Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: germplasm

36 Genetic Diversity in Capsicum Germplasm Based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

Authors: Siwapech Silapaprayoon, Januluk Khanobdee, Sompid Samipak


Chili peppers are the fruits of Capsicum pepper plants well known for their fiery burning sensation on the tongue after consumption. They are members of the Solanaceae or common nightshade family along with potato, tomato and eggplant. Thai cuisine has gained popularity for its distinct flavors due to usages of various spices and its heat from the addition of chili pepper. Though being used in little quantity for each dish, chili pepper holds a special place in Thai cuisine. There are many varieties of chili peppers in Thailand, and thirty accessions were collected at Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang, Thailand. To effectively manage any germplasm it is essential to know the diversity and relationships among members. Thirty-six Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSRs) DNA markers were used to analyze the germplasm. Total of 335 polymorphic bands was obtained giving the average of 9.3 alleles per marker. Unweighted pair-group mean arithmetic method (UPGMA) clustering of data using NTSYS-pc software indicated that the accessions showed varied levels of genetic similarity ranging from 0.57-1.00 similarity coefficient index indicating significant levels of variation. At SM coefficient of 0.81, the germplasm was separated into four groups. Phenotypic variation was discussed in context of phylogenetic tree clustering.

Keywords: diversity, germplasm, Chili pepper, ISSR

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35 Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Malaysian Palm Oil Board-Senegal Oil Palm Germplasm Using Multivariate Tools

Authors: Khin Aye Myint, Mohd Rafii Yusop, Mohd Yusoff Abd Samad, Shairul Izan Ramlee, Mohd Din Amiruddin, Zulkifli Yaakub


The narrow base of genetic is the main obstacle of breeding and genetic improvement in oil palm industry. In order to broaden the genetic bases, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board has been extensively collected wild germplasm from its original area of 11 African countries which are Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Madagascar, and Tanzania. The germplasm collections were established and maintained as a field gene bank in Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia to conserve a wide range of oil palm genetic resources for genetic improvement of Malaysian oil palm industry. Therefore, assessing the performance and genetic diversity of the wild materials is very important for understanding the genetic structure of natural oil palm population and to explore genetic resources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis are very efficient multivariate tools in the evaluation of genetic variation of germplasm and have been applied in many crops. In this study, eight populations of MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm were studied to explore the genetic variation pattern using PCA and cluster analysis. A total of 20 yield and yield component traits were used to analyze PCA and Ward’s clustering using SAS 9.4 version software. The first four principal components which have eigenvalue >1 accounted for 93% of total variation with the value of 44%, 19%, 18% and 12% respectively for each principal component. PC1 showed highest positive correlation with fresh fruit bunch (0.315), bunch number (0.321), oil yield (0.317), kernel yield (0.326), total economic product (0.324), and total oil (0.324) while PC 2 has the largest positive association with oil to wet mesocarp (0.397) and oil to fruit (0.458). The oil palm population were grouped into four distinct clusters based on 20 evaluated traits, this imply that high genetic variation existed in among the germplasm. Cluster 1 contains two populations which are SEN 12 and SEN 10, while cluster 2 has only one population of SEN 3. Cluster 3 consists of three populations which are SEN 4, SEN 6, and SEN 7 while SEN 2 and SEN 5 were grouped in cluster 4. Cluster 4 showed the highest mean value of fresh fruit bunch, bunch number, oil yield, kernel yield, total economic product, and total oil and Cluster 1 was characterized by high oil to wet mesocarp, and oil to fruit. The desired traits that have the largest positive correlation on extracted PCs could be utilized for the improvement of oil palm breeding program. The populations from different clusters with the highest cluster means could be used for hybridization. The information from this study can be utilized for effective conservation and selection of the MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm for the future breeding program.

Keywords: cluster analysis, genetic variability, germplasm, oil palm, principal component analysis

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34 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan


Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

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33 The Efficiency of AFLP and ISSR Markers in Genetic Diversity Estimation and Gene Pool Classification of Iranian Landrace Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Germplasm

Authors: Reza Talebi


Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in Iran. Understanding genetic variability among the landrace wheat germplasm is important for breeding. Landraces endemic to Iran are a genetic resource that is distinct from other wheat germplasm. In this study, 60 Iranian landrace wheat accessions were characterized AFLP and ISSR markers. Twelve AFLP primer pairs detected 128 polymorphic bands among the sixty genotypes. The mean polymorphism rate based on AFLP data was 31%; however, a wide polymorphism range among primer pairs was observed (22–40%). Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.28 to 0.4, with a mean of 0.37. According to AFLP molecular data, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in five distinct clusters. .ISSR markers generated 68 bands (average of 6 bands per primer), which 31 were polymorphic (45%) across the 60 wheat genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for ISSR markers was calculated in the range of 0.14 to 0.48 with an average of 0.33. Based on data achieved by ISSR-PCR, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in three distinct clusters. Both AFLP and ISSR markers able to showed that high level of genetic diversity in Iranian landrace wheat accessions has maintained a relatively constant level of genetic diversity during last years.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, AFLP, ISSR

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32 Bean in Turkey: Characterization, Inter Gene Pool Hybridization Events, Breeding, Utilizations

Authors: Faheem Shahzad Baloch, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Ephrem Habyarimana, Gonul Comertpay, Tolga Karakoy, Rustu Hatipoglu, Mehmet Zahit Yeken, Vahdettin Ciftci


