Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 110

Search results for: platinum

110 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava

Abstract:

Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles, characterization, pharmaceutical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
109 Recombination Center Levels in Gold and Platinum Doped N-Type Silicon

Authors: Nam Chol Yu, Kyong Il Chu

Abstract:

Using DLTS measurement techniques, we determined the dominant recombination center levels (defects of both A and B) in gold and platinum doped n-type silicon. Also, the injection and temperature dependence of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) carrier lifetime was studied under low-level injection and high-level injection. Here measurements show that the dominant level under low-level injection located at EC-0.25eV(A) correlated to the Pt+G1 and the dominant level under high-level injection located at EC-0.54eV(B) correlated to the Au+G4. Finally, A and B are the same dominant levels for controlling the lifetime in gold-platinum doped n-silicon.

Keywords: recombination center level, lifetime, carrier lifetime control, gold, platinum, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
108 Targeting Mre11 Nuclease Overcomes Platinum Resistance and Induces Synthetic Lethality in Platinum Sensitive XRCC1 Deficient Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

Authors: Adel Alblihy, Reem Ali, Mashael Algethami, Ahmed Shoqafi, Michael S. Toss, Juliette Brownlie, Natalie J. Tatum, Ian Hickson, Paloma Ordonez Moran, Anna Grabowska, Jennie N. Jeyapalan, Nigel P. Mongan, Emad A. Rakha, Srinivasan Madhusudan

Abstract:

Platinum resistance is a clinical challenge in ovarian cancer. Platinating agents induce DNA damage which activate Mre11 nuclease directed DNA damage signalling and response (DDR). Upregulation of DDR may promote chemotherapy resistance. Here we have comprehensively evaluated Mre11 in epithelial ovarian cancers. In clinical cohort that received platinum- based chemotherapy (n=331), Mre11 protein overexpression was associated with aggressive phenotype and poor progression free survival (PFS) (p=0.002). In the ovarian cancer genome atlas (TCGA) cohort (n=498), Mre11 gene amplification was observed in a subset of serous tumours (5%) which correlated highly with Mre11 mRNA levels (p<0.0001). Altered Mre11 levels was linked with genome wide alterations that can influence platinum sensitivity. At the transcriptomic level (n=1259), Mre11 overexpression was associated with poor PFS (p=0.003). ROC analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.642 for response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Pre-clinically, Mre11 depletion by gene knock down or blockade by small molecule inhibitor (Mirin) reversed platinum resistance in ovarian cancer cells and in 3D spheroid models. Importantly, Mre11 inhibition was synthetically lethal in platinum sensitive XRCC1 deficient ovarian cancer cells and 3D-spheroids. Selective cytotoxicity was associated with DNA double strand break (DSB) accumulation, S-phase cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. We conclude that pharmaceutical development of Mre11 inhibitors is a viable clinical strategy for platinum sensitization and synthetic lethality in ovarian cancer.

Keywords: MRE11; XRCC1, ovarian cancer, platinum sensitization, synthetic lethality

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
107 Application of a Series of New Platinum Organometallic Complexes Derived from Bidentate Schiff Base Ligands in the Hydrogenative and Dehydrogenative Silylation of Styrene

Authors: M. Belhadj Lachachi, Tayeb Benabdallah, M. Hadj Youcef, Jason M. Lynama

Abstract:

The application of inorganic chemistry to catalysis and environmental chemistry is a rapidly developing field, and novel catalytic metal complexes are now having an impact on the industrial development practice. Advances in organometallic chemistry are crucial for improving the design of compounds to reduce toxic side effects and understand their mechanisms of action. The reaction of platinum(II) organometallic complexes with bidentate Schiff bases derived from 2-Hydroxynaphtalydeneaniline have been carried out. It concerns N,N’-naphtalidene para-nitroaniline (1-a), the, the N,N’-naphtalidene para-ethoxyaniline (1-b), the N,N’-naphtalideneaniline (1-c), the N,N’-naphtalidene para-chloroaniline (1-d) and the N,N’-naphtalidene para-methoxyaniline (1-e). The ligands were fully characterized by I.R., elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESI Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Diffraction. The resulting metal complexes were obtained as a cationic species, through a simple substitution reaction, leading to two geometric isomers [1, 2], and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LIFDI Mass Spectrometry and supported by Elemental Analysis and X-Ray diffraction. Furthermore, a bimetallic platinum complex was prepared from the same ligands and dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum and characterized by X-Ray diffraction [3]The catalytic properties of the prepared platinum complexes in the hydrogenative and dehydrogenative silylation of styrene were investigated, and reaction kinetics conversion to products was determined by 1H-NMR and confirmed by GC-MS. This presentation will detail a comparison of the catalytic activity of five platinum organometallic complexes bearing different Schiff base ligands in the hydrosilylation of styrene, varying the experimental conditions of temperature, nature of the complex and the loading of the catalyst.

