Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: hepatoprotection

7 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotection Assessment of Extracts of Coriandrum sativm L. on Wistar Rats

Authors: Hiba T. Allah ALtieb Gusm ALsied, Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the hepatoactivity and the antioxidant activity of Coiradrum sativum L. aerial part and fruit extracts against CCL4 induced acute liver damages in Wistar rats. The aerial parts and fruits part of the plant were extracted 96% ethanol with soxhlet apparatus. Hepatic injury was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 3 ml/kg of CCL4 diluted with olive oil with ratio 1:1. The extracts were mixed together 1:1 ratio and given in different doses 100,200,400 mg/kg/day for 5 days under CCL4 induction at 3rd day. The significance of differences between means by using T-test was compared among the groups. The mixture of the two extracts didn’t show any significant result in protecting liver injury (antagonistic effects), it shows high level of liver enzyme like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Serological studies further confirmed the results. The results obtained were compared with silymarin (70 mg/kg/day) orally, the standard drug for hepatoprotection which show recovery close to normalization almost like that of silymarin; therefore, further studies on this plant with different ratios especially in isolated tissue to spot more light on antagonistic effects of the two extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method. The results obtained show high anti-oxidant activity for fruits extract while slight or moderate antioxidant activity to aerial extracts.

Keywords: antioxidant, aerial part, Coriadrum sativum L., fruity, hepatoprotection, Silymarin, phytochemical screening

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6 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari

Abstract:

Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: anti-hepatitis B, cyperus rotundus, hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection

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5 Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Extract on Propanil-Induced Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Chiagoziem A. Otuechere, Ebenezer O. Farombi

Abstract:

The protective effect of dichloromethane: methanol extract of Pterocarpus mildbraedii (PME), a widely consumed Nigerian leafy vegetable, on the toxicity of propanil was investigated in male rats. Animals were distributed into eight groups of five each. Group 1 served as control and received normal saline while rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 received 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg extract doses respectively. Group 5 rats were orally administered 200 mg/kg propanil while groups 6, 7, and 8 rats were given propanil plus extract. Oral administration of propanil elicited a 14.8%, 5%, 122%, and 78% increase in the activity of serum enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Alkaline phoshatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (ﻻGT). There were also increase in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, direct bilirubin and lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, PME significantly attenuated the marked hepatic oxidative damage that accompanied propanil treatment. The extract significantly decreased LDH activity and bilirubin levels following propanil treatment. Furthermore, propanil-induced alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in these rats were modulated by the extract. The percentage DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of the extract was determined as 55% and compared to those of Gallic acid (49%). Hepatic histology examination further confirmed the damage to the liver as it revealed severe periportal cellular infiltration of the hepatocytes. These biochemical and morphological alterations were attenuated in rats pre-treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of the extract. These results suggest that PME possesses protective effect against propanil-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: antioxidant, hepatoprotection, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, propanil

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4 Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Aerva javanica Aerial Parts in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

Abstract:

We investigated ex vivo and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective effect of Aerva javanica. Total ethanol extract of A. javanica aerial parts was prepared, and tested on DCFH-toxicated HepG2 cell in CCl4-injured Wistar rats. MTT-assay was used to determine cell viability, and serum biochemical markers of liver injury as well as histopathology were performed. In vitro DPPH and β-carotene free-radical scavenging assay and phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Furthermore, A. javanica total extract was standardized and validated by HPTLC method. While DCFH-injured cells were recovered to about 56.7% by 100 microg/ml of the extract, a 200 microg/ml dose resulted in hepatocytes recovery by about 90.2%. Oral administration of the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg.bw/day) significantly normalized the serum SGOT, SGPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, TG and MDA levels, including tissue NP-SH and TP in CCl4-injured rats. In addition, the histopathology of dissected liver also revealed that A. javanica cured the tissue lesion compared to reference drug, Silymarin. In vitro assays revealed strong free-radical scavenging ability of the extract and presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and saponins where Rutin, a well-known antioxidant flavonoid was identified. Our finding therefore, suggests the therapeutic potential of A. javanica in various liver diseases. However, isolation of the active principles, their mechanism of action and other therapeutic contribution remain to be addressed.

Keywords: Aerva javanica, antioxidant, hepatoprotection, rutin

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3 Evaluating the Hepato-Protective Activities of Combination of Aqueous Extract of Roots of Tinospora cordifolia and Rhizomes of Curcuma longa against Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

Authors: Amberkar Mohanbabu Vittalrao, Avin, Meena Kumari Kamalkishore, Padmanabha Udupa, Vinaykumar Bavimane, Honnegouda

