content of the formulated diets SGCP1- SGCP4 (4.23-6.36 mg/100) were within the recommended iron intake of infants (0.55 mg/day). Phytate (1.56-2.55 mg/100g) and oxalate (0.23-0.35 mg/100g) contents of the formulated diets were within the permissible limits of 0-5%. In functional properties, bulk density, swelling index, % dispersibility and water absorption capacity significantly (P<0.05) increased and compared favourably with cerelac. The essential amino acids of the formulated blends were within the amino acid profile of the FAO/WHO/UNU reference protein for children 0.5 -2 years of age. Urea concentration of rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (19.48 mmol/L),(23.76 mmol/L),(24.07 mmol/L),(23.65 mmol/L) respectively was significantly higher than that of rat fed cerelac (16.98 mmol/L); however, plain pap had the least value (9.15 mmol/L). Rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (116 mg/dl), (119 mg/dl), (115 mg/dl), (117 mg/dl) respectively had significantly higher glucose levels those fed with cerelac (108 mg/dl). Liver function parameters (AST, ALP and ALT), lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL) and hematological parameters of rats fed with formulated diets were within normal range. Rats fed SGCP1 gained more weight (90.45 g) than other rats fed with SGCP2-SGCP4 (71.65 g, 79.76 g, 75.68 g), TCF (20.13 g) and cerelac (59.06 g). In all the sensory attributes, the control was preferred with respect to the formulated diets. The formulated diets were generally adequate and may likely have potentials to meet nutrient requirements of infants as complementary food.

Keywords: biochemical, chemical evaluation, complementary food, quadrimix

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7 Studies on Optimizing the Level of Liquid Biofertilizers in Peanut and Maize and Their Economic Analysis

Authors: Chandragouda R. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh, S. D. Kalolgi


Biofertilizers containing live microbial cells can mobilize one or more nutrients to plants when applied to either seed or rhizosphere. They form an integral part of nutrient management strategies for sustainable production of agricultural crops. Annually, about 22 tons of lignite-based biofertilizers are being produced and supplied to farmers at the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka state India. Although carrier based biofertilizers are common, they have shorter shelf life, poor quality, high contamination, unpredictable field performance and high cost of solid carriers. Hence, liquid formulations are being developed to increase their efficacy and broaden field applicability. An attempt was made to develop liquid formulation of strains of Rhizobium NC-92 (Groundnut), Azospirillum ACD15 both nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers and Pseudomonas striata an efficient P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Different concentration of amendments such as additives (glycerol and polyethylene glycol), adjuvants (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabica (GA), surfactant (polysorbate) and trehalose specifically for Azospirillum were found essential. Combinations of formulations of Rhizobium and PSB for groundnut and Azospirillum and PSB for maize were evaluated under field conditions to determine the optimum level of inoculum required. Each biofertilizer strain was inoculated at the rate of 2, 4, 8 ml per kg of seeds and the efficacy of each formulation both individually and in combinations was evaluated against the lignite-based formulation at the rate of 20 g each per kg seeds and a un-inoculated set was included to compare the inoculation effect. The field experiment had 17 treatments in three replicates and the best level of inoculum was decided based on net returns and cost: benefit ratio. In peanut, the combination of 4 ml of Rhizobium and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns and higher cost to benefit ratio of 1:2.98 followed by treatment with a combination of 2 ml per kg each of Rhizobium and PSB with a B;C ratio of 1:2.84. The benefits in terms of net returns were to the extent of 16 percent due to inoculation with lignite based formulations while it was up to 48 percent due to the best combination of liquid biofertilizers. In maize combination of liquid formulations consisting of 4 ml of Azospirillum and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns; about 53 percent higher than the un-inoculated control and 20 percent higher than the treatment with lignite based formulation. In both the crops inoculation with lignite based formulations significantly increased the net returns over un-inoculated control while levels higher or lesser than 4 ml of Rhizobium and Azospirillum and higher or lesser than 2 ml of PSB were not economical and hence not optimal for these two crops.

Keywords: Rhizobium, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, liquid formulation, benefit-cost ratio

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