Keywords: catalysis, hydrosilylation, organometallic, schiff base

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
106 Optimization of Platinum Utilization by Using Stochastic Modeling of Carbon-Supported Platinum Catalyst Layer of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Ali Akbar, Seungho Shin, Sukkee Um

Abstract:

The composition of catalyst layers (CLs) plays an important role in the overall performance and cost of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Low platinum loading, high utilization, and more durable catalyst still remain as critical challenges for PEMFCs. In this study, a three-dimensional material network model is developed to visualize the nanostructure of carbon supported platinum Pt/C and Pt/VACNT catalysts in pursuance of maximizing the catalyst utilization. The quadruple-phase randomly generated CLs domain is formulated using quasi-random stochastic Monte Carlo-based method. This unique statistical approach of four-phase (i.e., pore, ionomer, carbon, and platinum) model is closely mimic of manufacturing process of CLs. Various CLs compositions are simulated to elucidate the effect of electrons, ions, and mass transport paths on the catalyst utilization factor. Based on simulation results, the effect of key factors such as porosity, ionomer contents and Pt weight percentage in Pt/C catalyst have been investigated at the represented elementary volume (REV) scale. The results show that the relationship between ionomer content and Pt utilization is in good agreement with existing experimental calculations. Furthermore, this model is implemented on the state-of-the-art Pt/VACNT CLs. The simulation results on Pt/VACNT based CLs show exceptionally high catalyst utilization as compared to Pt/C with different composition ratios. More importantly, this study reveals that the maximum catalyst utilization depends on the distance spacing between the carbon nanotubes for Pt/VACNT. The current simulation results are expected to be utilized in the optimization of nano-structural construction and composition of Pt/C and Pt/VACNT CLs.

Keywords: catalyst layer, platinum utilization, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, stochastic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
105 One Step Synthesis of Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Sanjay Upadhyay, Om Prakash Pandey

Abstract:

Hydrogen has been promoted as an alternative source of energy, which is renewable, cost-effective, and nature-friendly. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be used for mass production of hydrogen at a very low cost through electrochemical water splitting. An active and efficient electrocatalyst is required to perform this reaction. Till date, platinum (Pt) is a stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards HER. But its high cost and low abundance hiders its large scale uses. Molybdenum carbide having a similar electronic structure to platinum can be a great alternative to costly platinum. In this study, pure phase molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C) has been synthesized in a single step. Synthesis temperature and holding time have been optimized to obtain pure phases of Mo₂C. The surface, structural and morphological properties of as-synthesized compounds have been studied. The HER activity of as-synthesized compounds has been explored in detail.

Keywords: capacitance, hydrogen fuel, molybdenum carbide, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
104 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima

Abstract:

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, platinum, rhodium, palladium

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
103 Use of Cobalt Graphene in Place of Platnium in Catalytic Converter

Authors: V. Srinivasan, S. M. Sriram Nandan

Abstract:

Today in the modern world the most important problem faced by the mankind is increasing the pollution in a very high rate. It affects the ecosystem of the environment and also aids to increase the greenhouse effect. The exhaust gases from the automobile is the major cause of a pollution. Automobiles have increased to a large number which has increased the pollution of our world to an alarming rate. There are two methods of controlling the pollution namely, pre-pollution control method and post-pollution control method. This paper is based on controlling the emission by post-pollution control method. The ratio of surface area of nanoparticles to the volume of the nanoparticles is inversely proportional to the radius of the nanoparticles. So decreasing the radius, this ratio is leading resulting in an increased rate of reaction and thus the concentration of the pollution is decreased. To achieve this objective, use of cobalt-graphene element is proposed. The proposed method is mainly to decrease the cost of platinum as it is expensive. This has a longer life than the platinum-based catalysts.

Keywords: automobile emissions, catalytic converter, cobalt-graphene, replacement of platinum

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
102 Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes

Authors: G. Wagner, R. Herrmann

Abstract:

Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, mesoporous silica, nanoparticles, platinum compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
101 Risk of Occupational Exposure to Cytotoxic Drugs: The Role of Handling Procedures of Hospital Workers

Authors: J. Silva, P. Arezes, R. Schierl, N. Costa

Abstract:

In order to study environmental contamination by cytostatic drugs in Portugal hospitals, sampling campaigns were conducted in three hospitals in 2015 (112 samples). Platinum containing drugs and fluorouracil were chosen because both were administered in high amounts. The detection limit was 0.01 pg/cm² for platinum and 0.1 pg/cm² for fluorouracil. The results show that spills occur mainly on the patient`s chair, while the most referenced occurrence is due to an inadequately closed wrapper. Day hospitals facilities were detected as having the largest number of contaminated samples and with higher levels of contamination.

