Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1155

Search results for: sodium chloride

1155 In-Situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag

Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers


Among the reaction products in the alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that use the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide-activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS was increased by the aluminate dosages.

Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
1154 Effect of Salt Forms and Concentrations on the Alveograph and Extensigraph Parameters of Rye Flour

Authors: Péter Sipos, Gerda Diósi, Mariann Móré, Zsófia Szigeti


Several medical research found that the sodium is one of the main risk factor of high blood pressure and reason for different cardiovascular diseases, while sodium chloride is one of the most ancient food additives. As people consume much more sodium chloride as the recommended value several salt reduction programs started worldwide in the last years. The cereal products are the main source of sodium, and the bakery products are one of the main targets of these programs. In this paper we have evaluated the effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on the alveo graphical and extensi graphical parameters of rye flours to determine whether it has the same strengthening effect on the dough texture as it was found in the case of wheat flours and these effects were compared to the effects of other salt forms. We found that while the strength of rye flours are similar to the ones of wheat flour, rye flours are much less extensible. The effects of salt concentrations are less significant on the rheological properties of rye flour than on the wheat flour and there is no significant difference between the effects of different salts.

Keywords: alveograph, extensigraph, rye flour, salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1153 Preparation and Characterization of α–Alumina with Low Sodium Oxide

Authors: Gyung Soo Jeon, Hong Bae Kim, Chi Jung Oh


In order to prepare the α-alumina with low content of sodium oxide from aluminum trihydroxide as a reactant, three kinds of methods were employed as follows; the mixture of Chamotte (aggregate composed of silica and alumina), ammonium chloride and aluminum fluoride with aluminum trihydroxide under 1600°C, respectively. The sodium oxide in α-alumina produced above methods was analyzed by XRF and the particle size distribution was determined by particle size analyzer, and the specific surface area of α-alumina was measured by BET method, and phase of α-alumina produced was confirmed by XRD. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Development Program of Technical Innovation funded by Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (KTIP-2016-S2401821).

Keywords: α-alumina, sodium oxide, aluminum trihydroxide, Chamotte, ammonium chloride, aluminum fluoride

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1152 Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Modified Geopolymer and Its Resistance against Chloride and Sulphate

Authors: Noor-ul-Amin, Lubna Nawab, Sabiha Sultana


Geopolymer with different silica to alumina ratio with iron have been synthesized using sodium silicate, aluminum, and iron salts as a source of silica, alumina and iron source, and sodium/potassium hydroxide as an alkaline medium. The iron source will be taken from iron (III) salts and laterite clay samples. Laterite has been used as a natural source of iron in modified geopolymer. The synthesized iron modified geopolymer was submitted to the different aggressive environment, including chloride and sulphate solutions in different concentration. Different experimental techniques, including XRF, XRD, and FTIR, were used to study the bonding nature and effect of aggressive environment on geopolymer. The major phases formed during geopolymerization are sodalite (Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl), albite (NaAlSi₃O₈), hematite (Fe₂O₃), and chabazite as confirmed from the XRD results. The resulting geopolymer showed greater resistance to sulphate and chloride as compared to the normal geopolymer.

Keywords: modified geopolymer, laterite, chloride, sulphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1151 Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes

Authors: Dariush Jafari, S. Mostafa Nowee


In this study a ternary system containing sodium chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of the two models shows an excellent agreement between them (R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are difficult to model.

Keywords: thermodynamic modeling, ANN, solubility, ternary electrolyte system

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1150 Optimum Design of Alkali Activated Slag Concretes for Low Chloride Ion Permeability and Water Absorption Capacity

Authors: Müzeyyen Balçikanli, Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan Tacettin Türker, Okan Karahan, Cengiz Duran Atiş


