Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Davor Lončarević

14 Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Photocatalytic Degradation Using Heterojunction Semiconductors

Authors: Ksenija Milošević, Davor Lončarević, Tihana Mudrinić, Jasmina Dostanić


Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes have gained growing interest as an efficient method to generate hydrogen by using clean energy sources and degrading various organic pollutants. The main obstacles that restrict efficient photoactivity are narrow light-response range and high rates of charge carrier recombination. The formation of heterojunction by combining a semiconductor with low VB and a semiconductor with high CB and a suitable band gap was found to be an efficient method to prepare more sensible materials with improved charge separation, appropriate oxidation and reduction ability, and enhanced visible-light harvesting. In our research, various binary heterojunction systems based on the wide-band gap (TiO₂) and narrow bandgap (g-C₃N₄, CuO, and Co₂O₃) photocatalyst were studied. The morphology, optical, and electrochemical properties of the photocatalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), N₂ physisorption, diffuse reflectance measurements (DRS), and Mott-Schottky analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts was tested in single and simultaneous systems. The synthesized photocatalysts displayed good adsorption capacity and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. The mutual interactions of pollutants on their adsorption and degradation efficiency were investigated. The interfacial connection between photocatalyst constituents and the mechanism of the transport pathway of photogenerated charge species was discussed. A radical scavenger study revealed the interaction mechanisms of the photocatalyst constituents in single and multiple pollutant systems under solar and visible light irradiation, indicating the type of heterojunction system (Z scheme or type II).

Keywords: bandgap alignment, heterojunction, photocatalysis, reaction mechanism

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13 Hydrogen Production By Photoreforming Of n-Butanol And Structural Isomers Over Pt Doped Titanate Catalyst

Authors: Hristina Šalipur, Jasmina Dostanić, Davor Lončarević, Matej Huš


Photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming has been used for the conversion of sunlight energy in the process of hydrogen production due to its sustainability, environmental safety, effectiveness and simplicity. Titanate nanotubes are frequently studied materials since they combine the properties of photo-active semiconductors with the properties of layered titanates, such as the ion-exchange ability. Platinum (Pt) doping into titanate structure has been considered an effective strategy in better separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and lowering the overpotential for hydrogen production, which results in higher photocatalytic activity. In our work, Pt doped titanate catalysts were synthesized via simple alkaline hydrothermal treatment, incipient wetness impregnation method and temperature-programmed reduction. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated using various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 physisorption, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The activities of the prepared Pt-doped titanate photocatalysts were tested for hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming process under simulated solar light irradiation. Characterization of synthesized Pt doped titanate catalysts showed crystalline anatase phase, preserved nanotubular structure and high specific surface area. The result showed enhancement of activity in photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming in the following order 2-butanol>1-butanol>tert-butanol, with obtained maximal hydrogen production rate of 7.5, 5.3 and 2 mmol g-1 h-1, respectively. Different possible factors influencing the hole scavenging ability, such as hole scavenger redox potential and diffusivity, adsorption and desorption rate of the hole scavenger on the surface and stability of the alcohol radical species generated via hole scavenging, were investigated. The theoretical evaluation using density functional theory (DFT) further elucidated the reaction kinetics and detailed mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming.

Keywords: hydrogen production, platinum, semiconductor, water splitting, density functional theory

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12 Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales

Authors: Jasna Prester, Najla Podrug, Davor Filipović


Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.

Keywords: Croatia, materials savings strategies, technologies, return on sales

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11 Influence of Lecithin from Different Sources on Crystallization Properties of Non-Trans Fat

Authors: Ivana Lončarević, Biljana Pajin, Radovan Omorjan, Aleksandra Torbica, Danica Zarić, Jovana Maksimović


Soybean seeds are the main source of lecithin in confectionery industry in Serbia and elsewhere. The extensive production of sunflower and rapeseed oil opens the possibility of using lecithin from these sources, as an alternative. Also, the development of functional foods dictates the use of edible fats with no undesirable trans fatty acids, obtained by fractionation and transesterification instead of common hydrogenation process. Crystallization properties of nontrans vegetable fat with the addition of soybean, sunflower and rapeseed lecithin were investigated in this paper. NMR technique was used for measuring the solid fat content (SFC) of fats at different temperatures, as well as for crystallization rate under static conditions. Also, the possibility of applying Gompertz function to define kinetics of crystallization was investigated.

