Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: flaxseed

17 Rheological Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Supplemented with Flaxseed

Authors: A. Albaridi Najla


Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is well known to have beneficial effect on health. The seeds are rich in protein, α-linolenic fatty acid and dietary fiber. Bakery products are important part of our daily meals. Functional food recently received considerable attention among consumers. The increase in bread daily consumption leads to the production of breads with functional ingredients such as flaxseed The aim of this Study was to improve the nutritional value of bread by adding flaxseed flour and assessing the effect of adding 0, 5, 10 and 15% flaxseed on whole wheat bread rheological and sensorial properties. The total consumer's acceptability of the flaxseed bread was assessed. Dough characteristics were determined using Farinograph (C.W. Brabender® Instruments, Inc). The result shows no change was observed in water absorption between the stander dough (without flaxseed) and the bread with flaxseed (67%). An Increase in the peak time and dough stickiness was observed with the increase in flaxseed level. Further, breads were evaluated for sensory parameters, colour and texture. High flaxseed level increased the bread crumb softness. Bread with 5% flaxseed was optimized for total sensory evaluation. Overall, flaxseed bread produced in this study was highly acceptable for daily consumption as a functional foods with a potentially health benefits.

Keywords: bread, flaxseed, rheological properties, whole-wheat bread

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16 Stability of Novel Peptides (Linusorbs) in Flaxseed Meal Fortified Gluten-Free Bread

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney


Flaxseed meal is rich in water-soluble gums and, as such, can improve texture in gluten-free products. Flaxseed bioactive-antioxidant peptides, linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides), are a class of molecules that may contribute health-promoting effects. The effects of dough preparation, baking, and storage on flaxseed-derived LOs stability in doughs and baked products are un-known. Gluten-free (GF) bread dough and bread were prepared with flaxseed meal and the LO content was determined in the flaxseed meal, bread flour containing the flaxseed meal, bread dough, and bread. The LO contents during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of oxidized LOs like [1–9-NαC],[1(Rs, Ss)-MetO]-linusorb B2 (LO14) were substantially constant in flaxseed meal and flour produced from flaxseed meal under all conditions for up to 4 weeks. However, during GF-bread production LOs decreased. Due to microbial contamination dough could not be stored at either 4 or 21°C, and bread could only be stored for one week at 21°C. Up to 4 weeks storage was possible for bread and dough at −18 °C and bread at 4 °C without the loss of LOs. The LOs change mostly from processing and less so from storage. The concentration of reduced LOs in flour and meal were much higher than measured in dough and bread. There was not a corre-sponding increase in oxidized LOs. The LOs in flaxseed meal-fortified bread were stable for products stored at low temperatures. This study is the first of the impact of baking conditions on LO content and quality.

Keywords: flaxseed, stability, gluten-free, antioxidant

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15 Do Immune Organ Weights Indicate Immunomodulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Authors: H. Al-Khalifa, A. Al-Nasser


The main immune organs in poultry are the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. During an immune response, mature lymphocytes and other immune cells interact with antigens in these tissues. Consequently, the mass of these organs can in some cases indicate immune status. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed on immune tissue weights. Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed flaxseed at 15%, the control diet did not contain any flaxseed. Results showed that dietary supplementation with flaxseed did not affect the weights of the spleens of broiler chickens. However, it significantly lowered bursa weights (p<0.01), compared to the control diet. In addition, the bursae were thinner in appearance compared with bursii from chickens fed the control diets.

Keywords: bursa of fabricius, flaxseed, spleen, thymus

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14 Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Spelt and Flaxseed Pasta

Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Milenko Kosutic


The dynamic way of life has the tendency to simplify and decrease preparing healthy, quick, cheap and safe meals. Spelt pasta is meeting most of these goals. Contrary to bread, pasta can be stored a long time without deterioration in flavour, odour and usability without losing quality. This paper deals with the chemical composition and content of fatty acids in flaxseed and spelt flour. Ratio of essential fatty acids ω-6/ω-3 is also analysed in spelt pasta and pasta with 0%, 10% and 20% flaxseed flour. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is used for carrying out a quantitative analysis of flaxseed flour, spelt flour and pasta liposoluble extracts. Flaxseed flour has a better fatty acid profile than spelt flour, with low levels of saturated fat (approximately 9g/100g), high concentration of linolenic acid (57g/100g) and lower content of linoleic acid (16g/100g), as well as superior ω-6/ω-3 ratio that is 1:4. Flaxseed flour in the share of 10% and 20% in spelt pasta positively contributes to the essential fatty acids daily intake recommended by nutritionists and the improvement of ω-6/ω-3 ratio (6,7:1 and 1:1.2). This paper points out that investigated pasta with flaxseed is a new product with improved functional properties due to high level of ω-3 fatty acids and it is acceptable for consumers in regard to sensory properties.