Keywords: cytostatic, contamination, hospital, procedures, handling

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
100 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
99 Method Validation for Determining Platinum and Palladium in Catalysts Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

Authors: Marin Senila, Oana Cadar, Thorsten Janisch, Patrick Lacroix-Desmazes

Abstract:

The study presents the analytical capability and validation of a method based on microwave-assisted acid digestion for quantitative determination of platinum and palladium in catalysts using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In order to validate the method, the main figures of merit such as limit of detection and limit of quantification, precision and accuracy were considered and the measurement uncertainty was estimated based on the bottom-up approach according to the international guidelines of ISO/IEC 17025. Limit of detections, estimated from blank signal using 3 s criterion, were 3.0 mg/kg for Pt and respectively 3.6 mg/kg for Pd, while limits of quantification were 9.0 mg/kg for Pt and respectively 10.8 mg/kg for Pd. Precisions, evaluated as standard deviations of repeatability (n=5 parallel samples), were less than 10% for both precious metals. Accuracies of the method, verified by recovery estimation certified reference material NIST SRM 2557 - pulverized recycled monolith, were 99.4 % for Pt and 101% for Pd. The obtained limit of quantifications and accuracy were satisfactory for the intended purpose. The paper offers all the steps necessary to validate the determination method for Pt and Pd in catalysts using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

Keywords: catalyst analysis, ICP-OES, method validation, platinum, palladium

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
98 Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formation and Spectroscopic Analysis

Authors: Mangaka C. Matoetoe, Fredrick O. Okumu

Abstract:

Metal nanoparticles have attracted a great interest in scientific research and industrial applications, owing to their unique large surface area-to-volume ratios and quantum-size effects. Supported metal nanoparticles play a pivotal role in areas such as nanoelectronics, energy storage and as catalysts for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Monometallics (Ag, Pt) and Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) with a mole fraction (1:1) were prepared by reduction / co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The kinetics of the nanoparticles formation was monitored using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used for size, film morphology as well as elemental composition study. Fast reduction processes was noted in Ag NPs (0.079 s-1) and Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 (0.082 s-1) with exception of Pt NPs (0.006 s-1) formation. The UV-visible spectra showed characteristic peaks in Ag NPs while the Pt NPs and Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 had no observable absorption peaks. UV visible spectra confirmed chemical reduction resulting to formation of NPs while TEM images depicted core-shell arrangement in the Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 with particle size of 20 nm. Monometallic Ag and Pt NPs reported particle sizes of 60 nm and 2.5 nm respectively. The particle size distribution in the BM NPs was found to directly depend on the concentration of Pt NPs around the Ag core. EDX elemental composition analysis of the nanoparticle suspensions confirmed presence of the Ag and Pt in the Ag-Pt NPs 1:1. All the spectroscopic analysis confirmed the successful formation of the nanoparticles.

Keywords: kinetics, morphology, nanoparticles, platinum, silver

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
97 Catalytic Thermodynamics of Nanocluster Adsorbates from Informational Statistical Mechanics

Authors: Forrest Kaatz, Adhemar Bultheel

Abstract:

We use an informational statistical mechanics approach to study the catalytic thermodynamics of platinum and palladium cuboctahedral nanoclusters. Nanoclusters and their adatoms are viewed as chemical graphs with a nearest neighbor adjacency matrix. We use the Morse potential to determine bond energies between cluster atoms in a coordination type calculation. We use adsorbate energies calculated from density functional theory (DFT) to study the adatom effects on the thermodynamic quantities, which are derived from a Hamiltonian. Oxygen radical and molecular adsorbates are studied on platinum clusters and hydrogen on palladium clusters. We calculate the entropy, free energy, and total energy as the coverage of adsorbates increases from bridge and hollow sites on the surface. Thermodynamic behavior versus adatom coverage is related to the structural distribution of adatoms on the nanocluster surfaces. The thermodynamic functions are characterized using a simple adsorption model, with linear trends as the coverage of adatoms increases. The data exhibits size effects for the measured thermodynamic properties with cluster diameters between 2 and 5 nm. Entropy and enthalpy calculations of Pt-O2 compare well with previous theoretical data for Pt(111)-O2, and our Pd-H results show similar trends as experimental measurements for Pd-H2 nanoclusters. Our methods are general and may be applied to wide variety of nanocluster adsorbate systems.