Turkey is considered a bridge between Europe, Asia, and Africa and possibly played an important role in the distribution of many crops including common bean. Hundreds of common bean landraces can be found in Turkey, particularly in farmers’ fields, and they consistently contribute to the overall production. To investigate the existing genetic diversity and hybridization events between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools in the Turkish common bean, 188 common bean accessions (182 landraces and 6 modern cultivars as controls) were collected from 19 different Turkish geographic regions. These accessions were characterized using phenotypic data (growth habit and seed weight), geographic provenance, 12557 high-quality whole-genome DArTseq markers, and 3767 novel DArTseq loci were also identified. The clustering algorithms resolved the Turkish common bean landrace germplasm into the two recognized gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. Hybridization events were observed in both gene pools (14.36% of the accessions) but mostly in the Mesoamerican (7.97% of the accessions), and was low relative to previous European studies. The lower level of hybridization witnessed the existence of Turkish common bean germplasm in its original form as compared to Europe. Mesoamerican gene pool reflected a higher level of diversity, while the Andean gene pool was predominant (56.91% of the accessions), but genetically less diverse and phenotypically more pure, reflecting farmers greater preference for the Andean gene pool. We also found some genetically distinct landraces and overall, a meaningful level of genetic variability which can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.

Keywords: bean germplasm, DArTseq markers, genotyping by sequencing, Turkey, whole genome diversity

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31 Phenotypic Diversity of the Tomato Germplasm from the Lazio Region in Central Italy, with a Case Study on Molecular Distinctiveness

Authors: Barbara Farinon, Maurizio E. Picarella, Lorenzo Mancini, Andrea Mazzucato


Italy is notoriously a secondary center of diversification for cultivated tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum L.). The study of phenotypic and genetic diversity in landrace collections is important for germplasm conservation. Here, we set up to study the germplasm collected in the region of Lazio in central Italy with a focus on the distinctiveness among landraces and the attribution of membership to unnamed accessions. Our regional collection included 26 accessions belonging to five different locally recognized landraces and 25 unnamed accessions. All accessions were gathered in Lazio and belonged to the collection held at the Regional Agency for the Development and Innovation of Agriculture in Lazio (ARSIAL, in the application of the Regional Act n. 15/2000, funded by Lazio Rural Development Plan 2014 – 2020 Agro-environmental Measure, Action 10.2.1) and at the University of Tuscia. We included 12 control genotypes as reference. The collection showed wide phenotypic variability for several traits, such as fruit weight (range 14-277 g), locule number (2-12), shape index (0.54-2.65), yield (0.24-3.08 kg/plant), and soluble solids (3.4-7.5 °B). A few landraces showed uncommon phenotypes, such as potato leaf, colorless fruit epidermis, or delayed ripening. Multivariate analysis of 25 cardinal phenotypic variables grouped the named varieties and allowed to assign some of the unnamed to recognized groups. A case study for distinctiveness is presented for the flattened-ribbed types that presented overlapping distribution according to the phenotypic data. Molecular markers, either newly developed and retrieved by previous studies, indicated that the named varieties “Scatolone di Bolsena” and Spagnoletta di Gaeta e Formia” belong to the Marmande group, together with the reference landrace from Tuscany “Costoluto Fiorentino.” Differently, the landrace “Pantano Romanesco” was clearly distinct from the former at the molecular level.

Keywords: distinctiveness, flattened-ribbed fruits, regional landraces, tomato

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30 Effect of Different Media and Mannitol Concentrations on Growth and Development of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. under Slow Growth Conditions

Authors: J. Linjikao, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd


In vitro conservation of orchid germplasm provides an effective technique for ex situ conservation of orchid diversity. In this study, an efficient protocol for in vitro conservation of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. plantlet under slow growth conditions was investigated. Plantlets were cultured on different strength of Vacin and Went medium (½VW and ¼VW) supplemented with different concentrations of mannitol (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%), sucrose (0 and 3%) and 50 g/L potato extract, 150 mL/L coconut water. The cultures were incubated at 25±2 °C and maintained under 20 µmol/m2s light intensity for 24 weeks without subculture. At the end of preservation period, the plantlets were subcultured to fresh medium for growth recovery. The results found that the highest leaf number per plantlet could be observed on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol while the highest root number per plantlet was found on ½VW added with 3% sucrose without adding mannitol after 24 weeks of in vitro storage. The results showed that the maximum number of leaves (5.8 leaves) and roots (5.0 roots) of preserved plantlets were produced on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol. Therefore, ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol was the best minimum growth conditions for medium-term storage of V. lissochiloides plantlets.

