Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Yohannes Kelifa

9 In vivo Antidiabetic and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Myricaceae) Root Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors: Yohannes Kelifa, Gomathi Periasamy, Aman Karim

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health and economical problem across the globe. Modern antidiabetic drugs have a number of limitations, and scientific investigation of traditional herbal remedies used for diabetes may provide novel leads for the development of new antidiabetic drugs that can be used as alternative or complementary to available antidiabetic allopathic medications. Though Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. is used for the management of diabetes in Ethiopian traditional medicine, there was no previous scientific evidence about its antidiabetic effect to the authors’ knowledge. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic activity the root extracts of Myrica salicifolia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (150 mg/kg) in male mice. Diabetic mice were treated with oral doses of M. salicifolia root extracts at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) at a dose of 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was measured at 0, 5th,10th, and 15th day. The free radical scavenging activity of the crude extract was determined using in vitro by DPPH assay. The statistical significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: Daily administration of the M. salicifolia 80% methanol root extracts (at three different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) reduced fasting BGL compared with diabetic control. The aqueous and butanol fractions at a dose of 400 mg/kg resulted in maximum reduction of fasting BGL by 42.39%, and 52.13%, respectively at the 15th day in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Free radical scavenging activity of the 80% methanol extract of M. salicifolia was comparable to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values of the crude extract and ascorbic acid (a reference compound) were found to be 4.54 μg/ml and 4.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the methanolic extracts of M. salicifolia root and its fractions (n-butanol and aqueous) exhibit a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the result of the present study indicates that M. salicifolia root extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: antidiabetic, diabetes mellitus, DPPH, mice, Myrica salicifolia, streptozotocin

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8 The Impact of an Interactive E-Book on Mathematics Reading and Spatial Ability in Middle School Students

Authors: Abebayehu Yohannes, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Chiu-Chen Chang

Abstract:

Mathematics reading and spatial ability are important learning components in mathematics education. However, many students struggle to understand real-world problems and lack the spatial ability to form internal imagery. To cope with this problem, in this study, an interactive e-book was developed. The result indicated that both groups had a significant increase in the mathematics reading ability test, and a significant difference was observed in the overall mathematics reading score in favor of the experimental group. In addition, the interactive e-book learning mode had significant impacts on students’ spatial ability. It was also found that the richness of content with visual and interactive elements provided in the interactive e-book enhanced students’ satisfaction with the teaching material.

Keywords: interactive e-books, spatial ability, mathematics reading, satisfaction, three view

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7 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay

Abstract:

The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, fluid dynamics

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6 Experiences and Perceptions of Parents Raising Children with Autism

Authors: Tamene Keneni, Tibebu Yohannes

Abstract:

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in general and autism in particular is on the rise globally, and the need for evidence-based intervention and care for children with autism has grown, too. However, evidence on autism is scanty in developing countries, including Ethiopia. With the aim to help fill the gap and paucity in research into the issue, the main purpose of this study is to explore, better understand, and document the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with autism. To this end, we used a qualitative survey to collect data from a convenient sample of parents raising a child with autism. The data collected were subjected to qualitative analysis that yielded several themes and subthemes, including late diagnosis, parents’ reactions to diagnosis, sources of information during and after diagnosis, differing reactions to having a child with autism from siblings, extended family members, and the larger community, attribution of autism to several causes by the community, lack of recognition and open discussion of autism and lack of appropriated public educational and health care services for children with autism and their parents. The themes and subthemes identified were discussed in light of existing literature, and implications for practice were drawn.

Keywords: ASD, autism, children with autism, raising children with autism

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5 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Bandari Shankar, Yohannes Yirga

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement

Keywords: unsteady, heat and mass transfer, manetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, non-uniform heat source/sink, stretching sheet

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4 Screening Some Accessions of Lentil (Lens culinaris M.) for Salt Tolerance at Germination and Early Seedling Stage in Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Azene Tesfaye, Yohannes Petros, Habtamu Zeleke

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation among Ethiopian lentil, laboratory experiment were conducted to screen 12 accessions of lentil (Lens culinaris M.) for salt tolerance. Seeds of 12 Lentil accessions were grown at laboratory (Petri dish) condition with different levels of salinity (0, 2, 4, and 8 dSm-1 NaCl) for 4 weeks. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD) in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS software. Average germination time, germination percentage, seedling shoot and root traits, seedling shoot and root weight were evaluated. The two way ANOVA for varieties revealed statistically significant variation among lentil accession, NaCl level and their interactions (p<0.001) with respect to the entire parameters. It was found that salt stress significantly delays germination rate and decreases germination percentage, shoot and root length, seedling shoot and root weight of lentil accessions. The degree of decrement varied with accessions and salinity levels. Accessions 36120, 9235 and 36004 were better salt tolerant than the other accessions. As the result, it is recommended to be used as a genetic resource for the development of lentil accession and other very salt sensitive crop with improved germination under salt stress condition.

