Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6817

Search results for: water splitting

6817 Titania Assisted Metal-Organic Framework Matrix for Elevated Hydrogen Generation Combined with the Production of Graphene Sheets through Water-Splitting Process

Authors: Heba M. Gobara, Ahmed A. M. El-Naggar, Rasha S. El-Sayed, Amal A. AlKahlawy

Abstract:

In this study, metal organic framework (Cr-MIL-101) and TiO₂ nanoparticles were utilized as two semiconductors for water splitting process. The coupling of both semiconductors in order to improve the photocatalytic reactivity for the hydrogen production in presence of methanol as a hole scavenger under visible light (sunlight) has been performed. The forementioned semiconductors and the collected samples after water splitting application are characterized by several techniques viz., XRD, N₂ adsorption-desorption, TEM, ED, EDX, Raman spectroscopy and the total content of carbon. The results revealed an efficient yield of H₂ production with maximum purity 99.3% with the in-situ formation of graphene oxide nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated over the surface of the physically mixed Cr-MIL-101–TiO₂ system. The amount of H₂ gas produced was stored when using Cr-MIL-101 catalyst individually. The obtained data in this work provides promising candidate materials for pure hydrogen production as a clean fuel acquired from the water splitting process. In addition, the in-situ production of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes is counted as promising advances for the presented process.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water splitting, photocatalysts, Graphene

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6816 A Forbidden-Minor Characterization for the Class of Co-Graphic Matroids Which Yield the Graphic Element-Splitting Matroids

Authors: Prashant Malavadkar, Santosh Dhotre, Maruti Shikare

Abstract:

The n-point splitting operation on graphs is used to characterize 4-connected graphs with some more operations. Element splitting operation on binary matroids is a natural generalization of the notion of n-point splitting operation on graphs. The element splitting operation on a graphic (cographic) matroid may not yield a graphic (cographic) matroid. Characterization of graphic (cographic) matroids whose element splitting matroids are graphic (cographic) is known. The element splitting operation on a co-graphic matroid, in general may not yield a graphic matroid. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the cographic matroid to yield a graphic matroid under the element splitting operation. In fact, we prove that the element splitting operation, by any pair of elements, on a cographic matroid yields a graphic matroid if and only if it has no minor isomorphic to M(K4); where K4 is the complete graph on 4 vertices.

Keywords: binary matroids, splitting, element splitting, forbidden minor

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6815 Geometrical Based Unequal Droplet Splitting Using Microfluidic Y-Junction

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Amirmohammad Sattari, Ahmed Zoher Sihorwala, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

Among different droplet manipulations, controlled droplet-splitting is of great significance due to its ability to increase throughput and operational capability. Furthermore, unequal droplet-splitting can provide greater flexibility and a wider range of dilution factors. In this study, we developed two-dimensional, time-dependent complex fluid dynamics simulations to model droplet formation in a flow focusing device, followed by splitting in a Y-shaped junction with sub-channels of unequal widths. From the results obtained from the numerical study, we correlated the diameters of the droplets in the sub-channels to the Weber number, thereby demarcating the droplet splitting and non-splitting regimes.

Keywords: microfluidics, unequal droplet splitting, two phase flow, flow focusing device

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6814 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factors Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shields

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. A simple suggested formalism for the scheme based on the Kalos’ formula is introduced, based on which the implementation of the testing technique is carried out. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme (with the suggested formalism) was implemented on the new “three-layer” shield configuration. The results of such manipulation on water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor value. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the overall performance of the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence even with the introduced changes. The introduced layer-splitting testing technique shows the capability to be implemented in test the iterative scheme with a wide range of formalisms.

Keywords: buildup factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, layer-splitting tecnique

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6813 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factor Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shield

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh, Daeseong Jo

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields of three-layers or more is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme was implemented on the new 'three-layer' shield configuration. The results of such manipulation for water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence with the introduced changes.

