Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14214

Search results for: retention time

14214 Presenting the Mathematical Model to Determine Retention in the Watersheds

Authors: S. Shamohammadi, L. Razavi


This paper based on the principle concepts of SCS-CN model, a new mathematical model for computation of retention potential (S) presented. In the mathematical model, not only precipitation-runoff concepts in SCS-CN model are precisely represented in a mathematical form, but also new concepts, called “maximum retention” and “total retention” is introduced, and concepts of potential retention capacity, maximum retention, and total retention have been separated from each other. In the proposed model, actual retention (F), maximum actual retention (Fmax), total retention (S), maximum retention (Smax), and potential retention (Sp), for the first time clearly defined, so that Sp is not variable, but a function of morphological characteristics of the watershed. Indeed, based on the mathematical relation of the conceptual curve of SCS-CN model, the proposed model provides a new method for the computation of actual retention in watershed and it simply determined runoff based on. In the corresponding relations, in addition to Precipitation (P), Initial retention (Ia), cumulative values of actual retention capacity (F), total retention (S), runoff (Q), antecedent moisture (M), potential retention (Sp), total retention (S), we introduced Fmax and Fmin referring to maximum and minimum actual retention, respectively. As well as, ksh is a coefficient which depends on morphological characteristics of the watershed. Advantages of the modified version versus the original model include a better precision, higher performance, easier calibration and speed computing.

Keywords: model, mathematical, retention, watershed, SCS

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14213 Effect of Hydraulic Residence Time on Aromatic Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Using Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Narges Fallah, Mohsen Kian, Mehrzad Pakzadeh


The petrochemical complex releases wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and could not be treated easily. Treatment of the wastewater from a petrochemical industry has been investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). For this purpose, a pilot-scale submerged MBR with a flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane was used for treatment of petrochemical wastewater according to Bandar Imam Petrochemical complex (BIPC) Aromatic plant. The testing system ran continuously (24-h) over 6 months. Trials on different membrane fluxes and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were conducted and the performance evaluation of the system was done. During the 167 days operation of the MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18, 12, 6, and 3 and at an infinite sludge retention time (SRT), the MBR effluent quality consistently met the requirement for discharge to the environment. A fluxes of 6.51 and 13.02 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) was sustainable and HRT of 6 and 12 h corresponding to these fluxes were applicable. Membrane permeability could be fully recovered after cleaning. In addition, there was no foaming issue in the process. It was concluded that it was feasible to treat the wastewater using submersed MBR technology.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), petrochemical wastewater, COD removal, biological treatment

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14212 Effect of Drop Impact Behavior on Spray Retention

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mathieu Massinon, Fréderic Lebeau, Mohamed Belhamra


Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to spray retention. However, observation of drop impacts using high speed shadow graphy shows that fragmentation can occur in Wenzel wetting regime. In this case, a part of the drop sticks on the surface, what contributes to retention. Using simultaneous measurements of drop impacts with high speed imaging and of retention with fluorometry for 3 spray mixtures on excised barley leaves allowed us to observe that about 50% of the drops fragmented in Wenzel state remain on the leaf. Depending on spray mixture, these impact outcomes accounted for 25 to 50% of retention, the higher contribution being correlated with bigger VMD (Volume Median Diameter). This contribution is non-negligible and should be considered when a modelling of spray retention process is performed.

Keywords: drop impact, retention, fluorometry, high speed imaging

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14211 Analysis of Caffeic Acid from Myrica nagi Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Preeti Panthari, Harsha Kharkwal


Myrica nagi belongs to Myricaceae family. It is known for its therapeutic use since ancient times. The leaves were extracted with methanol and further fractioned with different solvents with increasing polarity. The n-butanol fraction of methanol extract was passed through celite, on separation through silica gel column chromatography yielded ten fractions. For the first time we report isolation of Caffeic acid from n-butanol fraction of Myrica nagi leaves in Chloroform: methanol (70:30) fraction. The mobile phase used for analysis in HPLC was Methanol: water (60:40) at the flow rate of 1 ml/min at wavelength of 280 nm. The retention time was 2.66 mins.