Keywords: accession, germination, lentil, NaCl, screening, seedling stage

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3 Market Chain Analysis of Onion: The Case of Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Belayneh Yohannes

Abstract:

In Ethiopia, onion production is increasing from time to time mainly due to its high profitability per unit area. Onion has a significant contribution to generating cash income for farmers in the Raya Azebo district. Therefore, enhancing onion producers’ access to the market and improving market linkage is an essential issue. Hence, this study aimed to analyze structure-conduct-performance of onion market and identifying factors affecting the market supply of onion producers. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from 150 farm households and 20 traders. Four onion marketing channels were identified in the study area. The highest total gross margin is 27.6 in channel IV. The highest gross marketing margin of producers of the onion market is 88% in channel II. The result from the analysis of market concentration indicated that the onion market is characterized by a strong oligopolistic market structure, with the buyers’ concentration ratio of 88.7 in Maichew town and 82.7 in Mekelle town. Lack of capital, licensing problems, and seasonal supply was identified as the major entry barrier to onion marketing. Market conduct shows that the price of onion is set by traders while producers are price takers. Multiple linear regression model results indicated that family size in adult equivalent, irrigated land size, access to information, frequency of extension contact, and ownership of transport significantly determined the quantity of onion supplied to the market. It is recommended that strengthening and diversifying extension services in information, marketing, post-harvest handling, irrigation application, and water harvest technology is highly important.

Keywords: oligopoly, onion, market chain, multiple linear regression

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2 Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Associated Factors among Pregnant Mothers Attending Antenatal Care Service, Mekelle, Ethiopia: Evidence from Institutional Based Quantitative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Semaw A., Awet H., Yohannes M.

Abstract:

Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major global public health problem. Individuals living in Sub-Sahara Africa have 60% lifetime risk of acquiring HBV infection. Evidences showed that 80-90% of those born from infected mothers developed chronic HBV. Perinatal HBV transmission is a major determinant of HBV carrier status, its chronic squeal and maintains HBV transmission across generations. Method: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 406 pregnant mothers attending Antenatal clinics at Mekelle and Ayder referral hospital from January 30 to April 1/2014. Epidata version 3.1 was used for data entry and SPSS version 21 statistical software was used for data cleaning, management and finally determine associated factors of hepatitis B surface antigen adjusting important confounders using multivariable logistic regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Result: The overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women was 33 (8.1%). The socio-demographic characteristic of the study population showed that there is high positivity among secondary school 189 (46.6%). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, history of a contact with individuals who had history of hepatitis B infection or jaundice and lifetime number of multiple sexual partners were found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity at AOR = 3.73 95%C.I (1.373-10.182) and AOR = 2.57 95%C.I (1.173-5.654), respectively. Moreover, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HBV confection rate was found 3.6%. Conclusion: This study has shown that HBV prevalence in pregnant women is highly prevalent (8.1%) in the study area. Contact with individuals who had a history of hepatitis or have jaundice and report of multiple lifetime sexual partnership were associated with hepatitis B infection. Education about HBV transmission and prevention as well as screening all pregnant mothers shall be sought to reduce the serious public health crisis of HBV.

Keywords: HBsAg, hepatitis B, pregnant women, prevalence

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1 Adapting Cyber Physical Production Systems to Small and Mid-Size Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Yohannes Haile, Dipo Onipede, Jr., Omar Ashour

Abstract:

The main thrust of our research is to determine Industry 4.0 readiness of small and mid-size manufacturing companies in our region and assist them to implement Cyber Physical Production System (CPPS) capabilities. Adopting CPPS capabilities will help organizations realize improved quality, order delivery, throughput, new value creation, and reduced idle time of machines and work centers of their manufacturing operations. The key metrics for the assessment include the level of intelligence, internal and external connections, responsiveness to internal and external environmental changes, capabilities for customization of products with reference to cost, level of additive manufacturing, automation, and robotics integration, and capabilities to manufacture hybrid products in the near term, where near term is defined as 0 to 18 months. In our initial evaluation of several manufacturing firms which are profitable and successful in what they do, we found low level of Physical-Digital-Physical (PDP) loop in their manufacturing operations, whereas 100% of the firms included in this research have specialized manufacturing core competencies that have differentiated them from their competitors. The level of automation and robotics integration is low to medium range, where low is defined as less than 30%, and medium is defined as 30 to 70% of manufacturing operation to include automation and robotics. However, there is a significant drive to include these capabilities at the present time. As it pertains to intelligence and connection of manufacturing systems, it is observed to be low with significant variance in tying manufacturing operations management to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Furthermore, it is observed that the integration of additive manufacturing in general, 3D printing, in particular, to be low, but with significant upside of integrating it in their manufacturing operations in the near future. To hasten the readiness of the local and regional manufacturing companies to Industry 4.0 and transitions towards CPPS capabilities, our working group (ADMAR Working Group) in partnership with our university have been engaged with the local and regional manufacturing companies. The goal is to increase awareness, share know-how and capabilities, initiate joint projects, and investigate the possibility of establishing the Center for Cyber Physical Production Systems Innovation (C2P2SI). The center is intended to support the local and regional university-industry research of implementing intelligent factories, enhance new value creation through disruptive innovations, the development of hybrid and data enhanced products, and the creation of digital manufacturing enterprises. All these efforts will enhance local and regional economic development and educate students that have well developed knowledge and applications of cyber physical manufacturing systems and Industry 4.0.

Keywords: automation, cyber-physical production system, digital manufacturing enterprises, disruptive innovation, new value creation, physical-digital-physical loop

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