Keywords: preservation, vandopsis, germplasm, in vitro

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29 Collection and Phenotypic Characterization of Some Nigerian Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Germplasm Using Seed Morphology

Authors: Abejide Dorcas Ropo, Falusi Olamide Ahmed, Daudu Oladipupo Abdulazeez Yusuf, Muhammad Liman Muhammad, Gado Aishatu Adamu


Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African legume with great potential to tackle the problem of food insecurity in Nigeria. A germplasm collection mission was carried out in collaboration with the Agricultural Developments Project (ADP) Extension officers of Nigeria between October and December 2014. Bambara groundnut seeds were collected from farmers in different States in Nigeria, such as Kaduna, Niger, Kogi, Benue, Plateau, Adamawa, Nasarawa, Jigawa, Enugu, and Federal Capital Territoy (FCT) Abuja. Some seeds were also collected from National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB). The seeds were phenotyped using the descriptor list of Vigna subterranea produced by the International Plant Genetic Resource Institute. A total of 45 original seed lots were collected, which comprised of mixed seeds having different seed coat colours (15) and pure seeded accessions having the same seed coat and eye colour (30). After sorting, a total of 83 accessions were derived from the 45 original seed lots collected, and a total of 24 distinct seed morphotypes with varying seed coat colours and eye colours were identified from the collections. They include cream ( cream ash eye, cream plain eye, and cream black eye), cream purplish spots, cream brown spots/stripe, cream black stripe, cream dark brown patches, cream light grey spots, cream black patches, black, red, light red, dark red, brownish red, brown speckled with black, red speckled with black, brown, brown with brown pattern below hilum, brown with black pattern below hilum, cream black, grey brown, grey black and variegated red. The highest number of accessions were collected from NACGRAB (11), followed by Niger State (10), and the lowest from Benue, Jigawa, and Adamawa States (2). Niger State also had the highest number of mixed seeds. The different seed phenotypes observed in the study are important for the field production of true-to-type lines and can be exploited for the genetic improvement of the Bambara groundnut.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, characterization, collection, germplasm, phenotypic

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28 Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance and Grain Yield of 63 Common Bean Genotypes Grown Under Field Conditions at Malkerns Eswatini

Authors: Rotondwa P. Gunununu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Common bean is the most importantly high protein grain legume grown in Southern Africa for human consumption and income generation. Although common bean can associate with rhizobia to fix N₂ for bacterial use and plant growth, it is reported to be a poor nitrogen fixer when compared to other legumes. N₂ fixation can vary with legume species, genotype and rhizobial strain. Therefore, screening legume germplasm can reveal rhizobia/genotype combinations with high N₂-fixing efficiency for use by farmers. This study assessed symbiotic performance and N₂ fixation in 63 common bean genotypes under field conditions at Malkerns Station in Eswatini, using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The shoots of common bean genotypes were sampled at a pod-filling stage, oven-dried (65oC for 72h), weighed, ground into a fine powder (0.50 mm sieve), and subjected to ¹⁵N/¹⁴N isotopic analysis using mass spectrometry. At maturity, plants from the inner rows were harvested for the determination of grain yield. The results revealed significantly higher modulation (p≤0.05) in genotypes MCA98 and CIM-RM01-97-8 relative to the other genotypes. Shoot N concentration was highest in genotype MCA 98, followed by KAB 10 F2.8-84, with most genotypes showing shoot N concentrations below 2%. Percent N derived from atmospheric N₂ fixation (%Ndfa) differed markedly among genotypes, with CIM-RM01-92-3 and DAB 174, respectively, recording the highest values of 66.65% and 66.22 % N derived from fixation. There were also significant differences in grain yield, with CIM-RM02-79-1 producing the highest yield (3618.75 kg/ha). These results represent an important contribution in the profiling of symbiotic functioning of common bean germplasm for improved N₂ fixation.

Keywords: nitrogen fixation, %Ndfa, ¹⁵N natural abundance, grain yield

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27 Genetic Divergence Study of Rice on the Basis of Various Morphological Traits

Authors: Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Amna Ali, Urooj Mubashar


Phenotypic diversity was confirmed by measuring different morphological traits i.e. seed traits (seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed length-width ratio, 1000 grain weight) and root-shoot traits (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root-shoot ratio, root numbers and root thickness). Variance and association study of desirable traits determine the genotypic differences among the rice germplasm. All the traits showed significant differences among the genotypes. The traits were studied in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at different water levels. Some traits showed positive correlation with each other and beneficial for increasing the yield and production of the crop. Seed thickness has positive correlation with seed length and seed width (r= 0.104**, r=0.246**). On the other hand, various root shoot traits showed positive highly significant association at different water levels i.e. root length, fresh root weight, root thickness, shoot thickness and root numbers. Our main focus to study the performance/correlation of root shoots traits under stress condition. Fresh root weight, shoot thickness and root numbers showed positive significant association with shoot length, root length, fresh root and shoot weight (r=0.2530**, r=0.2891**, r=0.4626**, r=0.4515**, r=0.5781**, r=0.7164**, r=0.0603**, r= 0.5570**, r=0.5824**). Long root length genotypes favors and suitable for drought stress conditions and screening of diverse genotypes for the further development of new plant material that performing well under different environmental conditions. After screening genetic diversity of potential rice, lines were studied to check the polymorphism by using some SSR markers. DNA was extracted, and PCR analyses were done to study PIC values and allelic diversity of the genotypes. The main objective of this study is to screen out the genotypes on the basis of various genotypic and phenotypic traits.