Keywords: Myrica nagi, column chromatography, retention time, caffeic acid

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14210 The Characterisation of TLC NAND Flash Memory, Leading to a Definable Endurance/Retention Trade-Off

Authors: Sorcha Bennett, Joe Sullivan


Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory at, and below, 20nm (nanometer) is still largely unexplored by researchers, and with the ever more commonplace existence of Flash in consumer and enterprise applications there is a need for such gaps in knowledge to be filled. At the time of writing, there was little published data or literature on TLC, and more specifically reliability testing, with a further emphasis on both endurance and retention. This paper will give an introduction to NAND Flash memory, followed by an overview of the relevant current research on the reliability of Flash memory, along with the planned future work which will provide results to help characterise the reliability of TLC memory.

Keywords: endurance, patterns, raw flash, reliability, retention, TLC NAND flash memory, trade-off

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14209 Analysis of Generated Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Dung

Authors: Babatope Alabadan, Adeyinka Adesanya, I. E. Afangideh


The use of energy is paramount to human existence. Every activity globally revolves round it. Over the years, different sources of energy (petroleum fuels predominantly) have been utilized. Animal waste treatment on the farm is a phenomenon that has called for rapt research attention. Generated wastes on farm pollute the environment in diverse ways. Waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. The objective of this work is to generate methane (CH4) gas from the anaerobic digestion of piggery dung. A retention time of 15 and 30 days and a mesophilic temperature range were selected. The generated biogas composition was methane (CH4), carbondioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) using gas chromatography method. At 15 days retention time, 60% of (CH4) was collected while CO2 and traces of H2S and NH3 accounted for 40%. At 30 days retention time, 75% of CH4, 20% of CO2 was collected while traces of H2S and NH3 amounted to 5%. For on and off farm uses, biogas can be upgraded to biomethane by removing the CO2, NH3 and H2S. This product (CH4) can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, methane, piggery dung

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14208 The Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Sludge Characteristics and Effluent Quality in an Aerobic Suspension Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Ali W. N. Alattabi, Clare B. Harris, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda, David A. Phipps, Ali Alzeyadi, Khalid S. Hashim


This study was performed to optimise the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and study its effects on the sludge characteristics and the effluent quality in an aerobic suspension sequencing batch reactor (ASSBR) treating synthetic wastewater. The results showed that increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h significantly improved the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency; it was increased from 78.7% - 75.7% to 94.7% – 97% for COD and Nitrate respectively. However, increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h reduced the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency from 94.7% - 97% to 91.1% – 94.4% respectively. Moreover, Increasing the HRT from 18 h to 24 h did not affect the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency. Sludge volume index (SVI) was used to monitor the sludge settling performance. The results showed a direct relationship between the HRT and SVI value. Increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h led to decrease the SVI value from 123 ml/g to 82.5 ml/g, and then it remained constant despite of increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h and to 24 h. The results obtained from this study showed that the HRT of 12 h was better for COD and Nitrate removal and a good settling performance occurred during that range.

Keywords: COD, hydraulic retention time, nitrate, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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14207 Effect of Citric Acid on Hydrogen-Bond Interactions and Tensile Retention Properties of Citric Acid Modified Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites

Authors: Da-Wei Wang, Liang Yang, Xuan-Long Peng, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Jen-Taut Yeh


The tensile retention and waterproof properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were significantly enhanced by modifying with proper amounts of citric acid (CA) and by melt-blending with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), although no distinguished chemical reaction occurred between CA and starch molecules. As evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analyses, disruption of intra and interhydrogen-bondings within starch molecules did occur during the modification processes of CA modified TPS (i.e. TPS100CAx) specimens. The tensile strength (σf) retention values of TPS specimens reduced rapidly from 27.8 to 20.5 and 0.4 MPa, respectively, as the conditioning time at 20°C/50% relative humidity (RH) increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days, respectively. While the elongation at break (εf) retention values of TPS specimens increased rapidly from 5.9 to 6.5 and 34.8%, respectively, as the conditioning time increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days. After conditioning at 20°C/50% RH for 70 days, the σf and εf retention values of the best prepared (TPS100CA0.1)30PLA70 specimen are equivalent to 85% and 167% of its initial σf and εf values, respectively, and are more than 105 times higher but 48% lower than those of TPS specimens conditioned at 20°C/50% RH for the same amount of time. Demarcated diffraction peaks, new melting endotherms of recrystallized starch crystals and distinguished ductile characteristics with drawn debris were found for many conditioned TPS specimens, however, only slight retrogradation effect and much less drawn debris was found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens. The significantly improved water proof, tensile retention properties and relatively unchanged in retrogradation effect found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens are apparently due to the efficient blocking of the moisture-absorbing hydroxyl groups (free or hydrogen bonded) by hydrogen-bonding CA with starch molecules during their modification processes.