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the hepato-protective activity of Tinospora cordiofolia (Tc) against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods: The plant stem (test drug) was procured locally, shade dried, powdered and extracted with water. Silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective drugs and 2% gum acacia as a control (vehicle) against paracetamol (PCT) induced hepatotoxicity. Results and Discussion: The hepato-protective activity of aqueous stem extract was assessed by paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity preventive model in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested in both paracetamol treated and untreated groups. Paracetamol (3g/kg) had enhanced the AST, ALT, ALP and the lipid peroxides in the serum. Treatment of silymarin and aqueous stem extract of Tc (200 and 400mg/kg) extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity by altering biochemical marker levels to the near normal. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. Aqueous Tc extract showed presence of phenolic compound and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that Tc extract possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: Tc was found to possess significant hepatoprotective property when treated with PCT. This was evident by decreasing the liver enzymes significantly when treated with PCT as compared to PCT only treated group (P < 0.05). Hence Tinospora cardiofolia could be a good, promising, preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Tinospora cardiofolia, hepatoprotection, paracetamol, silymarin

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2 A New Cytoprotective Drug on the Basis of Cytisine: Phase I Clinical Trial Results

Authors: B. Yermekbayeva, A. Gulyayaev, T. Nurgozhin, C. Bektur

Abstract:

Cytisine aminophosphonate under the name "Cytafat" was approved for clinical trials in Republic of Kazakhstan as a putative liver protecting drug for the treatment of acute toxic hepatitis. A method of conducting the clinical trial is a double blind study. Total number of patients -71, aged from 16 to 56 years. Research on healthy volunteers determined the maximal tolerable doze of "Cytafat" as 200 mg/kg. Side effects when administered at high dozes (100-200 mg/kg) are tachycardia and increase of arterial blood pressure. The drug is tested in the treatment of 28 patients with a syndrome of hepatocellular failure (a poisoning with substitutes of alcohol, rat poison, or medical products). "Cytafat" was intravenously administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg in 200 ml of 5 % glucose solution once daily. The number of administrations: 1-3. In the comparison group, 23 patients were treated intravenously once a day with “Essenciale H” at a dose of 10 ml. 20 patients received a placebo (10 ml of glucose intravenously). In all cases of toxic hepatopathology the significant positive clinical effect of the testing drug distinguishable from placebo and surpassing the alternative was observed. Within a day after administration a sharp reduction of cytolitic syndrome parameters (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, thymol turbidity test, GGT) was registered, a reduction of the severity of cholestatic syndrome (bilirubin decreased) was recorded, significantly decreased indices of lipid peroxidation. The following day, in all cases the positive dynamics was determined with ultrasound study (reduction of diffuse changes and events of reactive pancreatitis), hepatomegaly disappeared. Normalization of all parameters occurred in 2-3 times faster, than when using the drug "Essenciale H" and placebo. Average term of elimination of toxic hepatopathy when using the drug "Cytafat" -2,8 days, "Essenciale H" -7,2 days, and placebo -10,6 days. The new drug "Cytafat" has expressed cytoprotective properties.

Keywords: cytisine, cytoprotection, hepatopathy, hepatoprotection

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1 Hepatoprotective and Immunostimulative Properties of Medicinal Plants against Tuberculosis

Authors: Anna-Mari Kok, Carel B. Oosthuizen, Namrita Lall

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is associated with high mortality rates in both developing and developed countries. Many higher plants are found that are medicinally associated with tuberculosis infection. Plants belonging to thirteen families were selected, based on their traditional usage for tuberculosis and its associated symptoms. Eight plants showed the best antimycobacterial activities (MIC-value ≤ 500.0 µg/ml) against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. LS was found to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg/ml whereas, Tulbaghia violacea, Heteromorpha arborescens, Sutherlandia frutescens, Eucalyptus deglupta, and Plectranthus neochilus were found to have a MIC value of 250 µg/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity values on U937 and HepG2 cells were obtained and the IC50 values ranged between 40 ±4.30 and > 400 µg/ml for the U937 cell line and 72.4 ±1.50 and > 400 µg/ml for the HepG2 cell line. Heteromorpha arborescens had the lowest IC50 value in both cell lines and therefore showed moderate levels of toxicity. Of the 19 samples that underwent the 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, Eucalyptus deglupta and Melianthus major showed significant free radical scavenging activities with concentrations of 1.33 and 1.32 µg/ml respectively for the inhibition of DPPH. Hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen identified Searsia lancea with hepatoprotective activity of 59.37% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Out of the 7 samples that were investigated for their immunomodulatory capabilities, Eucalyptus deglupta produced the most IL-12 with Sutherlandia frutescens also showing positive results for IL-12 production. In the present study, Eucalyptus deglupta showed the most promising results with good activity against M. tuberculosis with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also has potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 1.33 µg/ml. This sample also stimulated high production of the cytokine, IL-12. Searsia lancea showed moderate antimycobacterial acticvity with an MIC-value of 500 µg/ml. The antioxidant potential also showed promising results with an IC50 value of 4.50 µg/ml. The hepatoprotective capability of Searsia lancea was 59.34% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Another sample Sutherlandia frutescens showed effective antimycobacterial activity with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also stimulated production of IL-12 with 13.43 pg/ml produced. These three samples can be considered for further studies for the consideration as adjuvants for current tuberculosis treatment.

Keywords: adjuvant, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, tuberculosis

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