Keywords: rice, morphological traits, association, germplasm, genetic diversity, water levels, variation

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26 Morphological Parameters and Selection of Turkish Edible Seed Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) Germplasm

Authors: Onder Turkmen, Musa Seymen, Sali Fidan, Mustafa Paksoy


There is a requirement for registered edible seed pumpkin suitable for eating in Turkey. A total of 81 genotypes collected from the researchers in 2005 originated from Eskisehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Tekirdag, Sakarya, Kayseri and Kirsehir provinces were utilized. The used genetic materials were brought to S5 generation by the research groups among 2006 and 2010 years. In this research, S5 stage reached in the genotype given some of the morphological features, and selection of promising genotypes generated scale were made. Results showed that the A-1 (420), A-7 (410), A-8 (420), A-32 (420), B-17 (410), B-24 (410), B-25 (420), B-33 (400), C-24 (420), C-25 (410), C-26 (410) and C-30 (420) genotypes are expected to be promising varieties.

Keywords: candidate cultivar, edible seed pumpkin, morphologic parameters, selection

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25 Integrated Management System of Plant Genetic Resources: Collection, Conservation, Regeneration and Characterization of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae of DOA Genebank, Thailand

Authors: Kunyaporn Pipithsangchan, Alongkorn Korntong, Assanee Songserm, Phatchara Piriyavinit, Saowanee Dechakampoo


The Kingdom of Thailand is one of the South East Asian countries. From its area of 514,000 square kilometers (51 million ha), at least 18,000 plant species (8% of the world total) have been estimated to be found in the country. As a result, the conservation of plant genetic diversity, particularly food crops, is becoming important and is an assurance for the national food security. Department of Agriculture Genebank or DOA Genebank, Thailand is responsible for the conservation of plant germplasm by participating and accomplishing several collaborative projects both at national and international levels. Integrated Management System of Plant Genetic Resources or IMPGR is one of the most outstandingly successful cooperation. It is a multilateral project under the Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI) supported by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) of South Korea. The member countries under the project consist of 11 nations namely Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and South Korea. The project enabled the members to jointly address the global issues in plant genetic resource (PGR) conservation and strengthen their network in this aspect. The 1st phase of IMPGR project, entitled 'Collection, Conservation, Regeneration and Characterization of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae 2012-2014', comprises three main objectives that are: 1) To improve management in storage facilities, collection, and regeneration, 2) To improve linkage between Genebank and material sources (for regeneration), and 3) To improve linkage between Genebank and other field crop or/and horticultural research centers. The project was done for three years from 2012 to 2014. The activities of the project can be described as following details: In the 1st year, there were 9 target provinces for completing plant genetic resource survey and collection. 108 accessions of PGR were collected. In the 2nd year, PGR were continuously surveyed and collected from 9 provinces. The total number of collection was 140 accessions. In addition, the process of regeneration of 237 accessions collected from 1st and 2nd year was started at several sites namely Biotechnology Research and Development Office, Sukothai Horticultural Research Center, Tak Research, and Development Center and Nakhon Ratchasima Research and Development Center. In the 3rd year, besides survey and collection of 115 accessions from 9 target provinces, PGR characterization and evaluation were done for 206 accessions. Moreover, safety duplication of 253 PGR at the World Seed Vault, RDA, was also done according to Standard Agreement on Germplasm Safety Duplication between Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, the Kingdom of Thailand and the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Rural Development Administration of the Republic of Korea. The success of the 1st phase project led to the second phase which entitled 'Collection and Characterization for Effective Conservation of Local Capsicum spp., Solanum spp. and Lycopersicon spp. in Thailand 2015-2017'.

Keywords: characterization, conservation, DOA genebank, plant genetic resources

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24 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir


The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: chickpea, epidemiological, screening, disease

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23 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria


The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: olivier, ecology, biometrics, Tlemcen, Algeria

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22 Development of DNA Fingerprints in Selected Medicinal Plants of India

Authors: V. Verma, Hazi Raja


Conventionally, morphological descriptors are routinely used for establishing the identity of varieties. But these morphological descriptors suffer from many drawbacks such as influence of environment on trait expression, epistatic interactions, pleiotrophic effects etc. Furthermore, the paucity of a sufficient number of these descriptors for unequivocal identification of increasing number of reference collection varieties enforces to look for alternatives. Therefore, DNA based finger-print based techniques were selected to define the systematic position of the selected medicinal plants like Plumbago zeylanica, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta. DNA fingerprinting of herbal plants can be useful in authenticating the various claims of medical uses related to the plants, in germplasm characterization and conservation. In plants it has not only helped in identifying species but also in defining a new realm in plant genomics, plant breeding and in conserving the biodiversity. With world paving way for developments in biotechnology, DNA fingerprinting promises a very powerful tool in our future endeavors. Data will be presented on the development of microsatellite markers (SSR) used to fingerprint, characterize, and assess genetic diversity among 12 accessions of both Plumbago zeylanica, 4 accessions of Desmodium gengaticum, 4 accessions of Uraria Picta.