Keywords: non-trans fat, lecithin, fatty acids, SFC

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10 Monitoring of Pesticide Content in Biscuits Available on the Vojvodina Market, Serbia

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Vasiljevic, Milana Lazovic, Danica Mrkajic, Aleksandar Fises, Strahinja Kovacevic


Biscuits belong to a group of flour-confectionery products that are considerably consumed worldwide. The basic raw material for their production is wheat flour or integral flour as a nutritionally highly valuable component. However, this raw material is also a potential source of contamination since it may contain the residues of biochemical compounds originating from plant and soil protection agents. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the health safety of both raw materials and final products. The aim of this research was to examine the content of undesirable residues of pesticides (mostly organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, triazine pesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides) in 30 different biscuit samples of domestic origin present on the Vojvodina market using Gas Chromatograph Thermo ISQ/Trace 1300. The results showed that all tested samples had the limit of detection of pesticide content below 0.01 mg/kg, indicating that this type of confectionary products is not contaminated with pesticides.

Keywords: biscuits, pesticides, contamination, quality

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9 Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Biljana Pajin, Danica Zarić


Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.

Keywords: cherry pomace, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cookies, physical characteristics

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8 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Retention Times of Some Secoestrane Derivatives

Authors: Nataša Kalajdžija, Strahinja Kovačević, Davor Lončar, Sanja Podunavac Kuzmanović, Lidija Jevrić


In order to investigate the relationship between retention and structure, a quantitative Structure Retention Relationships (QSRRs) study was applied for the prediction of retention times of a set of 23 secoestrane derivatives in a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. After the calculation of molecular descriptors, a suitable set of molecular descriptors was selected by using step-wise multiple linear regressions. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method was employed to model the nonlinear structure-activity relationships. The ANN technique resulted in 5-6-1 ANN model with the correlation coefficient of 0.98. We found that the following descriptors: Critical pressure, total energy, protease inhibition, distribution coefficient (LogD) and parameter of lipophilicity (miLogP) have a significant effect on the retention times. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental ones. This approach provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatographic retention index for the secoestrane derivatives investigated.

Keywords: lipophilicity, QSRR, RP TLC retention, secoestranes

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7 Static Headspace GC Method for Aldehydes Determination in Different Food Matrices

Authors: A. Mandić, M. Sakač, A. Mišan, B. Šojić, L. Petrović, I. Lončarević, B. Pajin, I. Sedej


Aldehydes as secondary lipid oxidation products are highly specific to the oxidative degradation of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids present in foods. Gas chromatographic analysis of those volatile compounds has been widely used for monitoring of the deterioration of food products. Developed static headspace gas chromatography method using flame ionization detector (SHS GC FID) was applied to monitor the aldehydes present in processed foods such as bakery, meat and confectionary products. Five selected aldehydes were determined in samples without any sample preparation, except grinding for bakery and meat products. SHS–GC analysis allows the separation of propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and octanal, within 15min. Aldehydes were quantified in fresh and stored samples, and the obtained range of aldehydes in crackers was 1.62±0.05-9.95±0.05mg/kg, in sausages 6.62±0.46-39.16±0.39mg/kg; and in cocoa spread cream 0.48±0.01-1.13±0.02mg/kg. Referring to the obtained results, the following can be concluded, proposed method is suitable for different types of samples, content of aldehydes varies depending on the type of a sample, and differs in fresh and stored samples of the same type.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, aldehydes, crackers, sausage, cocoa cream spread

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6 Analysis of Histamine Content in Selected Food Products from the Serbian Market