Keywords: catalytic thermodynamics, palladium nanocluster absorbates, platinum nanocluster absorbates, statistical mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
96 Antireflection Performance of Graphene Directly Deposited on Silicon Substrate by the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Samira Naghdi, Kyong Yop Rhee

Abstract:

Transfer-free synthesis of graphene on dielectric substrates is highly desirable but remains challenging. Here, by using a thin sacrificial platinum layer as a catalyst, graphene was deposited on a silicon substrate through a simple and transfer-free synthesis method. During graphene growth, the platinum layer evaporated, resulting in direct deposition of graphene on the silicon substrate. In this work, different growth conditions of graphene were optimized. Raman spectra of the produced graphene indicated that the obtained graphene was bilayer. The sheet resistance obtained from four-point probe measurements demonstrated that the deposited graphene had high conductivity. Reflectance spectroscopy of graphene-coated silicon showed a decrease in reflectance across the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, indicating that the graphene coating on the silicon surface had antireflection capabilities.

Keywords: antireflection coating, chemical vapor deposition, graphene, the sheet resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
95 Mordenite as Catalyst Support for Complete Volatile Organic Compounds Oxidation

Authors: Yuri A. Kalvachev, Totka D. Todorova

Abstract:

Zeolite mordenite has been investigated as a transition metal support for the preparation of efficient catalysts in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The highly crystalline mordenite samples were treated with hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride to get hierarchical material with secondary porosity. The obtained supports by this method have a high active surface area, good diffusion properties and prevent the extraction of metal components during catalytic reactions. The active metal phases platinum and copper were loaded by impregnation on both mordenite materials (parent and acid treated counterparts). Monometalic Pt and Cu, and bimetallic Pt/Cu catalysts were obtained. The metal phases were fine dispersed as nanoparticles on the functional porous materials. The catalysts synthesized in this way were investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene. Platinum, copper and platinum/copper were loaded and there catalytic activity was investigated and compared. All samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron measurements (XPS) and temperature programed reduction (TPR). The catalytic activity of the samples obtained is investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene by using of Gas Chromatography (GC). The oxidation of three organic molecules was investigated—methane, propane and benzene. The activity of metal loaded mordenite catalysts for methane oxidation is almost the same for parent and treated mordenite as a support. For bigger molecules as propane and benzene, the activity of catalysts based on treated mordenite is higher than those based on parent zeolite.

Keywords: metal loaded catalysts, mordenite, VOCs oxidation, zeolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
94 Carbon-Foam Supported Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Albert Mufundirwa, Satoru Yoshioka, K. Ogi, Takeharu Sugiyama, George F. Harrington, Bretislav Smid, Benjamin Cunning, Kazunari Sasaki, Akari Hayashi, Stephen M. Lyth

Abstract:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are electrochemical energy conversion devices used for portable, residential and vehicular applications due to their low emissions, high efficiency, and quick start-up characteristics. However, PEMFCs generally use expensive, Pt-based electrocatalysts as electrode catalysts. Due to the high cost and limited availability of platinum, research and development to either drastically reduce platinum loading, or replace platinum with alternative catalysts is of paramount importance. A combination of high surface area supports and nano-structured active sites is essential for effective operation of catalysts. We synthesize carbon foam supports by thermal decomposition of sodium ethoxide, using a template-free, gram scale, cheap, and scalable pyrolysis method. This carbon foam has a high surface area, highly porous, three-dimensional framework which is ideal for electrochemical applications. These carbon foams can have surface area larger than 2500 m²/g, and electron microscopy reveals that they have micron-scale cells, separated by few-layer graphene-like carbon walls. We applied this carbon foam as a platinum catalyst support, resulting in the improved electrochemical surface area and mass activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), compared to carbon black. Similarly, silver-decorated carbon foams showed higher activity and efficiency for electrochemical carbon dioxide conversion than silver-decorated carbon black. A promising alternative to Pt-catalysts for the ORR is iron-impregnated nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts (Fe-N-C). Doping carbon with nitrogen alters the chemical structure and modulates the electronic properties, allowing a degree of control over the catalytic properties. We have adapted our synthesis method to produce nitrogen-doped carbon foams with large surface area, using triethanolamine as a nitrogen feedstock, in a novel bottom-up protocol. These foams are then infiltrated with iron acetate (FeAc) and pyrolysed to form Fe-N-C foams. The resulting Fe-N-C foam catalysts have high initial activity (half-wave potential of 0.68 VRHE), comparable to that of commercially available Pt-free catalysts (e.g., NPC-2000, Pajarito Powder) in acid solution. In alkaline solution, the Fe-N-C carbon foam catalysts have a half-wave potential of 0.89 VRHE, which is higher than that of NPC-2000 by almost 10 mVRHE, and far out-performing platinum. However, the durability is still a problem at present. The lessons learned from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical measurements will be used to carefully design Fe-N-C catalysts for higher performance PEMFCs.