Keywords: thermoplastic starch, hydrogen-bonding, water proof, strength retention

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14206 Improving Student Retention with Summer Bridge Programs

Authors: Elizabeth Watson, Sara Vogt


The transition from high school to college can be an exciting and confusing time for many students, especially college students with disabilities. In 1983, the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater created a Summer Transition Program (STP) for such students as part of a US Department of Education Demonstration Grant. This program offers incoming students the opportunity to take 2 college courses and live on campus for 4 weeks to help introduce and familiarize them with typical college expectations and support services. Over the past 30 years, 48% of the students have graduated, exceeding the national college graduation rate for students with disabilities. This mixed methods longitudinal study will discuss how this program has increased retention and graduation rates, and success in the co-curricular and living environments for students with disabilities.

Keywords: disability, transition, post-secondary education, retention

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14205 Sepiolite as a Processing Aid in Fibre Reinforced Cement Produced in Hatschek Machine

Authors: R. Pérez Castells, J. M. Carbajo


Sepiolite is used as a processing aid in the manufacture of fibre cement from the start of the replacement of asbestos in the 80s. Sepiolite increases the inter-laminar bond between cement layers and improves homogeneity of the slurries. A new type of sepiolite processed product, Wollatrop TF/C, has been checked as a retention agent for fine particles in the production of fibre cement in a Hatschek machine. The effect of Wollatrop T/FC on filtering and fine particle losses was studied as well as the interaction with anionic polyacrylamide and microsilica. The design of the experiments were factorial and the VDT equipment used for measuring retention and drainage was modified Rapid Köethen laboratory sheet former. Wollatrop TF/C increased the fine particle retention improving the economy of the process and reducing the accumulation of solids in recycled process water. At the same time, drainage time increased sharply at high concentration, however drainage time can be improved by adjusting APAM concentration. Wollatrop TF/C and microsilica are having very small interactions among them. Microsilica does not control fine particle losses while Wollatrop TF/C does efficiently. Further research on APAM type (molecular weight and anionic character) is advisable to improve drainage.

Keywords: drainage, fibre-reinforced cement, fine particle losses, flocculation, microsilica, sepiolite

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14204 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Retention Times of Some Secoestrane Derivatives

Authors: Nataša Kalajdžija, Strahinja Kovačević, Davor Lončar, Sanja Podunavac Kuzmanović, Lidija Jevrić


In order to investigate the relationship between retention and structure, a quantitative Structure Retention Relationships (QSRRs) study was applied for the prediction of retention times of a set of 23 secoestrane derivatives in a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. After the calculation of molecular descriptors, a suitable set of molecular descriptors was selected by using step-wise multiple linear regressions. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method was employed to model the nonlinear structure-activity relationships. The ANN technique resulted in 5-6-1 ANN model with the correlation coefficient of 0.98. We found that the following descriptors: Critical pressure, total energy, protease inhibition, distribution coefficient (LogD) and parameter of lipophilicity (miLogP) have a significant effect on the retention times. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental ones. This approach provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatographic retention index for the secoestrane derivatives investigated.

Keywords: lipophilicity, QSRR, RP TLC retention, secoestranes

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14203 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani, Amin Tamadon


Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

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14202 The Effectiveness of Humanoid Diagram Teaching Strategy on Retention Rate of Novice Nurses in Taiwan

Authors: Yung-Hui Tang, Yan-Chiou Ku, Li-Chi Huang


Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the effect of the Humanoid Diagram Teaching (HDT) strategy on novice nurses’ care ability and retention rate. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study using two groups concurrently with repeat measurements sample consisted of 24 novice nurses (12 in each experimental and control group) in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Both groups all received regular training program (nursing standard techniques and practices, concept map, mini-CEX, CbD, and clinical education and training), and experimental group added the HDT program. The HDT strategy includes the contents of patients’ body humanoid drawing and discussion for 30 minutes each time, three times a week, and continually for four weeks. The effectiveness of HDT was evaluated by mini-CEX, CbD and clinical assessment and retention rate at the 3rd month and 6th month. Results: The novice nurses' care ability were examined, only CbD score in the control group was improved in the 3rd month and with statistical difference, p = .003. The mini-CEX and CbD in the experimental group were significantly improved in both the first and third month with statistical differences p = .00. Although mini-CEX and CbD in the experimental group were higher than the control group, but there was no significant difference p > .05. Retention rate of the experimental group in the third month and sixth month was significantly higher than the control group, and there was a statistically significant difference p < .05. Conclusions: The study reveals that HDT strategy can help novice nurses learning, enhancing their knowledge and technical capability, analytical skills in case-based caring, and retention. The HDT strategy can be served as an effective strategy for novice training for better nurse retention rate.