Authors: Brizita Djordjevic, Bojana Vidovic, Milica Zrnic, Uros Cakar, Ivan Stankovic, Davor Korcok, Sladjana Sobajic


Histamine is a biogenic amine, which is formed by enzymatic decarboxylation from the amino acid histidine. It can be found in foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, cheese, wine and beer. The presence of histamine in these foods can indicate microbiological spoilage or poor manufacturing processes. The consumption of food containing large amounts of histamine can have toxicological consequences. In 62 food products (31 canned fish products, 19 wines and 12 cheeses) from the market of Serbia the content of histamine was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Immunolab GmbH, Kassel, Germany). The detection limits of this assay were 20 µg/kg for fish and cheese and 4 µg/L for wine. The concentration of histamine varied between 0.16-207 mg/kg in canned fish products, 0.03-1.47 mg/kg in cheeses and 0.01- 0.18 mg/L in wines. In all analyzed canned fish products the results obtained for the histamine were below the limits set by European and national legislation, so they can be considered acceptable and safe for the health consumers. The levels of histamine in analyzed cheeses and wines were very low and did not pose safety concerns.

Keywords: cheese, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histamine, fish products, wine

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5 The Influence of Apple Pomace on Colour and Chemical Composition of Extruded Corn Snack Product

Authors: Jovana Petrovic, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Loncarevic, Aleksandar Fistes, Antun Jozinivic, Durdica Ackar, Drago Subaric


Recovery of food wastes and their conversion to economically viable products will play a vital role for the management strategies in the years to come. Apple pomace may be considered as wastes, but they contain considerable amounts of high value reusable materials. Apple pomace, the by-product of apple juice and cider production, is a good source of fibre, particularly insoluble one. The remaining apple pulp contains 12% dry residue, which is half dietary fibre. Another remarkable aspect is its richness in polyphenols, components with antioxidant activity. Apple pomace could be an interesting alternative source for fibre and polyphenols in extruded corn meals. The extruded corn meals with the addition of finely ground apple pomace were prepared (the ratio of corn meal: apple pomace was 85:15 and 70:30). Characterization of the extrudates in terms of determining the chemical composition and colour was performed. The color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. Protein content decreased significantly from 7.91% to 5.19% with increase in pomace from 0% to 30%, while total fibre content increase from 3.39% to 16.62%. The apple pomace addition produced extrudates with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a* value. This study has been fully supported by the Provincial Secretariat for High Education and Scientific Research of the Government of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, project 142-451-2483/2017 and the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project no. 31014).

Keywords: apple pomace, chemical composition, colour, extruded corn snack products, food waste recovery

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4 Lacustrine Sediments of the Poljanska Locality in the Miocene Climatic Optimum North Croatian Basin, Croatia

Authors: Marijan KovačIć, Davor Pavelić, Darko Tibljaš, Ivo Galić, Frane Marković, Ivica PavičIć


The North Croatian Basin (NCB) occupies the southwestern part of the Pannonian Basin System and belongs to the Central Paratethys realm. In a quarry near the village of Poljanska, on the southern slopes of Mt. Papuk in eastern Croatia, a 40-meter-thick section is exposed, consisting of well-bedded, mixed, carbonate-siliciclastic deposits with occurrences of pyroclastics. Sedimentological investigation indicates that a salina lake developed in the central NCB during the late early Miocene. Field studies and mineralogical and petrological analyses indicate that alternations of laminated crypto- characterize the lower part of the section to microcrystalline dolomite and analcimolite (sedimentary rocks composed essentially of authigenic analcime) associated with tuffites and marls. The pyroclastic material is a product of volcanic activity at the end of the early Miocene, while the formation of analcime, the zeolite group mineral, is a result of an alteration of pyroclastic material in an alkaline lacustrine environment. These sediments were deposited in a shallow, hydrologically closed lake that was controlled by an arid climate during the first phase of its development. The middle part of the section consists of dolomites interbedded with analcimolites and sandstones. The sandstone beds are a result of the increased supply of clastic material derived from the locally uplifted metamorphic and granitoid basement. The emplacement of sandstones and dolomites reflects a distinct alternation of hydrologically open and closed lacustrine environments controlled by the frequent alternation of humid and arid climates, representing the second phase of lake development. The siliciclastics of the third phase of lake development were deposited during the Middle Miocene in a hydrologically mostly open lake. All lacustrine deposition coincides with the Miocene Climatic Optimum, which was characterized by a hot and warm climate. The sedimentological data confirm the mostly wet conditions previously identified by paleobotanical studies in the region. The exception is the relatively long interval of arid climate in the late early Miocene that controlled the first phase of lake evolution, i.e., the salina-type lake.

