Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Launeae arborescens

3 Phytochemical Investigation of Butanol Extract from Launeae Arborescens

Authors: Khaled Sekoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abelkrim Cheriti

Abstract:

Launeae arborescens (L. arborescens) is a medicinal plant having capacities of important propagation. Following its biotope, associate to different species, it is frequently notably in the whole region of Algerian southwest of Wadi– Namous until the region of Karzaz. According to our ethnopharmacological survey, L. arborescens is used for treatment of the illnesses gastric. Following our phytochemical works achieved on the polyphenols of the methanolic extract of aerial part of L. arborescens, we are also interested to investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from this plant.

Keywords: Launeae arborescens, asteraceae, flavanone, isoflavanone, glycosid flavanone

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2 Adaptive Strategies of Clonal Shrub to Sand Dune Environment in Desert-Oasis Transitional Zone

Authors: Weicheng Luo, Wenzhi Zhao

Abstract:

Plants growth in desert often suffered from stresses like water deficit, wind erosion and sand burial. Thus, plants in desert always have unique strategies to adapt these stresses. However, data regarding how clonal shrubs withstand wind erosion and sand burial in natural habitats remain relatively scarce. Therefore, we selected a common clonal shrub Calligonum arborescens to study the adaptive strategies of clonal plants to sand dune environment in a transitional zone of desert and Hexi Oasis of China. Our results show that sand burial is one of the essential prerequisites for the survival of C. arborescens rhizome fragments. Both the time and degrees of sand burial and wind erosion had significantly effects on clonal reproduction and growth of C. arborescens. With increasing burial depth, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly decreased. There is same change trend in severe erosion treatments. However, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly increased in moderate erosion treatments. Rhizome severed greatly decreased ramet number and biomass production under both sand burial and severe erosion treatments. That indicated that both sand burial and severe erosion had negative effects on the clonal growth of C. arborescens, but moderate wind erosion had positive effects. And rhizome connections alleviated the negative effects of sand burial and of severe erosion on the growth and performance of C. arborescens. Most fragments of C. arborescens grew in the directions of northeastern and southwestern. Ramet number and biomass, rhizome length and biomass in these two directions were significantly higher than those found in other directions. Interestingly, these directions were perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Distribution of C. arborescens differed in different habitats. The total number of individuals was significantly higher in inter-dune areas and on windward slopes than on the top and leeward slopes of dunes; more clonal ramets were produced on the top of dunes than elsewhere, and a few were found on leeward slopes. The mainly reason is that ramets on windward and top of dunes can easily suffered with moderated wind erosion which promoted clonal growth and reproduction of C. arborescens. These results indicated that C. arborescens adapted sand dune environment through directional growth and patchy distribution, and sand-burial and wind erosion were the key factors which led to the directional growth and patchiness of C. arborescens.

Keywords: adaptive strategy, Calligonum arborescens Litv, clonal fragment, desert-oasis transitional zone, sand burial and wind erosion

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1 Hepatoprotective and Immunostimulative Properties of Medicinal Plants against Tuberculosis

Authors: Anna-Mari Kok, Carel B. Oosthuizen, Namrita Lall

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is associated with high mortality rates in both developing and developed countries. Many higher plants are found that are medicinally associated with tuberculosis infection. Plants belonging to thirteen families were selected, based on their traditional usage for tuberculosis and its associated symptoms. Eight plants showed the best antimycobacterial activities (MIC-value ≤ 500.0 µg/ml) against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. LS was found to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg/ml whereas, Tulbaghia violacea, Heteromorpha arborescens, Sutherlandia frutescens, Eucalyptus deglupta, and Plectranthus neochilus were found to have a MIC value of 250 µg/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity values on U937 and HepG2 cells were obtained and the IC50 values ranged between 40 ±4.30 and > 400 µg/ml for the U937 cell line and 72.4 ±1.50 and > 400 µg/ml for the HepG2 cell line. Heteromorpha arborescens had the lowest IC50 value in both cell lines and therefore showed moderate levels of toxicity. Of the 19 samples that underwent the 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, Eucalyptus deglupta and Melianthus major showed significant free radical scavenging activities with concentrations of 1.33 and 1.32 µg/ml respectively for the inhibition of DPPH. Hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen identified Searsia lancea with hepatoprotective activity of 59.37% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Out of the 7 samples that were investigated for their immunomodulatory capabilities, Eucalyptus deglupta produced the most IL-12 with Sutherlandia frutescens also showing positive results for IL-12 production. In the present study, Eucalyptus deglupta showed the most promising results with good activity against M. tuberculosis with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also has potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 1.33 µg/ml. This sample also stimulated high production of the cytokine, IL-12. Searsia lancea showed moderate antimycobacterial acticvity with an MIC-value of 500 µg/ml. The antioxidant potential also showed promising results with an IC50 value of 4.50 µg/ml. The hepatoprotective capability of Searsia lancea was 59.34% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Another sample Sutherlandia frutescens showed effective antimycobacterial activity with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also stimulated production of IL-12 with 13.43 pg/ml produced. These three samples can be considered for further studies for the consideration as adjuvants for current tuberculosis treatment.

Keywords: adjuvant, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, tuberculosis

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