Keywords: humanoid diagram teaching strategy, novice nurses retention, teaching strategy of nurse retention, visual learning mode

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14201 Biogas Production from University Canteen Waste: Effect of Organic Loading Rate and Retention Time

Authors: Khamdan Cahyari, Gumbolo Hadi Susanto, Pratikno Hidayat, Sukirman


University canteen waste was used as raw material to produce biogas in Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia. This faculty was home to more than 3000 students and lecturers who work and study for 5 days/week (8 hours/day). It produced approximately 85 ton/year organic fraction of canteen waste. Yet, this waste had been dumped for years in landfill area which cause severe environmental problems. It was proposed to utilize the waste as raw material for producing renewable energy source of biogas. This research activities was meant to investigate the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and retention time (RT) of continuous anaerobic digestion process for 200 days. Organic loading rate was set at value 2, 3, 4 and 5 g VS/l/d whereas the retention time was adjusted at 30, 24, 18 and 14.4 days. Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 4 g VS/l/d and RT 24 days with biogas production rate between 0.75 to 1.25 liter/day (40-60% CH4). This indicated that the utilization of canteen waste to produce biogas was promising method to mitigate environmental problem of university canteen waste. Furthermore, biogas could be used as alternative energy source to supply energy demand at the university. This implementation is simultaneous solution for both waste and energy problems to achieve green campus.

Keywords: canteen waste, biogas, anaerobic digestion, university, green campus

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14200 Improvement of Spray Retention on Barley

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mohamed Belhamra


Adjuvants contribute to change the types of impact and thus the amount of spray retained by the leaves of the treated plant. We have performed tests of retention on barley plants on BBCH 12 stage and small pieces of barley leaves at the same stage of growth. Spraying was done in three ways: water without adjuvant, water with Break-Thru® S240 and water with Li700®. The three slurries of fluorescein contained in an amount of 0.2 g/l. Fluorescein retained by the leaves in both cases is then measured by a spectrofluoremeter. The retention tests on whole plants show that it is tripled by the first adjuvant and doubled by the second. By cons on small pieces of barley leaves, the amount was increased by the use of surfactants but not to the same scale. This study concluded that the use of adjuvants in spray pesticides may increase the amount of retention as a function of leaf area and the type of adjuvant.

Keywords: Barley, adjuvant, spray retention, fluorometry

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14199 Hydraulic Performance of Urban Drainage System Using SWMM: A Case Study of Siti Khadijah Retention Pond in Palembang City

Authors: Muhammad B. Al Amin, Nyimas S. Rika, Dwi F. Yanto, Marcelina


Siti Khadijah retention pond is located beside of Siti Khadijah Islamic Hospital on Demang Lebar Daun Street in Palembang City. This retention pond is functioned as storage for runoff from drainage channels in the surrounding area before entering Sekanak River, which is one of Musi River tributaries. However, in recent years, the developments in the surrounding area into paved area trigger to increase runoff discharge that causes the pond can no longer store it adequately. This study aimed to investigate the hydraulic performance of drainage system in the area around Siti Khadijah retention pond. A SWMM model was used to simulate runoff discharge into the pond and out from the pond, so the water level fluctuation within the pond and its capacity could be determined. Besides that, the water depth within drainage channels was simulated as well. The results showed that capacity of retention pond and some drainage channels already inadequate, so the area around it potentially to be flooded. Thus, it is necessary to increase the capacity of the retention pond and drainage channels.