Keywords: flaxseed, spelt, fatty acids, ω-3/ω-6 ratio, pasta

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13 Quantification of Peptides (linusorbs) in Gluten-free Flaxseed Fortified Bakery Products

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin JT Reaney


Flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a superfood due to its health-promoting properties. Linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. Cyclolinopeptide) are bioactive compounds present in flaxseed exhibiting potential health effects. The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived LOs added to various bakery products. The flaxseed meal fortified gluten-free (GF) bakery bread was prepared, and the changes of LOs during the bread-making process (meal, fortified flour, dough, and bread) and storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The total oxidative LOs and LO1OB2 were almost kept stable in flaxseed meals at storage temperatures of 22−23 °C, −18 °C, and 4 °C for up to four weeks. Processing steps during GF-bread production resulted in the oxidation of LOs. Interestingly, no LOs were detected in the dough sample; however, LOs appeared when the dough was stored at −18 °C for one week, suggesting that freezing destroyed the sticky structure of the dough and resulted in the release of LOs. The final product, flaxseed meal fortified bread, could be stored for up to four weeks at −18 °C and 4 °C, and for one week at 22−23 °C. All these results suggested that LOs may change during processing and storage and that flaxseed flour-fortified bread should be stored at low temperatures to preserve effective LOs components.

Keywords: linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linusorb, stability, gluten-free, peptides, cyclolinopeptide

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12 The Effects of Dietary Flaxseed Oil Supplementations on Punicic Acid of the Yolks in Quail Muscle

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil


This experiment was carried out to determine effects of Japanese quail diets which is supplemented with different levels of punicic acids and CLA compositions in Japanese quail. In this study, eighty laying quails at 12 weeks of age were used. They were divided into 4 tretament groups, each group included 20 quails. The diets in treatment groups contained different levels of flaxseed oil. At the end of the experiment lasted for 21 days, 5 quail taken from each group were subjected to analysis. Punicic acid content of muscle were determined by gas chromatography. Twenty five different fatty acid components were determinated in the compositions of quail muscle. No differences were found in oil content among the groups.

Keywords: quail egg yolk, punicic acid, flaxseed oil, gas chromatography

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11 Dietary Flaxseed Decreases Central Blood Pressure and the Concentrations of Plasma Oxylipins Associated with Hypertension in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Stephanie PB Caligiuri, Harold M Aukema, Delfin Rodriguez-Leyva, Amir Ravandi, Randy Guzman, Grant N. Pierce


Background: Hypertension leads to cardiac and cerebral events and therefore is the leading risk factor attributed to death in the world. Oxylipins may be mediators in these events as they can regulate vascular tone and inflammation. Oxylipins are derived from fatty acids. Dietary flaxseed is rich in the n3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and, therefore, may have the ability to change the substrate profile of oxylipins. As a result, this could alter blood pressure. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, the Flax-PAD trial, was used to assess the impact of dietary flaxseed on blood pressure (BP), and to also assess the relationship of plasma oxylipins to BP in 81 patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD were chosen for the clinical trial as they are at an increased risk for hypertension and cardiac and cerebral events. Thirty grams of ground flaxseed were added to food products to consume on a daily basis for 6 months. The control food products contained wheat germ, wheat bran, and mixed dietary oils instead of flaxseed. Central BP, which is more significantly associated to organ damage, cardiac, and cerebral events versus brachial BP, was measured by pulse wave analysis at baseline and 6 months. A plasma profile of 43 oxylipins was generated using solid phase extraction, HPLC-MS/MS, and stable isotope dilution quantitation. Results: At baseline, the central BP (systolic/diastolic) in the placebo and flaxseed group were, 131/73 ± 2.5/1.4 mmHg and 128/71 ± 2.6/1.4 mmHg, respectively. After 6 months of intervention, the flaxseed group exhibited a decrease in blood pressure of 4.0/1.0 mmHg. The 6 month central BP in the placebo and flaxseed groups were, 132/74 ± 2.9/1.8 mmHg and 124/70 ± 2.6/1.6 mmHg (P<0.05). Correlation and logistic regression analyses between central blood pressure and oxylipins were performed. Significant associations were observed between central blood pressure and 17 oxylipins, primarily produced from arachidonic acid. Every 1 nM increase in 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) increased the odds of having high central systolic BP by 15-fold, of having high central diastolic BP by 6-fold and of having high central mean arterial pressure by 15-fold. In addition, every 1 nM increase in 5,6-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) and 11,12-DHET increased the odds of having high central mean arterial pressure by 45- and 18-fold, respectively. Flaxseed induced a significant decrease in these as well as 4 other vasoconstrictive oxylipins. Conclusion: Dietary flaxseed significantly lowered blood pressure in patients with PAD and hypertension. Plasma oxylipins were strongly associated with central blood pressure and may have mediated the flaxseed-induced decrease in blood pressure.