In this research, effect of curing time (TC), curing temperature (CT), sodium concentration (SC) and silicate modules (SM) on the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, and water absorption capacity of alkali activated slag (AAS) concretes were investigated. For maximization of compressive strength while for minimization of chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity of AAS concretes, best possible combination of CT, CTime, SC and SM were determined. An experimental program was conducted by using the central composite design method. Alkali solution-slag ratio was kept constant at 0.53 in all mixture. The effects of the independent parameters were characterized and analyzed by using statistically significant quadratic regression models on the measured properties (dependent parameters). The proposed regression models are valid for AAS concretes with the SC from 0.1% to 7.5%, SM from 0.4 to 3.2, CT from 20 °C to 94 °C and TC from 1.2 hours to 25 hours. The results of test and analysis indicate that the most effective parameter for the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity is the sodium concentration.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rapid chloride permeability, water absorption capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1149 Improving the Performance of Road Salt on Anti-Icing

Authors: Mohsen Abotalebi Esfahani, Amin Rahimi


Maintenance and management of route and roads infrastructure is one of the most important and the most fundamental principles of the countries. Several methods have been under investigation as preventive proceedings for the maintenance of asphalt pavements for many years. Using a mixture of salt, sand and gravel is the most common method of deicing, which could have numerous harmful consequences. Icy or snow-covered road is one of the major reasons of accidents in rainy seasons, which causes substantial damages such as loss of time and energy, environmental pollution, destruction of buildings, traffic congestion and rising possibility of accidents. Regarding this, every year the government incurred enormous costs to secure traverses. In this study, asphalt pavements have been cured, in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength and resilient modulus of asphalt samples, under the influence of Magnesium Chloride, Calcium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, Urea and pure water; and showed that de-icing with the calcium chloride solution and urea have the minimum negative effect and de-icing with pure water has most negative effect on laboratory specimens. Hence some simple techniques and new equipment and less use of sand and salt, can reduce significantly the risks and harmful effects of excessive use of salt, sand and gravel and at the same time use the safer roads.

Keywords: maintenance, sodium chloride, icyroad, calcium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1148 The Interactive Effect of Sodium Chloride and Diatomaceous Earth (DE) on Bacillus aquimaris

Authors: Bassam O AlJohny


The growth of Bacillus aquimaris was inhibited from 6 - 20 % of NaCl but it showed some tolerance when Diatomaceous earth (DE) added from 2 - 12% NaCl. Concerning the effect of NaCl on polyol production, we can conclude that, the test bacterium showed some tolerance to NaCl by producing glycerol up to 8 % of NaCl. Then decreased sharply. The addition of DE decrease the amount of polyol and glycerol remarkably and this due to the productive effect of DE to the bacterial cells. The SEM figures represented the presence of electron dense bodies due to the accumulation of small particles of DE as protective molecules.

Keywords: Bacillus aquimaris, Diatomaceous earth (DE), osmoticstress, sodium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1147 The Effect of Molybdate on Corrosion Behaviour of AISI 316Ti Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Viera Zatkalíková, Lenka Markovičová, Aneta Tor-Swiatek


The effect of molybdate addition to chloride environment on resistance of AISI 316Ti stainless steel to pitting corrosion was studied. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were performed in 1 M and 0.1 M chloride acidified solutions with various additions of sodium molybdate at room temperature. The presented results compare the effect of molybdate anions on quality of passive film (expressed by the pitting potential) in both chloride solutions. The pitting potential increases with the increase inhibitor concentration. The inhibitive effect of molybdate ions is stronger in chloride solution of lower aggressiveness (0.1M).

Keywords: AISI 316Ti steel, molybdate inhibitor, pitting corrosion, pitting potential, potentiodynamic polarisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1146 Biomechanical Analysis on Skin and Jejunum of Chemically Prepared Cat Cadavers Used in Surgery Training

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Caio C. C. Santos, Alisson D. S. Fechis, Antonio C. Shimano, FabríCio S. Oliveira