Keywords: carbon-foam, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, platinum, Pt-free, Fe-N-C, ORR

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
93 Effect of a Synthetic Platinum-Based Complex on Autophagy Induction in Leydig TM3 Cells

Authors: Ezzati Givi M., Hoveizi E., Nezhad Marani N.

Abstract:

Platinum-based anticancer therapeutics are the most widely used drugs in clinical chemotherapy but have major limitations and various side effects in clinical applications. Gonadotoxicity and sterility is one of the most common complications for cancer survivors, which seem to be drug-specific and dose-related. Therefore, many efforts have been dedicated to discovering a new structure of platinum-based anticancer agents with improved therapeutic index, fewer side effects. In this regard, new Pt(II)-phosphane complexes containing heterocyclic thionate ligands (PCTL) have been synthesized, which show more potent antitumor activities in comparison to cisplatin. Cisplatin, the best leading metal-based antitumor drug in the field, induces testicular toxicity on Leydig and Sertoli cells leading to serious side effects such as azoospermia and infertility. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity effect of PCTL on mice TM4 Sertoli cells with particular emphasis on the role of autophagy in comparison to cisplatin. In this study, an MTT assay was performed to evaluate the IC50 of PCTL and to analyze the TM3 Leydig cell's viability. Cells morphology was evaluated via invert microscope and Changing in morphology for nuclei swelling or autophagic vacuoles formation were assessed by DAPI and MDC staining. Testosterone production in the culture medium was measured using an ELISA kit. Finally, the expression of Autophagy-related genes, Atg5, Beclin1 and p62, were analyzed by qPCR. Based on the obtained results by MTT, the IC50 value of PCTL was 50 μM in TM3 cells and cytotoxic effects was in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cells morphological changes investigated by inverted microscopy, DAPI, and MDC staining which showed the cytotoxic concentrations of PCTL was significantly higher than cisplatin in the treated TM3 Leydig cells. The results of PCR showed a lack of expression of the p62, Atg5 and Beclin1 gene in TM3 cells treated with PCTL in comparison to cisplatin and control groups. It should be noted that the effects of 25 μM PCTL concentration on TM3 cells have been associated with increased testosterone production and secretion, which requires further study to explain the possible causes and involved molecular mechanisms. The results of the study showed that the PCTL had less-lethal effects on TM3 cells in comparison to cisplatin and probably did not induce autophagy in TM3 cells.

Keywords: platinum-based anticancer agents, cisplatin, Leydig TM3 cells, autophagy

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
92 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos

Abstract:

Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 659
91 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
90 Dependence of Ionomer Loading on the Hydrogen Generation Rate of a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Chih Chi Hsu, Chiao-Chih Hu

Abstract:

Membrane electrode assemblies MEAs for proton exchange membrane PEM water electrolyzers were prepared by employing 175um perfluorosulfonic acid PFSA membranes as the PEM, onto which iridium oxide catalyst was coated on one side as the anode and platinum catalyst was coated on the other side as the cathode. The cathode catalyst ink was prepared so that the weight ratio of the catalyst powder to ionomer was 75:25, 70:30, 65:35, 60:40, and 55:45, respectively. Whereas, the ratio of catalyst powder to ionomer of the anode catalyst ink keeps constant at 50:50. All the MEAs have a catalyst coated area of 5cm*5cm. The test cell employs a platinum plated titanium grid as anode gas diffusion media; whereas, carbon paper was employed as the cathode gas diffusion media. The measurements of the MEA gases production rate were carried out by holding the cell voltage ranging from 1.6 to 2.8 volts at room temperature. It was found that the MEA with cathode catalyst to ionomer ratio of 65:35 gives the largest hydrogen production rate which is 2.8mL/cm2*min.

Keywords: electrolyzer, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane, ionomer, hydrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
89 Treatment of Cyanide Effluents with Platinum Impregned on Mg-Al Layered Hydroxides

Authors: María R. Contreras, Diana Endara

Abstract:

Cyanide leaching is the most used technology for gold mining industry, which produces large amounts of effluents requiring treatment. In Ecuador the development of gold mining industry has increased, causing significant environmental impacts due to the highly use of cyanide, it is estimated that 10 gr of extracted gold generates 7000 liters of water contaminated with 300mg/L of free cyanide. The most common methods used nowadays are the treatment with peroxodisulfuric acid, ozonation, H₂O₂ and other reactants which are expensive and present disadvantages. Several methods have been developed to treat this contaminant such as heterogeneous catalysts. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received much attention due to their wide applications like a catalysis support. Therefore, in this study, Mg-Al/ LDH was synthetized by coprecipitation method and then platinum was impregned on it, in order to enhance its catalytic activity. Two methods of impregnation were used, the first one, called incipient wet impregnation and the second one was developed by continuous agitation of LDH in contact with chloroplatinic acid solution for 24 h. The support impregnated was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, FTIR and SEM. Finally, the oxidation of cyanide ion was performed by preparing synthetic solutions of sodium cyanide (NaCN) with an initial concentration of 500 mg/L at pH 10,5 and air flow of 180 NL/h. After 8 hours of treatment, an 80% of oxidation of ion cyanide was achieved.