Keywords: early Miocene, Pannonian basin System, pyroclastics, salina-type lake

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3 Sensory Characteristics of White Chocolate Enriched with Encapsulated Raspberry Juice

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Jovana Petrovic, Danica Zaric, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac, Aleksandar Fistes


Chocolate is a food that activates pleasure centers in the human brain. In comparison to black and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids and thus lacks bioactive components. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins (denoted as encapsulate). Chocolate is primarily intended for enjoyment, and therefore, the sensory expectation is a critical factor for consumers when selecting a new type of chocolate. Consumer acceptance of chocolate depends primarily on the appearance and taste, but also very much on the mouthfeel, which mainly depends on the particle size of chocolate. Chocolate samples were evaluated by a panel of 8 trained panelists, food technologists, trained according to ISO 8586 (2012). Panelists developed the list of attributes to be used in this study: intensity of red color (light to dark); glow on the surface (mat to shiny); texture on snap (appearance of cavities or holes on the snap surface that are seen - even to gritty); hardness (hardness felt during the first bite of chocolate sample in half by incisors - soft to hard); melting (the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state – slowly to quickly); smoothness (perception of evenness of chocolate during melting - very even to very granular); fruitiness (impression of fruity taste - light fruity notes to distinct fruity notes); sweetness (organoleptic characteristic of pure substance or mixture giving sweet taste - lightly sweet to very sweet). The chocolate evaluation was carried out 24 h after sample preparation in the sensory laboratory, in partitioned booths, which were illuminated with fluorescent lights (ISO 8589, 2007). Samples were served in white plastic plates labeled with three-digit codes from a random number table. Panelist scored the perceived intensity of each attribute using a 7-point scale (1 = the least intensity and 7 = the most intensity) (ISO 4121, 2002). The addition of 10% of encapsulate had a big influence on chocolate color, where enriched chocolate got a nice reddish color. At the same time, the enriched chocolate sample had less intensity of gloss on the surface. The panelists noticed that addition of encapsulate reduced the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state, increasing its hardness. The addition of encapsulate had a significant impact on chocolate flavor. It reduced the sweetness of white chocolate and contributed to the fruity raspberry flavor.

Keywords: white chocolate, encapsulated raspberry juice, color, sensory characteristics

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2 The Impact of Encapsulated Raspberry Juice on the Surface Colour of Enriched White Chocolate

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Jovana Petrovic, Aleksandar Fistes, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac, Danica Zaric