Keywords: build-up factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, radiation protection

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6812 Direct Oxidation Synthesis for a Dual-Layer Silver/Silver Orthophosphate with Controllable Tetrahedral Structure as an Active Photoanode for Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

Authors: Wen Cai Ng, Saman Ilankoon, Meng Nan Chong

Abstract:

The vast increase in global energy demand, coupled with the growing concerns on environmental issues, has triggered the search for cleaner alternative energy sources. In view of this, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting offers a sustainable hydrogen (H2) production route that only requires solar energy, water, and PEC system operating in an ambient environment. However, the current advancement of PEC water splitting technologies is still far from the commercialization benchmark indicated by the solar-to-H2 (STH) efficiency of at least 10 %. This is largely due to the shortcomings of photoelectrodes used in the PEC system, such as the rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers and limited photo-responsiveness in the visible-light spectrum. Silver orthophosphate (Ag3PO4) possesses many desirable intrinsic properties for the fabrication into photoanode used in PEC systems, such as narrow bandgap of 2.4 eV and low valence band (VB) position. Hence, in this study, a highly efficient Ag3PO4-based photoanode was synthesized and characterized. The surface of the Ag foil substrate was directly oxidized to fabricate a top layer composed of {111}-bound Ag3PO4 tetrahedrons layer with a porous structure, forming the dual-layer Ag/Ag3PO4 photoanode. Furthermore, the key synthesis parameters were systematically investigated by varying the concentration ratio of capping agent-to-precursor (R), the volume ratio of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-to-water, and reaction period. Results showed that the optimized dual-layer Ag/Ag3PO4 photoanode achieved a photocurrent density as high as 4.19 mA/cm2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the R-value of 4, the volume ratio of H2O2-to-water of 3:5 and 20 h reaction period. The current work provides a solid foundation for further nanoarchitecture modification strategies on Ag3PO4-based photoanodes for more efficient PEC water splitting applications. This piece of information needs to be backed up by evidence; therefore, you need to provide a reference. As the abstract should be self-contained, all information requiring a reference should be removed. This is a fact known to the area of research, and not necessarily required a reference to support.

Keywords: solar-to-hydrogen fuel, photoelectrochemical water splitting, photoelectrode, silver orthophosphate

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6811 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique

Abstract:

Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: bagasse ash, compressive strength, self-compacting concrete, splitting tensile strength

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6810 Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Replacement Ratio to the Capacity of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Feng Fu, Maria Karli

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental studies were carried out to investigate the behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. In the tests, different recycled aggregate replacement ratio, different mix design and different water to cement ratio have been chosen in the investigation. The behavior of the RAC concrete was investigated in detail. The results of the tests show that the water-cement ratio plays an important role in the strength of the concrete and RAC concrete exhibit sufficient strength in comparison to the normal aggregate concrete; the relevant design recommendations are also made.

Keywords: recycled aggregate concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, flexural strength test, impact test

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6809 Carbon Nitride Growth on ZnO Architectures for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Application

Authors: Špela Hajduk, Sean P. Berglund, Matejka Podlogar, Goran Dražić, Fatwa F. Abdi, Zorica C. Orel, Menny Shalom

Abstract:

Graphitic carbon nitride materials (g-CN) have emerged as an attractive photocatalyst and electrocatalyst for photo and electrochemical water splitting reaction, due to their environmental benignity nature and suitable band gap. Many approaches were introduced to enhance the photoactivity and electronic properties of g-CN and resulted in significant changes in the electronic and catalytic properties. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of thin and homogenous g-CN layer on highly ordered ZnO nanowire (NW) substrate by growing a seeding layer of small supramolecular assemblies on the nanowires. The new synthetic approach leads to the formation of thin g-CN layer (~3 nm) without blocking all structure. Two different deposition methods of carbon nitride were investigated and will be presented. The amount of loaded carbon nitride significantly influences the PEC activity of hybrid material and all the ZnO/g-CNx electrodes show great improvement in photoactivity. The chemical structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited g-CN were fully characterized by various techniques as X-ray powder spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), high-resolution scanning microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: carbon nitride, photoanode, solar water splitting, zinc oxide

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6808 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