Keywords: catalysis, cyanide, LDHs, mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
88 Investigation of the Thermal Flow inside the Catalytic Combustor for Lean CH4-Air Mixture on a Platinum Catalyst with H2 Addition

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In order to elaborate the main idea of investigating the flow physics inside the catalytic combustor, the characteristics of the catalytic surface reactions are analyzed by employing the CHEMKIN methodology with detailed gas and surface chemistries. The presence of a catalyst inside an engine enables complete combustion at lower temperatures which promotes desired chemical reactions. A single channel from the honeycomb monolith catalytic combustor is preferred to analyze the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed considering the fact that every channel in the honeycomb monolith behaves in similar fashion. The simplified approach with single catalyst channel using plug flow reactor can be used to predict the flow behavior inside the catalytic combustor. The hydrogen addition to the combustion reactants offers a way to light-off catalytic combustion of methane on platinum catalyst and aids to reduce the surface ignition temperature. Indeed, the hydrogen adsorption is higher on the uncovered Pt(s) surface sites because the sticking coefficient of hydrogen is larger than that of methane. The location of flame position in the catalyst bed is validated by igniting the methane fuel with the presence of hydrogen for corresponding multistep surface reactions.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, hydrogen adsorption, plug flow reactor, surface ignition temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
87 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Properties of Half-Sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium(II), Rhodium(II) and Iridium(III)

Authors: A. Gilewska, J. Masternak, K. Kazimierczuk, L. Turlej, J. Wietrzyk, B. Barszcz

Abstract:

Platinum-based drugs are now widely used as chemotherapeutic agents. However the platinum complexes show the toxic side-effects: i) the development of platinum resistance; ii) the occurrence of severe side effects, such as nephro-, neuro- and ototoxicity; iii) the high toxicity towards human fibroblast. Therefore the development of new anticancer drugs containing different transition-metal ions, for example, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium is a valid strategy in cancer treatment. In this paper, we reported the synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and biological properties of complexes of ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium containing N,N-chelating ligand (2,2’-bisimidazole). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes exhibit a typical pseudotetrahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which the aromatic arene ring forms the seat of the piano-stool, while the bidentate 2,2’-bisimidazole (ligand) and the one chlorido ligand form the three legs of the stool. The spectroscopy data (IR, UV-Vis) and elemental analysis correlate very well with molecular structures. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was carried out on human cancer cell lines: LoVo (colorectal adenoma), MV-4-11 (myelomonocytic leukaemia), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and normal healthy mouse fibroblast BALB/3T3 cell lines. To predict a binding mode, a potential interaction of metal complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and protein (BSA) has been explored using UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD). It is interesting to note that the investigated complexes show no cytotoxic effect towards the normal BALB/3T3 cell line, compared to cisplatin, which IC₅₀ values was determined as 2.20 µM. Importantly, Ru(II) displayed the highest activity against HL-60 (IC₅₀ 4.35 µM). The biological studies (UV-Vis and circular dichroism) suggest that arene-complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA probably via an outside binding mode and interact with protein (BSA).

Keywords: ruthenium(II) complex, rhodium(III) complex, iridium(III) complex, biological activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
86 Synthesis of Ultra-Small Platinum, Palladium and Gold Nanoparticles by Electrochemically Active Biofilms and Their Enhanced Catalytic Activities

Authors: Elaf Ahmed, Shahid Rasul, Ohoud Alharbi, Peng Wang

Abstract:

Ultra-Small Nanoparticles of metals (USNPs) have attracted the attention from the perspective of both basic and developmental science in a wide range of fields. These NPs exhibit electrical, optical, magnetic, and catalytic phenomena. In addition, they are considered effective catalysts because of their enormously large surface area. Many chemical methods of synthesising USNPs are reported. However, the drawback of these methods is the use of different capping agents and ligands in the process of the production such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Thiol and Ethylene Glycol. In this research ultra-small nanoparticles of gold, palladium and platinum metal have been successfully produced using electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) after optimising the pH of the media. The production of ultra-small nanoparticles has been conducted in a reactor using a simple two steps method. Initially biofilm was grown on the surface of a carbon paper for 7 days using Shewanella Loihica bacteria. Then, biofilm was employed to synthesise platinum, palladium and gold nanoparticles in water using sodium lactate as electron donor without using any toxic chemicals at mild operating conditions. Electrochemically active biofilm oxidise the electron donor and produces electrons in the solution. Since these electrons are a strong reducing agent, they can reduce metal precursors quite effectively and quickly. The As-synthesized ultra-small nanoparticles have a size range between (2-7nm) and showed excellent catalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange. The growth of metal USNPs is strongly related to the condition of the EAB. Where using low pH for the synthesis was not successful due to the fact that it might affect and destroy the bacterial cells. However, increasing the pH to 7 and 9, led to the successful formation of USNPs. By changing the pH value, we noticed a change in the size range of the produced NPs. The EAB seems to act as a Nano factory for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by offering a green, sustainable and toxic free synthetic route without the use of any capping agents or ligands and depending only on their respiration pathway.

Keywords: electrochemically active biofilm, electron donor, shewanella loihica, ultra-small nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
85 Water Gas Shift Activity of PtBi/CeO₂ Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

Authors: N. Laosiripojana, P. Tepamatr

Abstract:

The influence of bismuth on the water gas shift activities of Pt on ceria was studied. The flow reactor was used to study the activity of the catalysts in temperature range 100-400°C. The feed gas composition contains 5%CO, 10% H₂O and balance N₂. The total flow rate was 100 mL/min. The outlet gas was analyzed by on-line gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. The catalytic activities of bimetallic 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ catalyst were greatly enhanced when compared with the activities of monometallic 2%Pt/CeO₂ catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern of Pt/CeO₂ and PtBi/CeO₂ indicated slightly shift of diffraction angle when compared with pure ceria. This result was due to strong metal-support interaction between platinum and ceria solid solution, causing conversion of Ce⁴⁺ to larger Ce³⁺. The distortions inside ceria lattice structure generated strain into the oxide lattice and facilitated the formation of oxygen vacancies which help to increase water gas shift performance. The H₂-Temperature Programmed Reduction indicated that the reduction peak of surface oxygen of 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ shifts to lower temperature than that of 2%Pt/CeO₂ causing the enhancement of the water gas shift activity of this catalyst. Pt played an important role in catalyzing the surface reduction of ceria and addition of Bi alter the reduction temperature of surface ceria resulting in the improvement of the water gas shift activity of Pt catalyst.

Keywords: bismuth, platinum, water gas shift, ceria

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
84 Impact of Pulsing and Trickle Flow on Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenolic Compounds in Waste Water at High Pressure

Authors: Safa'a M. Rasheed, Saba A. Gheni, Wadood T. Mohamed

Abstract:

Phenolic compounds are the most carcinogenic pollutants in waste water in effluents of refineries and pulp industry. Catalytic wet air oxidation is an efficient industrial treatment process to oxidize phenolic compounds into unharmful organic compounds. Mode of flow of the fluid to be treated is a dominant factor in determining effectiveness of the catalytic process. The present study aims to obtain a mathematical model describing the conversion of phenolic compounds as a function of the process variables; mode of flow (trickling and pulsing), temperature, pressure, along with a high concentration of phenols and a platinum supported alumina catalyst. The model was validated with the results of experiments obtained in a fixed bed reactor. High pressure and temperature were employed at 8 bar and 140 °C. It has been found that conversion of phenols is highly influenced by mode of flow and the change is caused by changes occurred in hydrodynamic regime at the time of pulsing flow mode, thereby a temporal variation in wetting efficiency of platinum prevails; which in turn increases and/or decreases contact time with phenols in wastewater. The model obtained was validated with experimental results, and it is found that the model is a good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: wastewater, phenol, pulsing flow, wet oxidation, high pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
83 Room Temperature Sensitive Broadband Terahertz Photo Response Using Platinum Telluride Based Devices

Authors: Alka Jakhar, Harmanpreet Kaur Sandhu, Samaresh Das

Abstract:

The Terahertz (THz) technology-based devices are heightening at an alarming rate on account of the wide range of applications in imaging, security, communication, and spectroscopic field. The various available room operational THz detectors, including Golay cell, pyroelectric detector, field-effect transistors, and photoconductive antennas, have some limitations such as narrow-band response, slow response speed, transit time limits, and complex fabrication process. There is an urgent demand to explore new materials and device structures to accomplish efficient THz detection systems. Recently, TMDs including topological semimetals and topological insulators such as PtSe₂, MoTe₂, WSe₂, and PtTe₂ provide novel feasibility for photonic and optical devices. The peculiar properties of these materials, such as Dirac cone, fermions presence, nonlinear optical response, high conductivity, and ambient stability, make them worthy for the development of the THz devices. Here, the platinum telluride (PtTe₂) based devices have been demonstrated for THz detection in the frequency range of 0.1-1 THz. The PtTe₂ is synthesized by direct selenization of the sputtered platinum film on the high-resistivity silicon substrate by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The Raman spectra, XRD, and XPS spectra confirm the formation of the thin PtTe₂ film. The PtTe₂ channel length is 5µm and it is connected with a bow-tie antenna for strong THz electric field confinement in the channel. The characterization of the devices has been carried out in a wide frequency range from 0.1-1 THz. The induced THz photocurrent is measured by using lock-in-amplifier after preamplifier. The maximum responsivity is achieved up to 1 A/W under self-biased mode. Further, this responsivity has been increased by applying biasing voltage. This photo response corresponds to low energy THz photons is mainly due to the photo galvanic effect in PtTe₂. The DC current is induced along the PtTe₂ channel, which is directly proportional to the amplitude of the incident THz electric field. Thus, these new topological semimetal materials provide new pathways for sensitive detection and sensing applications in the THz domain.

Keywords: terahertz, detector, responsivity, topological-semimetals

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
82 Palladium/Platinum Complexes of Tridentate 4-Acylpyrazolone Thiosemicarbazone with Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Omoruyi G. Idemudia, Alexander P. Sadimenko

Abstract:

The need for the development of new sustainable bioactive compounds with unique properties that can become potential replacement for commonly used medicinal drugs has continued to gain tremendous research concerns because of the problems of disease resistant to these medicinal drugs and their toxicity effects. NOS-donor heterocycles are particularly of interest as they have showed good pharmacological activities in the midst of their interesting chelating properties towards metal ions, an important characteristic for transition metal based drugs design. These new compounds have also gained application as dye sensitizers in solar cell panels for the generation of renewable solar energy, as greener water purification polymer for supply and management of clean water and as catalysts which are used to reduce the amount of pollutants from industrial reaction processes amongst others, because of their versatile properties. Di-ketone acylpyrazolones and their azomethine schiff bases have been employed as pharmaceuticals as well as analytical reagents, and their application as transition metal complexes have being well established. In this research work, a new 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one-thiosemicarbazone was synthesized from the reaction of 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and thiosemicarbazide in methanol. The pure isolate of the thiosemicarbazone was further reacted with aqueous solutions of palladium and platinum salts to obtain their metal complexes, in an effort towards the discovery of transition metal based synthetic drugs. These compounds were characterized by means of analytical, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric analysis TGA, as well as x-ray crystallography. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one thiosemicarbazone crystallizes in a triclinic crystal system with a P-1 (No. 2) space group according to x-ray crystallography. The tridentate NOS ligand formed a tetrahedral geometry on coordinating with metal ions. Reported compounds showed varying antioxidant free radical scavenging activities against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg/ml concentrations. The platinum complex have shown a very good antioxidant property against DPPH with an IC50 of 76.03 µg/ml compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 of 74.66 µg/ml) and as such have been identified as a potential anticancer candidate.

Keywords: acylpyrazolone, free radical scavenging activities, tridentate ligand, x-ray crystallography

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
81 The Study and the Use of the Bifunctional Catalyst Pt/Re for Obtaining High Octane Number of the Gasoline

Authors: Menouar Hanafi

Abstract:

The original function of the process of platforming is to develop heavy naphtha (HSRN), coming from the atmospheric unit of distillation with a weak octane number (NO=44), to obtain a mixture of fuels â number octane raised by catalytically supporting specific groups of chemical reactions. The installation is divided into two sections: Section hydrobon. Section platforming. The rafinat coming from the bottom of column 12C2 to feed the section platforming, is divided into two parts whose flows are controlled and mixed with gas rich in hydrogen. Bottom of the column, we obtain stabilized reformat which is aspired by there pump to ensure the heating of the column whereas a part is sent towards storage after being cooled by the air cooler and the condenser. In catalytic catalyst of reforming, there is voluntarily associated a hydrogenating function-dehydrogenating, brought by platinum deposited, with an acid function brought by the alumina support (Al 2 0 3). The mechanism of action of this bifunctional catalyst depends on the severity of the operation, of the quality of the load and the type of catalyst. The catalyst used in the catalytic process of reforming is a very elaborate bifunctional catalyst whose performances are constantly improved thanks to the experimental research supported on an increasingly large comprehension of the phenomena. The American company Universel 0i1 petroleum (UOP) marketed several series of bimetallic catalysts such as R16, R20, R30, and R62 consisted Platinum/Rhenium on an acid support consisted the alumina added with a halogenous compound (chlorine).

Keywords: platforming, amelioration, octane number, catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 316