Keywords: hypertension, flaxseed, oxylipins, peripheral arterial disease

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10 Biological Activities of Flaxseed Peptides (Linusorbs)

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney


Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a super-food due to its health-promoting properties. The flax plant synthesizes an array of biolog-ically active cyclic peptides or linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides) from three or more ribosome-derived precursors. [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 and [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B2, sup-press immunity, induce apoptosis in human epithelial cancer cell line (Calu-3) cells, and inhibit T-cell proliferation, but the mechanism of LOs action is unknown. Using gene ex-pression analysis in nematode cultures and human cancer cell lines we have observed that LOs exert their activity, in part, through induction of apoptosis. Specific LOs’ properties include: 1) distribute throughout the body after flaxseed consumption; 2) induce heat shock protein (HSP) 70A production as an indicator of stress and addressed the issue in Caeno-rhabditis elegans (exposure of nematode cultures to [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 induced a 30% increase in production of the HSP 70A protein); 3) induce apoptosis in Calu-3 cells; and 4) modulate regulatory genes in microarray analysis. These diverse activities indicate that LOs might induce apoptosis in cancer cells or act as versatile platforms to deliver a variety of biologically active molecules for cancer therapy.

Keywords: flaxseed, linusorb, oil seed, heat shock protein, anti-cancer

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9 Isolation, Preparation and Biological Properties of Soybean-Flaxseed Protein Co-Precipitates

Authors: Muhammad H. Alu’datt, Inteaz Alli


This study was conducted to prepare and evaluate the biological properties of protein co-precipitates from flaxseed and soybean. Protein was prepared by NaOH extraction through the mixing of soybean flour (Sf) and flaxseed flour (Ff) or mixtures of soybean extract (Se) and flaxseed extract (Fe). The protein co-precipitates were precipitated by isoelectric (IEP) and isoelectric-heating (IEPH) co-precipitation techniques. Effects of extraction and co-precipitation techniques on co-precipitate yield were investigated. Native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE were used to study the molecular characterization. Content and antioxidant activity of extracted free and bound phenolic compounds were evaluated for protein co-precipitates. Removal of free and bound phenolic compounds from protein co-precipitates showed little effects on the electrophoretic behavior of the proteins or the protein subunits of protein co-precipitates. Results showed that he highest protein contents and yield were obtained in for Sf-Ff/IEP co-precipitate with values of 53.28 and 25.58% respectively as compared to protein isolates and other co-precipitates. Results revealed that the Sf-Ff/IEP showed a higher content of bound phenolic compounds (53.49% from total phenolic content) as compared to free phenolic compounds (46.51% from total phenolic content). Antioxidant activities of extracted bound phenolic compounds with and without heat treatment from Sf-Ff/IEHP were higher as compared to free phenolic compounds extracted from other protein co-precipitates (29.68 and 22.84%, respectively).