Biomechanical analysis is an important factor in tissue studies. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new anatomical technique and quantify the changes in skin and the jejunum resistance of cats’ corpses throughout the process. Eight adult cat cadavers were used. For every kilogram of weight, 120ml of fixative solution (95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin) was applied via the external common carotid artery. Next, the carcasses were placed in a container with 96 GL ethyl alcohol for 60 days. After fixing, all carcasses were preserved in a 30% sodium chloride solution for 60 days. Before fixation, control samples were collected from fresh cadavers and after fixation, three skin and jejunum fragments from each cadaver were tested monthly for strength and displacement until complete rupture in a universal testing machine. All results were analyzed by F-test (P <0.05). In the jejunum, the force required to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 31.27±19.14N and 29.25±11.69N, respectively. For the samples preserved in the sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the strength was 26.17±16.18N and 30.57±13.77N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 2.79±0.73mm and 2.80±1.13mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 2.53±1.03mm and 2.83±1.27mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.68 with respect to strength, and P=0.75 with respect to displacement). In the skin, the force needed to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed for 60 days in alcohol was 223.86±131.5N and 211.86±137.53N respectively. For the samples preserved in sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the force was 227.73±129.06 and 224.78±143.83N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days were 3.67±1.03mm and 4.11±0.87mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 4.21±0.93mm and 3.93±0.71mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.65 with respect to strength, and P=0.98 with respect to displacement). The resistance of the skin and intestines of the cat carcasses suffered little change when subjected to alcohol fixation and preservation in sodium chloride solution, each for 60 days, which is promising for use in surgery training. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: anatomy, conservation, fixation, small animal

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1145 Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement with Potassium Chloride on Qualities of Longan Seasoning Powder

Authors: Narin Charoenphun, Praopen Rattanadee, Chaiporn Phaephiromrat


One of the most important intricacies of cooking is seasoning which is the process of adding salt, herbs, or spices to food to enhance the flavor. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was added in seasoning powder for taste-improving and shelf life of products. However, the raised blood pressure caused by eating too much NaCl may damage the arteries leading to the heart. Interestingly, NaCl replacement with other substance is essential for consumer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NaCl replacement with potassium chloride (KCl) on the sensory characteristics and physiochemical properties of longan seasoning powder. Five longan seasoning Powder were replaced sodium chloride with KCl at 0, 25, 50 75 and 100%. Mixture design with 2 replications was performed. Sensory characteristics on overall flavor, saltiness, sweetness, bitterness and overall liking were investigated using 12 descriptive trained panelists. Results revealed that NaCl and KCl had effects on saltiness, bitterness and overall liking. As the level of KCl substituted increased, the overall flavor and sweetness of powdered seasoning from longan were not significantly (p < 0.05). This resulted in the decrease of overall liking of the products. In addition, increasing the level of KCl substituted resulted in the drop of saltiness but out of bitterness of the products. Saltiness of powdered seasoning from longan with replacement levels of 50, 75 and 100% KCl different when compared to that of 0% KCl. Bitterness of powdered seasoning from longan with replacement levels of 50, 75 and 100% KCl different when compared to that of 0% KCl. Moreover, consumer acceptance test was conducted (n=100). In conclusion, the optimum formulation contained of 32.0% longan powder, 28.0% sugar, 15.0% NaCl, 5% KCl, 16.0% pork powder, 3.0% pepper powder, and 3.0% garlic powder that would meet acceptability scores of at least 7 or like moderately.

Keywords: longan, seasoning, NaCl, KCl

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1144 Effect of Sodium Chloride in the Recovery of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Aidaoui Ahleme, Hasseine Abdelmalek


Acetic acid is one of the simplest and most widely used carboxylic acids having many important chemical and industrial applications. Total worldwide production of acetic acid is about 6.5 million tonnes per year. A great deal of efforts has been made in developing feasible and economic method for recovery of carboxylic acids. Among them, Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) has been demonstrated to be a highly efficient separation technique. The study of efficiently separating and recovering Acetic acid from aqueous solutions is an important significance on industry and environmentally sustainable development. Many research groups in different countries are working in this field and some methods are proposed in the literature. In this work, effect of sodium chloride with different content (5%, 10% and 20%) on the liquid-liquid equilibrium data of (water+ acetic acid+ DCM) system is investigated. The addition of the salt in an aqueous solution introduces ionic forces which affect liquid-liquid equilibrium and which influence directly the distribution coefficient of the solute. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that when the percentage of salt increases in the aqueous solution, the equilibrium between phases is modified in favor of the extracted phase.