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6807 Influence of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber on Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe Ngu-Ntui Ogork

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the use of Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) for the production of fiber reinforced high performance concrete. The Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) were obtained from dealers that extracted the fibers by burning the scrap tyres and were characterized. The effect of STSF was investigated on grade 50 concrete of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of STSF of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% by volume of concrete. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths, respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. The results indicate that slump decreased with increase in STSF, while compressive and splitting tensile strengths increased with increase in STSF up to 1.5% and reduction in strength with increase in STSF above 1.5%. 1.5% STSF was considered as the optimum dosage with a 28 days increase in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of 12.3% and 43.8% respectively, of control.

Keywords: compressive strength, high performance concrete, scrap tyre steel fiber, splitting tensile strength

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6806 Polystyrene Paste as a Substitute for a Portland Cement: A Solution to the Nigerian Dilemma

Authors: Lanre Oluwafemi Akinyemi

Abstract:

The reduction of limestone to cement in Nigeria is expensive and requires huge amounts of energy. This significantly affects the cost of cement. Concrete is heavy: a cubic foot of it weighs about 150 lbs. and a cubic yard is about 4000 lbs. Thus a ready-mix truck with 9 cubic yards is carrying 36,000 lbs excluding the weight of the truck itself, thereby accumulating cost for also manufacturers. Therein lies the need to find a substitute for cement by using the polystyrene paste that benefits both the manufactures and the consumers. Polystyrene Paste Constructional Cement (PPCC), a patented material obtained by dissolving Waste EPS in volatile organic solvent, has recently been identified as a suitable binder/cement for construction and building material production. This paper illustrates the procedures of a test experiment undertaken to determine the splitting tensile strength of PPCC mortar compared to that of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). Expanded polystyrene was dissolved in gasoline to form a paste referred to as Polystyrene Paste Constructional Cement (PPCC). Mortars of mix ratios 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 (PPCC: fine aggregate) batched by volume were used to produce 50mm x 100mm cylindrical PPCC mortar splitting tensile strength specimens. The control experiment was done by creating another series of cylindrical OPC mortar splitting tensile strength specimens following the same mix ratio used earlier. The PPCC cylindrical splitting tensile strength specimens were left to air-set, and the ones made with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were demoded after 24 hours and cured in water. The cylindrical PPCC splitting tensile strength specimens were tested at 28 days and compared with those of the Ordinary Portland cement splitting tensile strength specimens. The result shows that hence for this two mixes, PPCC exhibits a better binding property than the OPC. With this my new invention I recommend the use of PPCC as a substitute for a Portland cement.

Keywords: polystyrene paste, Portland cement, construction, mortar

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6805 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary

Abstract:

Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

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6804 Effect of Water Hyacinth on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr

Abstract:

Water hyacinth (W-H) has an adverse effect on Nile river in Egypt, it absorbs high quantities of water, it needs to serve these quantities especially at this time, so by burning W-H, it can be used in concrete mix to reduce the permeability of concrete and increase both the compressive and splitting strength. The effect of W-H on non-structural concrete properties was studied, but there is a lack of studies about the behavior of structural concrete containing W-H. Therefore, in the present study, the behavior of 15 RC beams with 100 x 150 mm cross section, 1250 mm span, different reinforcement ratios and different W-H ratios were studied by testing the beams under two-point bending test. The test results showed that Water Hyacinth is compatible with RC which yields promising results.

Keywords: beams, reinforcement ratio, reinforced concrete, water hyacinth

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6803 Experimental Support for the District Metered Areas/Pressure Management Areas Application

Authors: K. Ilicic, D. Smoljan

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to present and verify a methodology of decreasing water losses by introducing and managing District Metered Areas (DMA) and Pressure Management Areas (PMA) by analyzing the results of the application of the methodology to the water supply system of the city of Zagreb. Since it is a relatively large system that has been expanding rapidly, approach to addressing water losses was possible only by splitting the system to smaller flow and pressure zones. Besides, the geographical and technical limitations had imposed the necessity of high pressure in the system that needed to be reduced to the technically optimal level. Results of activities were monitored on a general and local level by establishing, monitoring, and controlling indicators that had been established by the International Water Association (IWA), among which the most recognizable were non-revenue water, water losses and real losses as presented in the paper.