Keywords: Plumbago zeylanica, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, microsaetllite markers

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21 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

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20 Computational Analyses of Persian Walnut Genetic Data: Notes on Genetic Diversity and Cultivar Phylogeny

Authors: Masoud Sheidaei, Melica Tabasi, Fahimeh Koohdar, Mona Sheidaei


Juglans regia L. is an economically important species of edible nuts. Iran is known as a center of origin of genetically rich walnut germplasm and expected to be found a large diversity within Iranian walnut populations. A detailed population genetic of local populations is useful for developing an optimal strategy for in situ conservation and can assist the breeders in crop improvement programs. Different phylogenetic studies have been carried out in this genus, but none has been concerned with genetic changes associated with geographical divergence and the identification of adaptive SNPs. Therefore, we carried out the present study to identify discriminating ITS nucleotides among Juglans species and also reveal association between ITS SNPs and geographical variables. We used different computations approaches like DAPC, CCA, and RDA analyses for the above-mentioned tasks. We also performed population genetics analyses for population effective size changes associated with the species expansion. The results obtained suggest that latitudinal distribution has a more profound effect on the species genetic changes. Similarly, multiple analytical approaches utilized for the identification of both discriminating DNA nucleotides/ SNPs almost produced congruent results. The SNPs with different phylogenetic importance were also identified by using a parsimony approach.

Keywords: Persian walnut, adaptive SNPs, data analyses, genetic diversity

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19 Enhanced Bioproduction of Moscatilin in Dendrobium ovatum through Hairy Root Culture

Authors: Ipsita Pujari, Abitha Thomas, Vidhu S. Babu, K. Satyamoorthy


Orchids are esteemed as celebrities in cut flower industry globally, due to their long-lasting fragrance and freshness. Apart from splendor, the unique metabolites endowed with pharmaceutical potency have made them one of the most hunted in plant kingdom. This had led to their trafficking, resulting in habitat loss, subsequently making them occupiers of IUCN red list as RET species. Many of the orchids especially wild varieties still remain undiscovered. In view to protect and conserve the wild germplasm, researchers have been inventing novel micropropagation protocols; thereby conserving Orchids. India is overflowing with exclusive wild cultivars of Orchids, whose pharmaceutical properties remain untapped and are not marketed owing to relatively small flowers. However, their germplasm is quite pertinent to be preserved for making unusual hybrids. Dendrobium genus is the second largest among Orchids exists in India and has highest demand attributable to enduring cut flowers and significant therapeutic uses in traditional medicinal system. Though the genus is quite endemic in Western Ghat regions of the country, many species are still anonymous with their unknown curative properties. A standard breeding cycle in Orchids usually takes five to seven years (Dendrobium hybrids taking a long juvenile phase of two to five years reaching maturity and flowering stage) and this extensive life cycle has always hindered the development of Dendrobium breeding. Dendrobium is reported with essential therapeutic plant bio-chemicals and ‘Moscatilin’ is one, found exclusive to this famous Dendrobium genus. Moscatilin is reported to have anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer properties, whose positive action has very recently been demonstrated against a range of cancers. Our preliminary study here established a simple and economic small-scale propagation protocol of Dendrobium ovatum describing in vitro production of Moscatilin. Subsequently for enhancing the content of Moscatilin, an efficient experimental related to the organization of transgenic (hairy) D. ovatum root cultures through infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 2364 strain on MS basal medium is being reported in the present study. Hairy roots generated on almost half of the explants used (spherules, in vitro plantlets and calli) maintained through suspension cultures, after 8 weeks of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. GFP assay performed with isolated hairy roots has confirmed the integrative transformation which was further positively confirmed by PCR using rolB gene specific primers. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used for quantification and accurate identification of Moscatilin respectively from transgenic systems. A noticeable ~3 fold increase in contents were observed in transformed D. ovatum root cultures as compared to the simple in vitro culture, callus culture and callus regeneration plantlets. Role of elicitors e.g., Methyl jasmonate, Salicylic acid, Yeast extract and Chitosan were tested for elevating the Moscatilin content to obtain a comprehensive optimized protocol facilitating the in vitro production of valuable Moscatilin with larger yield. This study would provide evidence towards the in vitro assembly of Moscatilin within a short time-period through not a so-expensive technology for the first time. It also serves as an appropriate basis for bioreactor scale-up resulting in commercial bioproduction of Moscatilin.

Keywords: bioproduction, Dendrobium ovatum, hairy root culture, moscatilin

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18 Flowering Response of a Red Pitaya Germplasm Collection to Lighting Addition

Authors: Dinh-Ha Tran, Chung-Ruey Yen, Yu-Kuang H. Chen


A collection of thirty cultivars/clones of red pitaya was used to investigate flowering response to lighting supplementation in the winter season of 2013-2014 in southern Taiwan. The night-breaking treatment was conducted during the period of 10 Oct. 2013 to 5 Mar. 2014 with 4-continuous hours (22.00–02.00 hrs) of additional lighting daily using incandescent bulbs (100W). Among cultivars and clones tested, twenty-three genotypes, most belonging to the red-magenta flesh type, were found to have positive flowering response to the lighting treatment. The duration of night-breaking treatment for successful flowering initiation varied from 33 - 48 days. The lighting-sensitive genotypes bore 1-2 flowering flushes. Floral and fruiting stages took 21-26 and 46-59 days, respectively. Among sixteen fruiting genotypes, the highest fruit set rates were found in Damao 9, D4, D13, Chaozou large, Chaozhou 5, Small Nick and F22. Five cultivars and clones (Orejona, D4, Chaozhou large, Chaozhou 5, and Small Nick) produced fruits with an average weight of more than 300 g per fruit which was higher than those of the fruits formed in the summer of 2013. Fruits produced during off-season contain total soluble solids (TSS) from 17.5 to 20.7 oBrix, which was higher than those produced in-season.