Keywords: acetic acid recovery, aqueous solution, salting-effect, sodium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1143 Surface Sterilization of Aquatic Plant, Cryptopcoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas


This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant, Cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for Clorox and mercury chloride was 10 min and 60 sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, the result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
1142 Surface Sterilization Of Aquatic Plant, Cryptocoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas


This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as a reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant and cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for clorox and mercury chloride was 10min and 60sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, The result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1141 Effect of the Hardness of Spacer Agent on Structural Properties of Metallic Scaffolds

Authors: Mohammad Khodaei, Mahmood Meratien, Alireza Valanezhad, Serdar Pazarlioglu, Serdar Salman, Ikuya Watanabe


Pore size and morphology plays a crucial role on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. In this research, titanium scaffold was prepared using space holder technique. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate were utilized as spacer agent separately. The effect of the hardness of spacer on the cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical stereo microscopy. Image analyzing software was used to interpret the microscopic images quantitatively. It was shown that sodium chloride, due to its higher hardness, maintain its morphology during cold compaction, and cause better replication in porous scaffolds.

Keywords: Spacer, Titanium Scaffold, Pore Morphology, Space Holder Technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1140 Physicochemical Parameters of Tap-Water in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ahmed Abdi Hassana, Bassam Tawabini


In this study, the physicochemical parameters of Dhahran tap water were assessed to determine its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 45 water samples were collected from different locations. The results indicate temperature ranges of (19.76 to 22.86 °C), pH (6.5 to 8.23), dissolved oxygen (4.21 to 8.32 mg/L, conductivity (232 to 2586 uS/cm), turbidity (0.17 to 0.37 NTU), total dissolved solids (93 to 1671 mg/L), total alkalinity (4.11 to 24.04 mg/L), calcium (0.02 to 164 mg/L), magnesium (0.6 to 77.9 mg/L), chloride (32.7 to 568.7 mg/L), nitrate (0.02 to 3 mg/L), fluoride (0.001 to 0.591 mg/L), sodium (18.4 to 232 mg/L), potassium (0.5 to 26.4 mg/L), and sulphate (2.39 to 258 mg/L). The results were compared with the drinking water standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The study determined that though the levels of most of the physicochemical parameters comply with the standards, however, slight deviations exist. This is evident in the physical parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids) and the chemical parameters (sulphate, chloride, and sodium) values recorded at a few sample sites.

Keywords: physicochemical parameters, tap-water, water quality, Dhahran

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1139 Corrosion Fatigue of Al-Mg Alloy 5052 in Sodium Chloride Solution Contains Some Inhibitors

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Eldwaib


In this study, Al-Mg alloy 5052 was used as the testing material. Corrosion fatigue life was studied for the alloy in 3.5% NaCl (pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11), and 3.5% NaCl (pH=1) with inhibitors. The compound inhibitors were composed mainly of phosphate (PO4³-), adding a certain proportion of other nontoxic inhibitors so as to select alternatives to environmentally hazardous chromate (Cr2O7²-). The inhibitors were sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7, sodium phosphate Na3PO4, sodium molybdate Na2MoO4, and sodium citrate Na3C6H5O7. The total amount of inhibiting pigments was at different concentrations (250,500,750, and 1000 ppm) in the solutions. Corrosion fatigue behavior was studied by using plane-bending corrosion fatigue machine with stress ratio R=0.5 and under the constant frequency of 13.3 Hz. Results show that in 3.5% NaCl the highest fatigue life (number of cycles to failure Nf) is obtained at pH=5 where the oxide film on aluminum has very low solubility, and the lowest number of cycles is obtained at pH=1, where the media is too aggressive (extremely acidic). When the concentration of inhibitor increases the cycles to failure increase. The surface morphology and fracture section of the specimens had been characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy 5052, corrosion, fatigue, inhibitors