Keywords: district metered area, pressure metered area, active leakage control, water losses

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6802 Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting from Earth-Abundant CuO Thin Film Photocathode: Enhancing Performance and Photo-Stability through Deposition of Overlayers

Authors: Wilman Septina, Rajiv R. Prabhakar, Thomas Moehl, David Tilley

Abstract:

Cupric oxide (CuO) is a promising absorber material for the fabrication of scalable, low cost solar energy conversion devices, due to the high abundance and low toxicity of copper. It is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap of around 1.5 eV, absorbing a significant portion of the solar spectrum. One of the main challenges in using CuO as solar absorber in an aqueous system is its tendency towards photocorrosion, generating Cu2O and metallic Cu. Although there have been several reports of CuO as a photocathode for hydrogen production, it is unclear how much of the observed current actually corresponds to H2 evolution, as the inevitability of photocorrosion is usually not addressed. In this research, we investigated the effect of the deposition of overlayers onto CuO thin films for the purpose of enhancing its photostability as well as performance for water splitting applications. CuO thin film was fabricated by galvanic electrodeposition of metallic copper onto gold-coated FTO substrates, followed by annealing in air at 600 °C. Photoelectrochemical measurement of the bare CuO film using 1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.9) under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight showed a current density of ca. 1.5 mA cm-2 (at 0.4 VRHE), which photocorroded to Cu metal upon prolonged illumination. This photocorrosion could be suppressed by deposition of 50 nm-thick TiO2, deposited by atomic layer deposition. In addition, we found that insertion of an n-type CdS layer, deposited by chemical bath deposition, between the CuO and TiO2 layers was able to enhance significantly the photocurrent compared to without the CdS layer. A photocurrent of over 2 mA cm-2 (at 0 VRHE) was observed using the photocathode stack FTO/Au/CuO/CdS/TiO2/Pt. Structural, electrochemical, and photostability characterizations of the photocathode as well as results on various overlayers will be presented.

Keywords: CuO, hydrogen, photoelectrochemical, photostability, water splitting

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6801 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for DAE’s

Authors: Ahmed Machmoum, Malika El Kyal

Abstract:

We consider iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays tobe substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: computer, multi-splitting methods, asynchronous mode, differential algebraic systems

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6800 Parallel Asynchronous Multi-Splitting Methods for Differential Algebraic Systems

Authors: Malika Elkyal

Abstract:

We consider an iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm does not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Accordingly, we note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: parallel methods, asynchronous mode, multisplitting, differential algebraic equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
6799 Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Composites with Application for Sustainable Energy

Authors: Daniel F. Sava, Anton Ficai, Bogdan S. Vasile, Georgeta Voicu, Ecaterina Andronescu

Abstract:

The energy crisis and environmental contamination are very serious problems, therefore searching for better and sustainable renewable energy is a must. It is predicted that the global energy demand will double until 2050. Solar water splitting and photocatalysis are considered as one of the solutions to these issues. The use of oxide semiconductors for solar water splitting and photocatalysis started in 1972 with the experiments of Fujishima and Honda on TiO2 electrodes. Since then, the evolution of nanoscience and characterization methods leads to a better control of size, shape and properties of materials. Although the past decade advancements are astonishing, for these applications the properties have to be controlled at a much finer level, allowing the control of charge-carrier lives, energy level positions, charge trapping centers, etc. Graphene has attracted a lot of attention, since its discovery in 2004, due to the excellent electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties that it possesses. These properties make it an ideal support for photocatalysts, thus graphene composites with oxide semiconductors are of great interest. We present in this work the synthesis and characterization of graphene-related materials and oxide semiconductors and their different composites. These materials can be used in constructing devices for different applications (batteries, water splitting devices, solar cells, etc), thus showing their application flexibility. The synthesized materials are different morphologies and sizes of TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3 that are obtained through hydrothermal, sol-gel methods and graphene oxide which is synthesized through a modified Hummer method and reduced with different agents. Graphene oxide and the reduced form could also be used as a single material for transparent conductive films. The obtained single materials and composites were characterized through several methods: XRD, SEM, TEM, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN, XPS and BET adsorption/desorption isotherms. From the results, we see the variation of the properties with the variation of synthesis parameters, size and morphology of the particles.