Keywords: flowering response, long-day plant, night-breaking treatment, off-season production, pitaya

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17 Identification and Classification of Gliadin Genes in Iranian Diploid Wheat

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Alireza Pour-Aboughadareh


Wheat is the first and the most important grain of the world and its bakery property is due to glutenin and gliadin qualities. Wheat seed proteins were divided into four groups according to solubility. Two groups are albumin and globulin dissolving in water and salt solutions possessing metabolic activities. Two other groups are inactive and non-dissolvable and contain glutelins or glutenins and prolamins or gliadins. Gliadins are major components of the storage proteins in wheat endosperm. Gliadin proteins are separated into three groups based on electrophoretic mobility: α/β-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and ω-gliadin. It seems that little information is available about gliadin genes in Iranian wild relatives of wheat. Thus, the aim of this study was the evaluation of the wheat wild relatives collected from different origins of Zagros Mountains in Iran, involving coding gliadin genes using specific primers. For this, forty accessions of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu were selected. For each accession, genomic DNA was extracted and PCRs were performed in total volumes of 15 μl. The amplification products were separated on 1.5% agarose gels. In results, for Gli-2A locus, three allelic variants were detected by Gli-2As primer pairs. The sizes of PCR products for these alleles were 210, 490 and 700 bp. Only five (13%) and two accessions (5%) produced 700 and 490 bp fragments when their DNA was amplified with the Gli.As.2 primer pairs. However, 37 of the 40 accessions (93%) carried 210 bp allele, and three accessions (8%) did not yield any product for this marker. Therefore, these germplasm could be used as rich gene pool to broaden the genetic base of bread wheat.

Keywords: diploied wheat, gliadin, Triticum boeoticum, Triticum urartu

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16 Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sorghum Accessions Using Agro-Mophological and Nutritional Traits

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Nemera Shargie


Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown as a source of calories for many people in tropics and sub-tropics of the world. Proper characterisation and evaluation of crop germplasm is an important component for effective management of genetic resources and their utilisation in the improvement of the crop through plant breeding. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity present in sorghum accessions grown in South Africa using agro-morphological traits and some nutritional contents. The experiment was carried out in Potchefstroom. Data were subjected to correlations, principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering using GenStat statistical software. There were highly significance differences among the accessions based on agro-morphological and nutritional quality traits. Grain yield was highly positively correlated with panicle weight. Plant height was highly significantly correlated with internode length, leaf length, leaf number, stem diameter, the number of nodes and starch content. The Principal component analysis revealed three most important PCs with a total variation of 78.6%. The protein content ranged from 7.7 to 14.7%, and starch ranged from 58.52 to 80.44%. The accessions that had high protein and starch content were AS16cyc and MP4277. There was vast genetic diversity observed among the accessions assessed that can be used by plant breeders to improve yield and nutritional traits.

Keywords: accessions, genetic diversity, nutritional quality, sorghum

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15 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav


Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

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14 Evaluation and Selection of Elite Jatropha Genotypes for Biofuel

Authors: Bambang Heliyanto, Rully Dyah Purwati, Hasnam, Fadjry Djufry


Jatropha curcas L., a drought tolerant and monoecious perennial shrub, has received attention worldwide during the past decade. Realizing the facts, the Indonesian government has decided to option for Jatropha and palm oil for in country biofuel production. To support the program development of high yielding jatropha varieties is necessary. This paper reviews Jatropha improvement program in Indonesia using mass selection and hybrid development. To start with, at the end of 2005, in-country germplasm collection was mobilized to Lampung and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) provinces and successfully collected 15 provenances/sub-provenances which serves as a base population for selection. A significant improvement has been achieved through a simple recurrent breeding selection during 2006 to 2007. Seed yield productivity increased more than double, from 0.36 to 0.97 ton dry seed per hectare during the first selection cycle (IP-1), and then increased to 2.2 ton per hectare during the second cycles (IP-2) in Lampung provenance. Similar result was also observed in NTB provenance. Seed yield productivity increased from 0.43 ton to 1 ton dry seed per hectare in the first cycle (IP-1), and then 1.9 ton in the second cycle (IP-2). In 2008, the population IP-3 resulted from the third cycle of selection have been identified which were capable of producing 2.2 to 2.4 ton seed yield per hectare. To improve the seed yield per hectare, jatropha hybrid varieties was developed involving superior provenances. As a result a Jatropha Energy Terbarukan (JET) variety-2 was released in 2017 with seed yield potential of 2.6 ton per hectare. The use of this high yielding genotypes for biofuel is discussed.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, provenance, biofuel, improve population, hybrid

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13 Seed Quality Aspects of Nightshade (Solanum Nigrum) as Influenced by Gibberellins (GA3) on Seed

Authors: Muga Moses


Plant growth regulators are actively involved in the growth and yield of plants. However, limited information is available on the combined effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes and yield of African nightshade. This experiment will be designed to fill this gap by studying the performance of African nightshade under the application of hormones. Gibberellic acid is a plant growth hormone that promotes cell expansion and division. A greenhouse and laboratory experiment will be conducted at the University of Sussex biotechnology greenhouse and Agriculture laboratory using a growth chamber to study the effect of GA3 on the growth and development attributes of African nightshade. The experiment consists of three replications and 5 treatments and is laid out in a randomized complete block design consisting of various concentrations of GA3. 0ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm and 200ppm. local farmer seed was grown in plastic pots, 6 seeds then hardening off to remain with four plants per pot at the greenhouse to attain purity of germplasm, proper management until maturity of berries then harvesting and squeezing to get seeds, paper dry on the sun for 7 days. In a laboratory, place 5 Whatman filter paper on glass petri-dish subject to different concentrations of stock solution, count 50 certified and clean, healthy seeds, then arrange on the moist filter paper and mark respectively. Spray with the stock solution twice a day and protrusion of radicle termed as germination count and discard to increase the accuracy of precision. Data will be collected on the application of GA3 to compare synergistic effects on the growth, yield, and nutrient contents on African nightshade.