Keywords: flood, retention pond, SWMM, urban drainage system

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14198 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Alveolar Bone Jaw during Retention Period of Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita A. Belousova, Sergey N. Ermoliev, Nina K. Loginova


The method of intraoral ultrasound densitometry developed to diagnose mineral density of alveolar bone jaws during retention period of orthodontic treatment (Patent of Russian Federation № 2541038). It was revealed significant decrease of the ultrasonic wave speed and bone mineral density in patients with relapses dentition anomalies during retention period of orthodontic treatment.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, speed of sound, alveolar jaw bone, relapses of dentition anomalies, retention period of orthodontic treatment

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14197 The Effects of Self- and Partner Reported Attachment Orientations and Mate Retention Behaviors: Actor and Partner Effects in Romantic Couples

Authors: Jasna Hudek-Knezevic, Igor Kardum, Nada Krapic, Martina Jurcic


The aim of this study was to examine the effects of self- and partner reported attachment orientations on self-reported mate retention behaviors in romantic couples using the actor-partner interdependence model. The study was carried out on 187 heterosexual couples aged from 18 to 35 years, with an average relationship length of 4.5 years. Participants were asked to complete the revised scale of adult attachment and short form of mate retention inventory. Actor and partner effects of self- and partner reported anxious and avoidant attachment orientations on mate retention categories (direct guarding, intersexual negative inducements, positive inducements, public signals of possession and intrasexual negative inducements) and domains (cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning), as well on overall mate retention were examined. Actor effects for women estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their own mate retention behaviors, whereas men’s actor effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their own mate retention behaviors. Women’s partner effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their partner’s mate retention behaviors, whereas men’s partner effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their partner’s mate retention behaviors. The use of two data sources, self- and partner reports, allow the control of the effects of common method variance when exploring actor and partner effects. Positive actor and partner effects of anxious attachment, as well as negative actor and partner effects of avoidant attachment on mate retention, were expected. In other words, it was expected that more anxiously attached individuals themselves, as well as their partners, will use mate retention behaviors more frequently. On the other hand, more avoidantly attached individuals themselves, as well as their partners, will use mate retention behaviors less frequently. These hypotheses were partially confirmed. The results showed that the strongest and most consistent effects across both data sources were men’s actor effects on the cost-inflicting mate retention domain, and especially on two mate retention categories, direct guarding, and intersexual negative inducements. Additionally, a consistent positive partner effect of men’s anxious attachment orientations on direct guarding was also obtained. Avoidant attachment orientation exerted few and inconsistent actor and partner effects on mate retention domains and categories. The results are explained by theoretical propositions addressing the effects of attachment orientations on an interpersonal romantic relationship in early adulthood.

Keywords: actor and partner effects, attachment orientations, dyadic analysis, mate retention behavior

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14196 Study of Mechanical Properties of Glutarylated Jute Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: V. Manush Nandan, K. Lokdeep, R. Vimal, K. Hari Hara Subramanyan, C. Aswin, V. Logeswaran


Natural fibers have attained the potential market in the composite industry because of the huge environmental impact caused by synthetic fibers. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. Even though there is a good motive to utilize the natural supplement, the strength of the natural fiber composites is still a topic of discussion. In recent days, many researchers are showing interest in the chemical modification of the natural fibers to increase various mechanical and thermal properties. In the present study, jute fibers have been modified chemically using glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The glutaric anhydride solution is prepared by dissolving the different quantity of glutaric anhydride in benzene and dimethyl-sulfoxide using sodium formate catalyst. The jute fiber mats have been treated by the method of retting at various time intervals of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. The modification structure of the treated fibers has been confirmed with infrared spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with an increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure. The unmodified fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix under room temperature. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of unmodified fiber.

Keywords: flexural properties, glutarylation, glutaric anhydride, tensile properties

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14195 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke


The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

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14194 Micro-Rest: Extremely Short Breaks in Post-Learning Interference Support Memory Retention over the Long Term

Authors: R. Marhenke, M. Martini


The distraction of attentional resources after learning hinders long-term memory consolidation compared to several minutes of post-encoding inactivity in form of wakeful resting. We tested whether an 8-minute period of wakeful resting, compared to performing an adapted version of the d2 test of attention after learning, supports memory retention. Participants encoded and immediately recalled a word list followed by either an 8 minute period of wakeful resting (eyes closed, relaxed) or by performing an adapted version of the d2 test of attention (scanning and selecting specific characters while ignoring others). At the end of the experimental session (after 12-24 min) and again after 7 days, participants were required to complete a surprise free recall test of both word lists. Our results showed no significant difference in memory retention between the experimental conditions. However, we found that participants who completed the first lines of the d2 test in less than the given time limit of 20 seconds and thus had short unfilled intervals before switching to the next test line, remembered more words over the 12-24 minute and over the 7 days retention interval than participants who did not complete the first lines. This interaction occurred only for the first test lines, with the highest temporal proximity to the encoding task and not for later test lines. Differences in retention scores between groups (completed first line vs. did not complete) seem to be widely independent of the general performance in the d2 test. Implications and limitations of these exploratory findings are discussed.