Keywords: antioxidant, phenol, protein co-precipitate, yield

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8 Effect of Mixture of Flaxseed and Pumpkin Seeds Powder on Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Zahra Ashraf


Flax and pumpkin seeds are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and fiber, known to have anti-atherogenic properties. Hypercholesterolemia is a state characterized by the elevated level of cholesterol in the blood. This research was designed to study the effect of flax and pumpkin seeds powder mixture on hypercholesterolemia and body weight. Rat’s species were selected as human representative. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: a control group, a CD-chol group (control diet+cholesterol) fed with 1.5% cholesterol and FP-chol group (flaxseed and pumpkin seed powder+ cholesterol) fed with 1.5% cholesterol. Flax and pumpkin seed powder mixed at proportion of (5/1) (omega-3 and omega-6). Blood samples were collected to examine lipid profile and body weight was also measured. Thus the data was subjected to analysis of variance. In CD-chol group, body weight, total cholesterol TC, triacylglycerides TG in plasma, plasma LDL-C, ratio significantly increased with a decrease in plasma HDL (good cholesterol). In FP-chol group lipid parameters and body weights were decreased significantly with an increase in HDL and decrease in LDL (bad cholesterol). The mean values of body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoproteins in FP-chol group were 240.66±11.35g, 59.60±2.20mg/dl, 50.20±1.79 mg/dl, 36.20±1.62mg/dl, 36.40±2.20 mg/dl, respectively. Flaxseed and pumpkin seeds powder mixture showed reduction in body weight, serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides. While significant increase was shown in high density lipoproteins when given to hypercholesterolemic rats. Our results suggested that flax and pumpkin seed mixture has hypocholesterolemic effects which were probably mediated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) present in seed mixture.

Keywords: hypercolesterolemia, omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, cardiovascular diseases

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7 Gas Chromatography-Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Some Extracts and Fractions of Linum usitatissimum

Authors: Eman Abdullah Morsi, Hend Okasha, Heba Abdel Hady, Mortada El-Sayed, Mohamed Abbas Shemis


Context: Linum usitatissimum (Linn), known as Flaxseed, is one of the most important medicinal plants traditionally used for various health as nutritional purposes. Objective: Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluate the antioxidant using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay and investigation of anti-inflammatory by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anticancer activities of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) have been applied on hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts and also, fractions of methonal extract (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated in-vitro. Anticancer activity of extracts and fractions of methanolic extract were tested on (HepG2) and (MCF7). Results: Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction contain higher contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In addition, methanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity. Butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions yielded higher percent of inhibition of protein denaturation. Meanwhile, ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract had anticancer activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (IC50=60 ± 0.24 and 29.4 ± 0.12µg.mL⁻¹) and (IC50=94.7 ± 0.21 and 227 ± 0.48µg.mL⁻¹), respectively. In Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, methanolic extract has 32 compounds, whereas; ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contain 40 and 36 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: Flaxseed contains totally different biologically active compounds that have been found to possess good variable activities, which can protect human body against several diseases.

Keywords: phenolic content, flavonoid content, HepG2, MCF7, hemolysis-assay, flaxseed

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6 Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils

Authors: Antonella Hadzich, Santiago Flores


Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.

Keywords: alkyd resins, flaxseed oil, pentaerythritol, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, protective coating

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5 Identification of ω-3 Fatty Acids Using GC-MS Analysis in Extruded Spelt Product

Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Marija Bodroza-Solarov, Milenko Kosutic, Nebojsa Novkovic, Vladimir Filipovic, Vesna Vucurovic