Keywords: African nightshade, growth, yield, shoot, gibberellins

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12 Analysis of Intra-Varietal Diversity for Some Lebanese Grapevine Cultivars

Authors: Stephanie Khater, Ali Chehade, Lamis Chalak


The progressive replacement of the Lebanese autochthonous grapevine cultivars during the last decade by the imported foreign varieties almost resulted in the genetic erosion of the local germplasm and the confusion with cultivars' names. Hence there is a need to characterize these local cultivars and to assess the possible existing variability at the cultivar level. This work was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the intra-varietal diversity within Lebanese traditional cultivars 'Aswad', 'Maghdoushe', 'Maryame', 'Merweh', 'Meksese' and 'Obeide'. A total of 50 accessions distributed over five main geographical areas in Lebanon were collected and submitted to both ampelographic description and ISSR DNA analysis. A set of 35 ampelographic descriptors previously established by the International Office of Vine and Wine and related to leaf, bunch, berry, and phenological stages, were examined. Variability was observed between accessions within cultivars for blade shape, density of prostrate and erect hairs, teeth shape, berry shape, size and color, cluster shape and size, and flesh juiciness. At the molecular level, nine ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers, previously developed for grapevine, were used in this study. These primers generated a total of 35 bands, of which 30 (85.7%) were polymorphic. Totally, 29 genetic profiles were differentiated, of which 9 revealed within 'Obeide', 6 for 'Maghdoushe', 5 for 'Merweh', 4 within 'Maryame', 3 for 'Aswad' and 2 within 'Meksese'. Findings of this study indicate the existence of several genotypes that form the basis of the main indigenous cultivars grown in Lebanon and which should be further considered in the establishment of new vineyards and selection programs.

Keywords: ampelography, autochthonous cultivars, ISSR markers, Lebanon, Vitis vinifera L.

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11 Influence of Organic Supplements on Shoot Multiplication Efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba

Authors: T. Punjansing, M. Nakkuntod, S. Homchan, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd


The influence of organic supplements on growth and multiplication efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba seedlings was investigated. 12 week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 8 g/L agar and various concentrations of coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mL/L) combined with potato extract (0, 25 and 50 g/L) and the pH was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. The cultures were then kept under constant photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) at 25 ± 2 °C for 12 weeks. The highest number of shoots (3.0 shoots/explant) was obtained when cultured on the medium added with 50 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract whereas the highest number of leaves (5.9 leaves/explant) and roots (6.1 roots/explant) could receive on the medium supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. Additionally, plantlets of P. tankervilleae var. alba were transferred to grow into seven different substrates i.e. soil, sand, coconut husk chip, soil-sand mix (1: 1), soil-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1), sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1) and soil-sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1: 1) for four weeks. The results found that acclimatized plants showed 100% of survivals when sand, coconut husk chip and sand-coconut husk chip mix are used as substrates. The number of leaves induced by sand-coconut husk chip mix was significantly higher than that planted in other substrates (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant difference in new shoot formation among these substrates was observed (P < 0.05). This precursory developing protocol was likely to be applied for more large scale of plant production as well as conservation of germplasm of this orchid species.

Keywords: organic supplements, acclimatization, Phaius tankervilleae var. alba, orchid

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10 Germplasm Collections and Morphological Studies of Andropogongayanus-Andropogon tectorum Complex in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Ojo F. M., Nwekeocha C. C., Faluyi J. O.


Morphological studies were carried out on Andropogongayanus-Andropogontectorum complex collected in Southwestern Nigeria to provide full characterizationof the two species of Andropogon; elucidating their population dynamics. Morphological data from selected accessions of A. gayanus and A. tectorum from different parts of Southwestern Nigeria were collected and characterized using an adaptation of the Descriptors for Wild and Cultivated Rice (Oryza spp). Preliminary morphological descriptions were carried out at the points of collection. Garden populations were raised from the vegetative parts of some accessions, and hybrids were maintained in Botanical Garden of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife. The data obtained were subjected to inferential tests and Duncan’s multiple range test. This study has revealed distribution pattern of the two species in the area of study, which suggests a south-ward migration of Andropogongayanus from the northern vegetational zones of Nigeria to the southern ecological zones. The migration of A. gayanus around Igbeti with occasional occurrence of A. tectorum along the roadsides without any distinct phenotypic hybrid and Budo-Ode in Oyo State has been established as the southern limit of the spread of A. gayanus, the migration of A. gayanus to the South is not an invasion but a slow process. A. gayanus was not encountered in Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, and Ogun States. Andropogongayanus and Andropogon tectorum not only emerge from the rootstocks rapidly but can also produce independent propagules by rooting at some nodes. The plants can spread by means of these propagules even if it does not produce sexual or apomictic seeds. This potential for vegetative propagation, in addition to the perennial habit, confer considerable advantage for colonization by the Andropogongayanus-AndropogontectorumComplex.