Keywords: long-term memory, retroactive interference, attention, forgetting

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14193 Assessment of Al/Fe Humus, pH, and P Retention to Differentiate Andisols under Different Cultivation, Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Miseri Roeslan Afany, Nur Ainun Pulungan


The unique characteristics of Andisol differentiate them from other soils. These characteristics become a guideline in determining management and usage with regards to agriculture. Especially in the tropical area, Andisols may have fast mineral alteration due to intensive water movement in the soils. Four soil chemical tests were conducted for evaluating soils in the study area. Al/Fe humus, allophane, pH, and P retention were used to differentiate Andisols under different practices. Non-cultivation practice (e.g. natural forest) and cultivation practices (e.g. horticulture systems and intensive farming systems) are compared in this study. We applied Blackmore method for P retention analysis. The aims of this study are: (i) to analyze the specific behavior of Al/Fe humus, pH, and allophane towards P retention in order (ii) to evaluate the effect of cultivation practices on their behavior changes among Andisols, and (iii) to gain the sustainable agriculture through proposing an appropriate soil managements in the study area. 5 observation sites were selected, and 75 soil sampling were analyzed in this study. The results show that the cultivation decreases P retention in all sampling sites. There is a declining from ±90% to ±50% of P retention in the natural forest where shifts into cultivated land. The average of P retention under 15 years of cultivation down into 63%, whereas, the average of P retention more than 15 years of cultivation down into 54%. Many factors affect the retention of P in the soil such as: (1) type and amount of clay, (2) allophone and/or imogolit, (3) Al/Fe humus, (4) soil pH, (5) type and amount of organic material, (6) Exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, Na, K), (7) forms and solubility of Al/Fe. To achieve the sustainable agriculture in the study area, conventional agriculture practices should be preserved and intensive fertilizing practices should be applied in order to increase the soil pH, to maintain the organic matter of andisols, to maintain microba activities, and to release Al/Fe humus complex, and thus increase available P in the soils.

Keywords: Andisols, cultivation, P retention, sustainable agriculture

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14192 A Correlational Study between Parentification and Memory Retention among Parentified Female Adolescents: A Neurocognitive Perspective on Parentification

Authors: Mary Dorothy Roxas, Jeian Mae Dungca, Reginald Agor, Beatriz Figueroa, Lennon Andre Patricio, Honey Joy Cabahug


Parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family. It was found that parentification has the latter effect on adolescents’ cognitive and emotional vulnerability. Attachment theory helps clarify the process of parentification as it involves the relationship between the child and the parent. Carandang theory of “taga-salo” helps explain parentification in the Philippines setting. The present study examined the potential risk of parentification on adolescent’s memory retention by hypothesizing that there is a correlation between the two. The research was conducted with 249 female adolescents ages 12-24, residing in Valenzuela City. Results indicated that there is a significant inverse correlation between parentification and memory retention.

Keywords: memory retention, neurocognitive, parentification, stress

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14191 Comparisonal Study of Succinylation and Glutarylation of Jute Fiber: Study of Mechanical Properties of Modified Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: R. Vimal, K. Hari Hara Subramaniyan, C. Aswin, B. Logeshwaran, M. Ramesh


Due to several environmental concerns, natural fibers have greatly replaced the synthetic fibers as a reinforcing material in polymer matrix composites. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. In recent years, modification of plant fibers with range of chemicals to increase various mechanical and thermal properties has been focused greatly. Among that, some of the plant fibers were modified using succinic anhydride. In the present study, Jute fibers have been modified chemically by treatment with succinic anhydride and glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The fiber modification was done under retting condition at various retention times of 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. The modification of fiber structure in both the cases is confirmed with Infrared Spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure which is common in both the cases. Comparatively, treatment of fibers with glutaric anhydride has shown efficient output than that of succinic anhydride. The unmodified fibers, succinylated fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix at various volume fractions of fiber under room temperature. The composite made using unmodified fiber is used as a standard material. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of succinylated and unmodified fiber.