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1138 Chloride Transport in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Radka Pernicova


Chloride resistance in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is determined in this paper. This work deals with the one dimension chloride transport, which can be potentially dangerous particularly for the durability of concrete structures. Risk of reinforcement corrosion due to exposure to the concrete surface to direct the action of chloride ions (mainly in the form de-icing salts or groundwater) is dangerously increases. The measured data are investigated depending on the depth of penetration of chloride ions into the concrete structure. Comparative measurements with normal strength concrete are done as well. The experimental results showed that UHCP have improved resistance of chlorides penetration than NSC and also chloride diffusion depth is significantly lower in UHCP.

Keywords: chloride, one dimensional diffusion, transport, salinity, UHPC

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1137 Development of Biosurfactant-Based Adjuvant for Enhancing Biocontrol Efficiency

Authors: Kanyarat Sikhao, Nichakorn Khondee


Adjuvant is commonly mixed with agricultural spray solution during foliar application to improve the performance of microbial-based biological control, including better spreading, absorption, and penetration on a plant leaf. This research aims to replace chemical surfactants in adjuvant by biosurfactants for reducing a negative impact on antagonistic microorganisms and crops. Biosurfactant was produced from Brevibacterium casei NK8 and used as a cell-free broth solution containing a biosurfactant concentration of 3.7 g/L. The studies of microemulsion formation and phase behavior were applied to obtain the suitable composition of biosurfactant-based adjuvant, consisting of cell-free broth (70-80%), coconut oil-based fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate (1-7%), and sodium chloride (8-30%). The suitable formula, achieving Winsor Type III microemulsion (bicontinuous), was 80% of cell-free broth, 7% of fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate, and 8% sodium chloride. This formula reduced the contact angle of water on parafilm from 70 to 31 degrees. The non-phytotoxicity against plant seed of Oryza sativa and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis were obtained from biosurfactant-based adjuvant (germination index equal and above 80%), while sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80 showed phytotoxic effects to these plant seeds. The survival of Bacillus subtilis in biosurfactant-based adjuvant was higher than sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80. The mixing of biosurfactant and plant-based surfactant could be considered as a viable, safer, and acceptable alternative to chemical adjuvant for sustainable organic farming.

Keywords: biosurfactant, microemulsion, bio-adjuvant, antagonistic microorganisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
1136 Orthophthalic Polyester Composite Reinforced with Sodium Alginate-Treated Anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) Fibers

Authors: Terence Tumolva, Johannes Kristoff Vito, Joanna Crystelle Ragasa, Renz Marion Dela Cruz


Natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites have been the focus of various research projects due to their advantages over synthetic fiber-reinforced composites. For this study, ana haw is used as the fiber source due to its abundance throughout the Philippines. A problem addressed in this study is the need for an environment-friendly method of fiber treatment. The use of sodium alginate to treat fibers was thus investigated. The fibers were immersed in a sodium alginate solution and then in a calcium chloride solution afterwards. The treated fibers were used to reinforce orthophthalic unsaturated polyester (ortho-UP) resin. The mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine (UTM), and the fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that the sodium alginate treatment had increased the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. The increase in fiber load had also been found to increase the stiffness of the composite. However, sodium alginate treatment did not provide any significant improvement in the wet mechanical properties of the NFRP. The composite is comparable to some commercially available polymeric materials.

Keywords: NFRP, composite, alginate, anahaw, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1135 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng


This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplating

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
1134 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia


Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.

Keywords: vegetables, sodium, potassium, blood pressure, diet, foods

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1133 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee


Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1132 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak


Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.