Keywords: accessions, distribution, migration, propagation

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9 Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis in Multiple Sorghum Mapping Populations Facilitates the Dissection of Genetic Control of Drought Tolerance Related Traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench)]

Authors: Techale B., Hongxu Dong, Mihrete Getinet, Aregash Gabizew, Andrew H. Paterson, Kassahun Bantte


The genetic architecture of drought tolerance is expected to involve multiple loci that are unlikely to all segregate for alternative alleles in a single bi-parental population. Therefore, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds of multiple bi-parental populations provides evidence about both background-specific and common genetic variants. The purpose of this study was to map QTL related to drought tolerance using three connected mapping populations of different genetic backgrounds to gain insight into the genomic landscape of this important trait in elite Ethiopian germplasm. The three bi-parental populations, each with 207 F₂:₃ lines, were evaluated using an alpha lattice design with two replications under two moisture stress environments. Drought tolerance related traits were analyzed separately for each population using composite interval mapping, finding a total of 105 QTLs. All the QTLs identified from individual populations were projected on a combined consensus map, comprising a total of 25 meta QTLs for seven traits. The consensus map allowed us to deduce locations of a larger number of markers than possible in any individual map, providing a reference for genetic studies in different genetic backgrounds. The mQTL identified in this study could be used for marker-assisted breeding programs in sorghum after validation. Only one trait, reduced leaf senescence, showed a striking bias of allele distribution, indicating substantial standing variation among present varieties that might be employed in improving drought tolerance of Ethiopian and other sorghums.

Keywords: Drought tolerance , Mapping populations, Meta QTL, QTL mapping, Sorghum

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8 Susceptibility of Different Clones of Eucalyptus Species against Gall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle in Punjab, India

Authors: Ashwinder K. Dhaliwal, G. P. S. Dhillon


Eucalyptus is one of the most important forest tree species that can tolerate and grow well on degraded and unfertile soils which are not suitable for other tree species. Besides this, these trees have a short rotation and good economic value. However, the gall inducing wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle has been reported from many countries throughout the world. The spread of L. invasa is of huge economic concern as more than 20,000 ha of young Eucalyptus trees have already been affected in southern states of India. The host plant resistance being the first line of defense against insect pests demands the screening of different germplasm source against L. invasa. Keeping this in view, fourteen different clones of Eucalyptus spp. were evaluated for their susceptibility to L. invasa from a replicated clonal trial planted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The degree of gall infestation was recorded from three plants of each clone in each replication. Three branches selected from the lower, middle and upper canopy of the trees were selected for recording the total number of galls induced by L. invasa. The statistical analysis was done as per the procedure laid down for completely randomised block design (CRBD), analysis of variance (ANOVA), critical difference (CD) and variance components using Proc GLM (SAS software 9.3, SAS Institute Ltd. U.S.A). All possible treatment means were compared with Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 1 % probability level. The results showed that the clones C-9, C-45 and C-42 were completely free from the infestation of L. invasa. However, there was minor infestation of L. invasa on C-2135, C-413, C-407, C-35, C-72 and C-37 clones. The clone C-6 was severely infested by L. invasa followed by C-11, C-12, F-316 and C-25 clones. The information generated by this study will be helpful for future breeding and use in afforestation programmes.

Keywords: eucalyptus clones, gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, screening, susceptibility

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7 Research and Application of Multi-Scale Three Dimensional Plant Modeling

Authors: Weiliang Wen, Xinyu Guo, Ying Zhang, Jianjun Du, Boxiang Xiao


Reconstructing and analyzing three-dimensional (3D) models from situ measured data is important for a number of researches and applications in plant science, including plant phenotyping, functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM), plant germplasm resources protection, agricultural technology popularization. It has many scales like cell, tissue, organ, plant and canopy from micro to macroscopic. The techniques currently used for data capture, feature analysis, and 3D reconstruction are quite different of different scales. In this context, morphological data acquisition, 3D analysis and modeling of plants on different scales are introduced systematically. The commonly used data capture equipment for these multiscale is introduced. Then hot issues and difficulties of different scales are described respectively. Some examples are also given, such as Micron-scale phenotyping quantification and 3D microstructure reconstruction of vascular bundles within maize stalks based on micro-CT scanning, 3D reconstruction of leaf surfaces and feature extraction from point cloud acquired by using 3D handheld scanner, plant modeling by combining parameter driven 3D organ templates. Several application examples by using the 3D models and analysis results of plants are also introduced. A 3D maize canopy was constructed, and light distribution was simulated within the canopy, which was used for the designation of ideal plant type. A grape tree model was constructed from 3D digital and point cloud data, which was used for the production of science content of 11th international conference on grapevine breeding and genetics. By using the tissue models of plants, a Google glass was used to look around visually inside the plant to understand the internal structure of plants. With the development of information technology, 3D data acquisition, and data processing techniques will play a greater role in plant science.

Keywords: plant, three dimensional modeling, multi-scale, plant phenotyping, three dimensional data acquisition

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