Spelt wheat is suitable raw material for extruded products such as pasta, special types of bread and other products of altered nutritional characteristics compared to conventional wheat products. During the process of extrusion, spelt is exposed to high temperature and high pressure, during which raw material is also mechanically treated by shear forces. Spelt wheat is growing without the use of pesticides in harsh ecological conditions and in marginal areas of cultivation. So it can be used for organic and health safe food. Pasta is the most popular foodstuff; its consumption has been observed to rise. Pasta quality depends mainly on the properties of flour raw materials, especially protein content and its quality but starch properties are of a lesser importance. Pasta is characterized by significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, low sodium, total fat fiber, minerals, and essential fatty acids and its nutritional value can be improved with additional functional component. Over the past few decades, wheat pasta has been successfully formulated using different ingredients in pasta to cater health-conscious consumers who prefer having a product rich in protein, healthy lipids and other health benefits. Flaxseed flour is used in the production of bakery and pasta products that have properties of functional foods. However, it should be taken into account that food products retain the technological and sensory quality despite the added flax seed. Flaxseed contains important substances in its composition such as vitamins and minerals elements, and it is also an excellent source of fiber and one of the best sources of ω-3 fatty acids and lignin. In this paper, the quality and identification of spelt extruded product with the addition of flax seed, which is positively contributing to the nutritive and technology changes of the product, is investigated. ω-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, and they must be taken with food to satisfy the recommended daily intake. Flaxseed flour is added in the quantity of 10/100 g of sample and 20/100 g of sample on farina. It is shown that the presence of ω-3 fatty acids in pasta can be clearly distinguished from other fatty acids by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Addition of flax seed flour influence chemical content of pasta. The addition of flax seed flour in spelt pasta in the quantities of 20g/100 g significantly increases the share of ω-3 fatty acids, which results in improved ratio of ω-6/ω-3 1:2.4 and completely satisfies minimum daily needs of ω-3 essential fatty acids (3.8 g/100 g) recommended by FDA. Flex flour influenced the pasta quality by increasing of hardness (2377.8 ± 13.3; 2874.5 ± 7.4; 3076.3 ± 5.9) and work of shear (102.6 ± 11.4; 150.8 ± 11.3; 165.0 ± 18.9) and increasing of adhesiveness (11.8 ± 20.6; 9.,98 ± 0.12; 7.1 ± 12.5) of the final product. Presented data point at good indicators of technological quality of spelt pasta with flax seed and that GC-MS analysis can be used in the quality control for flax seed identification. Acknowledgment: The research was financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Project No. III 46005).

Keywords: GC-MS analysis, ω-3 fatty acids, flex seed, spelt wheat, daily needs

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4 Simultaneous Determination of Six Characterizing/Quality Parameters of Biodiesels via 1H NMR and Multivariate Calibration

Authors: Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


The characterization and the quality of biodiesel samples are checked by determining several parameters. Considering a large number of analysis to be performed, as well as the disadvantages of the use of toxic solvents and waste generation, multivariate calibration is suggested to reduce the number of tests. In this work, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra were used to build multivariate models, from partial least squares (PLS) regression, in order to determine simultaneously six important characterizing and/or quality parameters of biodiesels: density at 20 ºC, kinematic viscosity at 40 ºC, iodine value, acid number, oxidative stability, and water content. Biodiesels from twelve different oils sources were used in this study: babassu, brown flaxseed, canola, corn, cottonseed, macauba almond, microalgae, palm kernel, residual frying, sesame, soybean, and sunflower. 1H NMR reflects the structures of the compounds present in biodiesel samples and showed suitable correlations with the six parameters. The PLS models were constructed with latent variables between 5 and 7, the obtained values of r(cal) and r(val) were greater than 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. In addition, the models were considered suitable to predict all the six parameters for external samples, taking into account the analytical speed to perform it. Thus, the alliance between 1H NMR and PLS showed to be appropriate to characterize and evaluate the quality of biodiesels, reducing significantly analysis time, the consumption of reagents/solvents, and waste generation. Therefore, the proposed methods can be considered to adhere to the principles of green chemistry.

Keywords: biodiesel, multivariate calibration, nuclear magnetic resonance, quality parameters

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3 Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Novel Nutraceutical Structured Lipids in Non-Conventional Media

Authors: Selim Kermasha


A process for the synthesis of structured lipids (SLs) by the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of selected endogenous edible oils such as flaxseed oil (FO) and medium-chain triacylglyceols such as tricaprylin (TC) in non-conventional media (NCM), including organic solvent media (OSM) and solvent-free medium (SFM), was developed. The bioconversion yield of the medium-long-medium-type SLs (MLM-SLs were monitored as the responses with use of selected commercial lipases. In order to optimize the interesterification reaction and to establish a model system, a wide range of reaction parameters, including TC to FO molar ratio, reaction temperature, enzyme concentration, reaction time, agitation speed and initial water activity, were investigated to establish the a model system. The model system was monitored with the use of multiple response surface methodology (RSM) was used to obtain significant models for the responses and to optimize the interesterification reaction, on the basis of selected levels and variable fractional factorial design (FFD) with centre points. Based on the objective of each response, the appropriate level combination of the process parameters and the solutions that met the defined criteria were also provided by means of desirability function. The synthesized novel molecules were structurally characterized, using silver-ion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrophotometry (APCI-MS) analyses. The overall experimental findings confirmed the formation of dicaprylyl-linolenyl glycerol, dicaprylyl-oleyl glycerol and dicaprylyl-linoleyl glycerol resulted from the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of FO and TC.