Keywords: nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt, ionic liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1131 A Mathematical Investigation of the Turkevich Organizer Theory in the Citrate Method for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Emmanuel Agunloye, Asterios Gavriilidis, Luca Mazzei


Gold nanoparticles are commonly synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with sodium citrate. This method, referred to as the citrate method, can produce spherical gold nanoparticles (NPs) in the size range 10-150 nm. Gold NPs of this size are useful in many applications. However, the NPs are usually polydisperse and irreproducible. A better understanding of the synthesis mechanisms is thus required. This work thoroughly investigated the only model that describes the synthesis. This model combines mass and population balance equations, describing the NPs synthesis through a sequence of chemical reactions. Chloroauric acid reacts with sodium citrate to form aurous chloride and dicarboxy acetone. The latter organizes aurous chloride in a nucleation step and concurrently degrades into acetone. The unconsumed precursor then grows the formed nuclei. However, depending on the pH, both the precursor and the reducing agent react differently thus affecting the synthesis. In this work, we investigated the model for different conditions of pH, temperature and initial reactant concentrations. To solve the model, we used Parsival, a commercial numerical code, whilst to test it, we considered various conditions studied experimentally by different researchers, for which results are available in the literature. The model poorly predicted the experimental data. We believe that this is because the model does not account for the acid-base properties of both chloroauric acid and sodium citrate.

Keywords: citrate method, gold nanoparticles, Parsival, population balance equations, Turkevich organizer theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
1130 Damage in Cementitious Materials Exposed to Sodium Chloride Solution and Thermal Cycling: The Effect of Using Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Authors: Fadi Althoey, Yaghoob Farnam


Sodium chloride (NaCl) can interact with the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and its hydrates in concrete matrix. This interaction can result in formation of a harmful chemical phase as the temperature changes. It is thought that this chemical phase is embroiled in the premature concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This work examines the potential formation of the harmful chemical phase in various pastes prepared by using different types of ordinary portland cement (OPC) and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The quantification of the chemical phase was done by using a low temperature differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the chemical phase formation can be reduced by using Type V cement (low content of C3A). The use of SCMs showed different behaviors on the formation of the chemical phase. Slag and Class F fly ash can reduce the chemical phase by the dilution of cement whereas silica fume can reduce the amount of the chemical phase by dilution and pozzolanic activates. Interestingly, the use of Class C fly ash has a negative effect on concrete exposed to NaCl through increasing the formation of the chemical phase.

Keywords: concrete, damage, chemcial phase, NaCl, SCMs

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1129 Performance Study of Geopolymer Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Cement and Full Replacement of River Sand by Crushed Sand

Authors: Asis Kumar Khan, Rajeev Kumar Goel


Recent infrastructure growth all around the world lead to increase in demand for concrete day by day. Cement being binding material for concrete the usage of cement also gone up significantly. Cement manufacturing utilizes abundant natural resources and causes environment pollution by releasing a huge quantity of CO₂ into the atmosphere. So, it is high time to look for alternates to reduce the cement consumption in concrete. Geopolymer concrete is one such material which utilizes the industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and low-cost alkaline liquids such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to produce the concrete. On the other side, river sand is becoming very expensive due to its large-scale depletion at source and the high cost of transportation. In this view, river sand is replaced by crushed sand in this study. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the durability parameters of geopolymer concrete by partially replacing fly ash with cement. Fly ash is replaced by cement at various levels e.g., from 0 to 50%. Concrete cubes of 100x100x100mm were used for investigating different durability parameters. The various parameters studied includes compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance and chloride permeability. Highest compressive strength & highest split tensile strength is observed in 30% replacement level. Least drying is observed with 30% replacement level. Very good resistance for sulphuric acid & sodium sulphate is found with 30% replacement. However, it was not possible to find out the chloride permeability due to the high conductivity of geopolymer samples of all replacement levels.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, geopolymer concrete, split tensile strength, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
1128 Study of Corrosion in Structures due to Chloride Infiltration

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai, Akku Aby Mathews


Corrosion in reinforcing steel is the leading cause for deterioration in concrete structures. It is an electrochemical process which leads to volumetric change in concrete and causes cracking, delamination and spalling. The objective of the study is to provide a rational method to estimate the probable chloride concentration at the reinforcement level for a known surface chloride concentration. The paper derives the formulation of design charts to aid engineers for quick calculation of the chloride concentration. Furthermore, the paper focuses on comparison of durability design against corrosion with American, European and Indian design standards.