Keywords: composites, graphene, hydrothermal, renewable energy

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6798 Competitive Coordination Strategy Towards Reversible Hybrid Hetero-Homogeneous Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst

Authors: Peikun Zhang, Chunhua Cui

Abstract:

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting provides a promising pathway to convert solar energy into renewable fuels. However, the main and seemingly insurmountable obstacle is that the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) severely jeopardizes the overall efficiency, thus exploring highly active, stable, and appreciable catalysts is urgently requested. Herein a competitive coordination strategy was demonstrated to form a reversible hybrid homo-heterogeneous catalyst for efficient OER in alkaline media. The dynamic process involves an in-situ anchoring of soluble nickel–bipyridine pre-catalyst to a conductive substrate under OER and a re-dissolution course under open circuit potential, induced by the competitive coordination between nickel–bipyridine and nickel-hydroxyls. This catalyst allows to elaborately self-modulate a charge-transfer layer thickness upon the catalytic on-off operation, which affords substantially increased active sites, yet remains light transparency, and sustains the stability of over 200 hours of continuous operation. The integration of this catalyst with exemplified state-of-the-art Ni-sputtered Si photoanode can facilitate a ~250 mV cathodic shift at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. This finding helps the understanding of catalyst from a “dynamic” perspective, which represents a viable alternative to address remaining hurdles toward solar-driven water oxidation.

Keywords: molecular catalyst, oxygen evolution reaction, solar energy, transition metal complex, water splitting

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6797 A Novel PSO Based Decision Tree Classification

Authors: Ali Farzan

Abstract:

Classification of data objects or patterns is a major part in most of Decision making systems. One of the popular and commonly used classification methods is Decision Tree (DT). It is a hierarchical decision making system by which a binary tree is constructed and starting from root, at each node some of the classes is rejected until reaching the leaf nods. Each leaf node is a representative of one specific class. Finding the splitting criteria in each node for constructing or training the tree is a major problem. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been adopted as a metaheuristic searching method for finding the best splitting criteria. Result of evaluating the proposed method over benchmark datasets indicates the higher accuracy of the new PSO based decision tree.

Keywords: decision tree, particle swarm optimization, splitting criteria, metaheuristic

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6796 Evaluating the Effect of Splitting Wind Farms on Power Output

Authors: Nazanin Naderi, Milton Smith

Abstract:

Since worldwide demand for renewable energy is increasing rapidly because of the climate problem and the limitation of fossil fuels, technologies of alternative energy sources have been developed and the electric power network now includes renewable energy resources such as wind energy. Because of the huge advantages that wind energy has, like reduction in natural gas use, price pressure, emissions of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants, electric sector water consumption and many other contributions to the nation’s economy like job creation it has got too much attention these days from different parts of the world especially in the United States which is trying to provide 20% of the nation’s energy from wind by 2030. This study is trying to evaluate the effect of splitting wind farms on power output. We are trying to find if we can get more output by installing wind turbines in different sites rather than installing all wind turbines in one site. Five potential sites in Texas have been selected as a case study and two years wind data has been gathered for these sites. Wind data are analyzed and effect of correlation between sites on power output has been evaluated. Standard deviation and autocorrelation effect has also been considered for this study. The paper has been organized as follows: After the introduction the second section gives a brief overview of wind analysis. The third section addresses the case study and evaluates correlation between sites, auto correlation of sites and standard deviation of power output. In section four we describe the results.