Keywords: enzymatic interesterification, non-conventinal media, nutraceuticals, structured lipids

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2 Development of Composition and Technology of Vincristine Nanoparticles Using High-Molecular Carbohydrates of Plant Origin

Authors: L. Ebralidze, A. Tsertsvadze, D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze


Current cancer therapy strategies are based on surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The problems associated with chemotherapy are one of the biggest challenges for clinical medicine. These include: low specificity, broad spectrum of side effects, toxicity and development of cellular resistance. Therefore, anti-cance drugs need to be develop urgently. Particularly, in order to increase efficiency of anti-cancer drugs and reduce their side effects, scientists work on formulation of nano-drugs. The objective of this study was to develop composition and technology of vincristine nanoparticles using high-molecular carbohydrates of plant origin. Plant polysacharides, particularly, soy bean seed polysaccharides, flaxseed polysaccharides, citrus pectin, gum arabic, sodium alginate were used as objects. Based on biopharmaceutical research, vincristine containing nanoparticle formulations were prepared. High-energy emulsification and solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of nanosystems. Polysorbat 80, polysorbat 60, sodium dodecyl sulfate, glycerol, polyvinyl alcohol were used in formulation as emulsifying agent and stabilizer of the system. The ratio of API and polysacharides, also the type of the stabilizing and emulsifying agents are very effective on the particle size of the final product. The influence of preparation technology, type and concentration of stabilizing agents on the properties of nanoparticles were evaluated. For the next stage of research, nanosystems were characterized. Physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles: their size, shape, distribution was performed using Atomic force microscope and Scanning electron microscope. The present study explored the possibility of production of NPs using plant polysaccharides. Optimal ratio of active pharmaceutical ingredient and plant polysacharids, the best stabilizer and emulsifying agent was determined. The average range of nanoparticles size and shape was visualized by SEM.

Keywords: nanoparticles, target delivery, natural high molecule carbohydrates, surfactants

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1 Designing of Food Products with Seasoned Plant Components Assigned for Obese and Diabetic Individuals

Authors: A. Gramza-Michałowska, J. Skręty, M. Antczak, J. Kobus-Cisowska, D. Kmiecik, J. Korczak, Kulczyński Bartosz


Background: Modern consumer highly appreciates the correlation between eating habits and health. Intensified research showed many proofs confirming that food besides its basic nutritional function, possess also significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential. Preventive potential of selected food is commonly used as improvement factor of patients life standard. World Health Organization indicates that diabetes (Diabetes mellitus) and obesity are two of the most common and dangerous diseases. Diet therapy is an element of diabetes education program and a part of healing process, allowing maintaining and remaining the optimal metabolic state of the system. It must be remembered that diabetes treatment should be individualized to each patient. One of highly recommended vegetable for diabetes is asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), low calories common plant, growing in European countries. Objective: To propose the technology of unsweetened muesli production with addition of new components, we investigated the effects of selected vegetable addition on antioxidative capacity and consumer’s acceptance of muesli as representative of breakfast product. Methods: Muesli was formulated from a composition of oat flakes, flaxseed, bran, carrots, broccoli and asparagus. Basic composition of muesli was evaluated as content of protein, lipids, fatty acid composition, ash, selected minerals and caloricity. Antioxidant capacity of muesli was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS), ORAC value and PCL - photochemiluminescence antiradical potential. Proposed muesli as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis, which included color, scent, taste, consistency and overall acceptance of a product. Results: Results showed that addition of freeze-dried asparagus into muesli allowed to lower the fat content and caloricity of a product according to the base product. No significant loss in antioxidant potential was evaluated, also the sensory value of a product was not negative. Conclusion: Designed muesli would be an answer for obese people looking for healthy snack during the daytime. Results showed that product with asparagus addition would be accepted by the consumers and because of its antidiabetic potential could be a n important factor in prevention of diabetes or obesity. Financial support by the UE Project no PO IG

Keywords: muesli, vegetables, asparagus, antioxidant potential, lipids

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