Keywords: flexural strength, glutarylation, jute fibers, succinylation, tensile strength

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14190 Effect of Temperature on the Water Retention Capacity of Liner Materials

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mahbashi, Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani, Muawia Dafalla


Mixtures of sand and clay are frequently used to serve for specific purposes in several engineering practices. In environmental engineering, liner layers and cover layers are common for controlling waste disposal facilities. These layers are exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuation specially when existing in unsaturated condition. The relationship between soil suction and water content for these materials is essential for understanding their unsaturated behavior and properties such as retention capacity and unsaturated follow (hydraulic conductivity). This study is aimed at investigating retention capacity for two sand-natural expansive clay mixtures (15% (C15) and 30% (C30) expansive clay) at two ambient temperatures within the range of 5 -50 °C. Soil water retention curves (SWRC) for these materials were determined at these two ambient temperatures using different salt solutions for a wide range of suction (up to 200MPa). The results indicate that retention capacity of C15 mixture underwent significant changes due to temperature variations. This effect tends to be less visible when the clay fraction is doubled (C30). In addition, the overall volume change is marginally affected by high temperature within the range considered in this study.

Keywords: soil water retention curve, sand-expansive clay liner, suction, temperature

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14189 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung

Authors: Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea, Mahmoud Hassan Onsa


This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.

Keywords: methane, cow dung, daily production, pasteurization, increase

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14188 Corporate Cultures Management towards the Retention of Employees: Case Study Company in Thailand

Authors: Duangsamorn Rungsawanpho


The objectives of this paper are to explore the corporate cultures management as determinants of employee retention company in Thailand. This study using mixed method methodology. Data collection using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The statistics used for data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics will include. The results show that the corporate management culture is perfect for any organization but it depends on the business and the industry because the situations or circumstances that corporate executives are met is different. Because the finding explained that the employees of the company determine the achievement of value-oriented by the corporate culture and international relations is perceived most value for their organizations. In additional we found the employees perceiving with participation can be interpreted as a positive example, many employees feel that they are part of management because they care about their opinions or ideas related with their work.

Keywords: corporate culture, employee retention, retention of employees, management approaches

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14187 Tensile Retention Properties of Thermoplastic Starch Based Biocomposites Modified with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Jen-Taut Yeh, Yuan-jing Hou, Li Cheng, Ya Zhou Wang, Zhi Yu Zhang


Tensile retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with glutaraldehyde (GA) in their gelatinization processes. Small amounts of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were blended with GA modified TPS resins to improve their processability. As evidenced by the newly developed ether (-C-O-C-) stretching bands on FT-IR spectra of TPS100BC0.02GAx series specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the aldehyde groups of GA molecules during their modification processes. The retention values of tensile strengths (σf) of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as GA contents approached an optimal value at 0.5 part per hundred parts of TPS resin (PHR). By addition of 0.5 PHR GA in biocomposite specimens, the initial tensile strength and elongation at break values of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen improved to 24.6 MPa and 5.6%, respectively, which were slightly improved than those of (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. However, the retention values of tensile strengths of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen reached around 82.5%, after placing the specimen under 20oC/50% relative humidity for 56 days, which were significantly better than those of the (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. In order to understand these interesting tensile retention properties found for (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens. Thermal analyses of initial and aged TPS100BC0.02, TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens were also performed in this investigation. Possible reasons accounting for the significantly improved tensile retention properties of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens are proposed.

Keywords: biocomposite, strength retention, thermoplastic starch, tensile retention

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14186 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj


Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: abattoir waste water, activated sludge, ozone, waste water treatment

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14185 Evaluation of QSRR Models by Sum of Ranking Differences Approach: A Case Study of Prediction of Chromatographic Behavior of Pesticides

Authors: Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević


The present study deals with the selection of the most suitable quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models which should be used in prediction of the retention behavior of basic, neutral, acidic and phenolic pesticides which belong to different classes: fungicides, herbicides, metabolites, insecticides and plant growth regulators. Sum of ranking differences (SRD) approach can give a different point of view on selection of the most consistent QSRR model. SRD approach can be applied not only for ranking of the QSRR models, but also for detection of similarity or dissimilarity among them. Applying the SRD analysis, the most similar models can be found easily. In this study, selection of the best model was carried out on the basis of the reference ranking (“golden standard”) which was defined as the row average values of logarithm of retention time (logtr) defined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Also, SRD analysis based on experimental logtr values as reference ranking revealed similar grouping of the established QSRR models already obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

Keywords: chemometrics, chromatography, pesticides, sum of ranking differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 285