Keywords: auto correlation, correlation between sites, splitting wind farms, power output, standard deviation

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6795 Effect of Noise Reduction Algorithms on Temporal Splitting of Speech Signal to Improve Speech Perception for Binaural Hearing Aids

Authors: Rajani S. Pujar, Pandurangarao N. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Increased temporal masking affects the speech perception in persons with sensorineural hearing impairment especially under adverse listening conditions. This paper presents a cascaded scheme, which employs a noise reduction algorithm as well as temporal splitting of the speech signal. Earlier investigations have shown that by splitting the speech temporally and presenting alternate segments to the two ears help in reducing the effect of temporal masking. In this technique, the speech signal is processed by two fading functions, complementary to each other, and presented to left and right ears for binaural dichotic presentation. In the present study, half cosine signal is used as a fading function with crossover gain of 6 dB for the perceptual balance of loudness. Temporal splitting is combined with noise reduction algorithm to improve speech perception in the background noise. Two noise reduction schemes, namely spectral subtraction and Wiener filter are used. Listening tests were conducted on six normal-hearing subjects, with sensorineural loss simulated by adding broadband noise to the speech signal at different signal-to-noise ratios (∞, 3, 0, and -3 dB). Objective evaluation using PESQ was also carried out. The MOS score for VCV syllable /asha/ for SNR values of ∞, 3, 0, and -3 dB were 5, 4.46, 4.4 and 4.05 respectively, while the corresponding MOS scores for unprocessed speech were 5, 1.2, 0.9 and 0.65, indicating significant improvement in the perceived speech quality for the proposed scheme compared to the unprocessed speech.

Keywords: MOS, PESQ, spectral subtraction, temporal splitting, wiener filter

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6794 Absorption and Carrier Transport Properties of Doped Hematite

Authors: Adebisi Moruf Ademola

Abstract:

Hematite (Fe2O3),commonly known as ‘rust’ which usually surfaced on metal when exposed to some climatic materials. This emerges as a promising candidate for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its favorable physiochemical properties of the narrow band gap (2.1–2.2 eV), chemical stability, nontoxicity, abundance, and low cost. However, inherent limitations such as short hole diffusion length (2–4 nm), high charge recombination rate, and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics inhibit the PEC performances of a-Fe2O3 photoanodes. As such, given the narrow bandgap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for a-Fe2O3 photoanodes and metal ion doping as an effective way to promote charge transfer by increasing donor density and improving the electronic conductivity of a-Fe2O3. Hematite attracts enormous efforts with a number of metal ions (Ti, Zr, Sn, Pt ,etc.) as dopants. A facile deposition-annealing process showed greatly enhanced PEC performance due to the increased donor density and reduced electron-hole recombination at the time scale beyond a few picoseconds. Zr doping was also found to enhance the PEC performance of a-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays by reducing the rate of electron-hole recombination. Slow water oxidation reaction kinetics, another main factor limiting the PEC water splitting efficiency of aFe2O3 as photoanodes, was previously found to be effectively improved by surface treatment.

Keywords: deposition-annealing, hematite, metal ion doping, nanorod

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6793 Mechanical Properties of Class F Fly Ash Blended Concrete Incorporation with Natural Admixture

Authors: T. S. Ramesh Babu, D. Neeraja

Abstract:

This research work revealed that effect of Natural admixture (NAD) on Conventional Concrete (CC) and Class F Fly Ash(FA) blended concrete. Broiler hen egg white albumen and yellow yolk were used as Natural Admixture. Cement was replaced by Class F fly ash at various levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by its mass and NAD was added to concrete at different replacement dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00% by its volume to water content and liquid to binder ratio was maintained at 0.5. For all replacement levels of FA and NAD, the mechanical properties viz unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of CC and Class F fly ash (FA) were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. From the results, it was concluded that 0.25% of NAD dosage was considered as optimum dosage for both CC and class F fly ash blended concrete. The studies revealed that 35% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as optimum mix and 55% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as economical mix with 0.25% NAD dosage.