Chocolate is a complex rheological system usually defined as a suspension consisting of non-fat particles dispersed in cocoa butter as a continuous fat phase. Dark chocolate possesses polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated with beneficial effects. Milk chocolate is formulated with a lower percentage of cocoa bean liquor than dark chocolate and it often contains lower amounts of polyphenols, while in white chocolate the fat-free cocoa solids are left out completely. Following the current trend of development of functional foods, there is an idea to create enriched white chocolate with the addition of encapsulated bioactive compounds from berry fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the surface colour of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 6, 8, and 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins, in order to preserve the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active ingredients. The surface color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. The addition of raspberry encapsulates led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate. Raspberry encapsulate changed the values of the lightness (L*), a* (red tone) and b* (yellow tone) measured on the surface of enriched chocolate in accordance with applied concentrations. White chocolate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest L* (74.6) and b* (20.31) values of all samples indicating the bright surface of the white chocolate, as well as a high share of a yellow tone. At the same time, white chocolate has the negative a* value (-1.00) on its surface which includes green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulate has the darkest surface with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest value of L* (42.75), where increasing of its concentration in enriched chocolates decreases their L* values. Chocolate with 6% of encapsulate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest value of L* (60.56) in relation to enriched chocolate with 8% of encapsulate (53.57), and 10% of encapsulate (51.01). a* value measured on the surface of white chocolate is negative (-1.00) tending towards green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulates increases red tone in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amounts (23.22, 30.85, and 33.32 in enriched chocolates with 6, 8, and 10% encapsulated raspberry juice, respectively). The presence of yellow tones in enriched chocolates significantly (p < 0.05) decreases with the addition of E (with b* value 5.21), from 10.01 in enriched chocolate with a minimal amount of raspberry juice encapsulates to 8.91 in chocolate with a maximum concentration of raspberry juice encapsulate. The addition of encapsulated raspberry juice to white chocolate led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate with attractive color. The research in this paper was conducted within the project titled ‘Development of innovative chocolate products fortified with bioactive compounds’ (Innovation Fund Project ID 50051).

Keywords: color, encapsulated raspberry juice, polyphenols, white chocolate

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1 Importance of Different Spatial Parameters in Water Quality Analysis within Intensive Agricultural Area

Authors: Marina Bubalo, Davor Romić, Stjepan Husnjak, Helena Bakić


Even though European Council Directive 91/676/EEC known as Nitrates Directive was adopted in 1991, the issue of water quality preservation in areas of intensive agricultural production still persist all over Europe. High nitrate nitrogen concentrations in surface and groundwater originating from diffuse sources are one of the most important environmental problems in modern intensive agriculture. The fate of nitrogen in soil, surface and groundwater in agricultural area is mostly affected by anthropogenic activity (i.e. agricultural practice) and hydrological and climatological conditions. The aim of this study was to identify impact of land use, soil type, soil vulnerability to pollutant percolation, and natural aquifer vulnerability to nitrate occurrence in surface and groundwater within an intensive agricultural area. The study was set in Varaždin County (northern Croatia), which is under significant influence of the large rivers Drava and Mura and due to that entire area is dominated by alluvial soil with shallow active profile mainly on gravel base. Negative agricultural impact on water quality in this area is evident therefore the half of selected county is a part of delineated nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZ). Data on water quality were collected from 7 surface and 8 groundwater monitoring stations in the County. Also, recent study of the area implied detailed inventory of agricultural production and fertilizers use with the aim to produce new agricultural land use database as one of dominant parameters. The analysis of this database done using ArcGIS 10.1 showed that 52,7% of total County area is agricultural land and 59,2% of agricultural land is used for intensive agricultural production. On the other hand, 56% of soil within the county is classified as soil vulnerable to pollutant percolation. The situation is similar with natural aquifer vulnerability; northern part of the county ranges from high to very high aquifer vulnerability. Statistical analysis of water quality data is done using SPSS 13.0. Cluster analysis group both surface and groundwater stations in two groups according to nitrate nitrogen concentrations. Mean nitrate nitrogen concentration in surface water – group 1 ranges from 4,2 to 5,5 mg/l and in surface water – group 2 from 24 to 42 mg/l. The results are similar, but evidently higher, in groundwater samples; mean nitrate nitrogen concentration in group 1 ranges from 3,9 to 17 mg/l and in group 2 from 36 to 96 mg/l. ANOVA analysis confirmed statistical significance between stations that are classified in the same group. The previously listed parameters (land use, soil type, etc.) were used in factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) to detect importance of each stated parameter in local water quality. Since stated parameters mostly cannot be altered, there is obvious necessity for more precise and more adapted land management in such conditions.

Keywords: agricultural area, nitrate, factorial correspondence analysis, water quality

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