Keywords: chloride infiltration, concrete, corrosion, design charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1127 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Ultraviolet and Immersion Stability of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Coating

Authors: Artemova Anastasiia, Shen Zexiang, Savilov Serguei


The marine environment is very aggressive for a number of factors, such as moisture, temperature, winds, ultraviolet radiation, chloride ion concentration, oxygen concentration, pollution, and biofouling, all contributing to marine corrosion. Protective organic coatings provide protection either by a barrier action from the layer, which is limited due to permeability to water and oxygen or from active corrosion inhibition and cathodic protection due to the pigments in the coating. Carbon nanotubes can play not only barrier effect but also passivation effect via adsorbing molecular species of oxygen, hydroxyl, chloride and sulphate anions. Multiwall carbon nanotubes composite provide very important properties such as mechanical strength, non-cytotoxicity, outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity, and very strong absorption of ultraviolet radiation. The samples of stainless steel (316L) coated by epoxy resin with carbon nanotubes-based pigments were exposed to UV irradiation (340nm), and immersion to the sodium chloride solution for 1000h and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was investigated. Experimental results showed that corrosion current significantly decreased in the presence of carbon nanotube-based materials, especially nitrogen-doped ones, in the composite coating. Importance of the structure and composition of the pigment materials and its composition was established, and the mechanism of the protection was described. Finally, the effect of nitrogen doping on the corrosion behavior was investigated. The pigment-polymer crosslinking improves the coating performance and the corrosion rate decreases in comparison with pure epoxy coating from 5.7E-05 to 1.4E-05mm/yr for the coating without any degradation; in more than 6 times for the coating after ultraviolet degradation; and more than 16% for the coatings after immersion degradation.

Keywords: corrosion, coating, carbon nanotubes, degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1126 Microbiological Analysis on Anatomical Specimens of Cats for Use in Veterinary Surgery

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Marita V. Cardozo, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Mariana T. Kihara, Fernando A. Ávila, Fabrício S. Oliveira


There are several fixative and preservative solutions for use on cadavers, many of them using formaldehyde as the fixative or anatomical part preservative. In some countries, such as Brazil, this toxic agent has been increasingly restricted. The objective of this study was to microbiologically identify and quantify the key agents in tanks containing 96GL ethanol or sodium chloride solutions, used respectively as fixatives and preservatives of cat cadavers. Eight adult cat corpses, three females and five males, with an average weight of 4.3 kg, were used. After injection via the external common carotid artery (120 ml/kg, 95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), the cadavers were fixed in a plastic tank with 96GL ethanol for 60 days. After fixing, they were stored in a 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for 120 days in a similar tank. Samples were collected at the start of the experiment - before the animals were placed in the ethanol tanks, and monthly thereafter. The bacterial count was performed by Pour Plate Method in BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) and the plates were incubated aerobically and anaerobically for 24h at 37ºC. MacConkey agar, SPS agar (Sulfite Polymyxin Sulfadizine) and MYP Agar Base were used to isolate the microorganisms. There was no microbial growth in the samples prior to alcohol fixation. After 30 days of fixation in the alcohol solution, total aerobic and anaerobic (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) were found and Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp. were the identified agents. After 60 days in the alcohol fixation solution, total aerobes (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<2.2 x 10 CFU/mL) were found, and the identified agents were the same. After 30 days of storage in the aqueous solution of 30% sodium chloride, total aerobic (<5.2 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<3.7 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the agents identified were Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. After 60 days of sodium chloride storage, total aerobic (<3.0 x 10 CFU / ml) and total anaerobes (<7.0 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the identified agents remained the same: Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. The microbiological count was low and visual inspection did not reveal signs of contamination in the tanks. There was no strong odor or purification, which proved the technique to be microbiologically effective in fixing and preserving the cat cadavers for the four-month period in which they are provided to undergraduate students of University of Veterinary Medicine for surgery practice. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: anatomy, fixation, microbiology, small animal, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 208