Keywords: Class F fly ash, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, natural admixture, splitting tensile strength, unit weight

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6792 Photocatalytic Conversion of Water/Methanol Mixture into Hydrogen Using Cerium/Iron Oxides Based Structures

Authors: Wael A. Aboutaleb, Ahmed M. A. El Naggar, Heba M. Gobara

Abstract:

This research work reports the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water-methanol mixture using three different 15% ceria/iron oxide catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by physical mixing, precipitation, and ultrasonication methods and labeled as catalysts A-C. The structural and texture properties of the obtained catalysts were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET-surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the three catalysts towards hydrogen generation was then tested. Promising hydrogen productivity was obtained by the three catalysts however different gases compositions were obtained by each type of catalyst. Specifically, catalyst A had produced hydrogen mixed with CO₂ while the composite structure (catalyst B) had generated only pure H₂. In the case of catalyst C, syngas made of H₂ and CO was revealed, as a novel product, for the first time, in such process.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water splitting, photocatalysts, clean energy

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6791 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

Abstract:

In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

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6790 Various Shaped ZnO and ZnO/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites and Their Use in Water Splitting Reaction

Authors: Sundaram Chandrasekaran, Seung Hyun Hur

Abstract:

Exploring strategies for oxygen vacancy engineering under mild conditions and understanding the relationship between dislocations and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell performance are challenging issues for designing high performance PEC devices. Therefore, it is very important to understand that how the oxygen vacancies (VO) or other defect states affect the performance of the photocatalyst in photoelectric transfer. So far, it has been found that defects in nano or micro crystals can have two possible significances on the PEC performance. Firstly, an electron-hole pair produced at the interface of photoelectrode and electrolyte can recombine at the defect centers under illumination of light, thereby reducing the PEC performances. On the other hand, the defects could lead to a higher light absorption in the longer wavelength region and may act as energy centers for the water splitting reaction that can improve the PEC performances. Even if the dislocation growth of ZnO has been verified by the full density functional theory (DFT) calculations and local density approximation calculations (LDA), it requires further studies to correlate the structures of ZnO and PEC performances. Exploring the hybrid structures composed of graphene oxide (GO) and ZnO nanostructures offer not only the vision of how the complex structure form from a simple starting materials but also the tools to improve PEC performances by understanding the underlying mechanisms of mutual interactions. As there are few studies for the ZnO growth with other materials and the growth mechanism in those cases has not been clearly explored yet, it is very important to understand the fundamental growth process of nanomaterials with the specific materials, so that rational and controllable syntheses of efficient ZnO-based hybrid materials can be designed to prepare nanostructures that can exhibit significant PEC performances. Herein, we fabricated various ZnO nanostructures such as hollow sphere, bucky bowl, nanorod and triangle, investigated their pH dependent growth mechanism, and correlated the PEC performances with them. Especially, the origin of well-controlled dislocation-driven growth and its transformation mechanism of ZnO nanorods to triangles on the GO surface were discussed in detail. Surprisingly, the addition of GO during the synthesis process not only tunes the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals and also creates more oxygen vacancies (oxygen defects) in the lattice of ZnO, which obviously suggest that the oxygen vacancies be created by the redox reaction between GO and ZnO in which the surface oxygen is extracted from the surface of ZnO by the functional groups of GO. On the basis of our experimental and theoretical analysis, the detailed mechanism for the formation of specific structural shapes and oxygen vacancies via dislocation, and its impact in PEC performances are explored. In water splitting performance, the maximum photocurrent density of GO-ZnO triangles was 1.517mA/cm-2 (under UV light ~ 360 nm) vs. RHE with high incident photon to current conversion Efficiency (IPCE) of 10.41%, which is the highest among all samples fabricated in this study and also one of the highest IPCE reported so far obtained from GO-ZnO triangular shaped photocatalyst.

Keywords: dislocation driven growth, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, water splitting

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6789 Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects

Authors: Defne Akay, Bekir S. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.

Keywords: coulomb impurity, graphene cones, graphene quantum dots, topological defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
6788 Modulating Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Activity by Charge-Storage Capacity of Electrocatalysts

Authors: Yawen Dai, Ping Cheng, Jian Ru Gong

Abstract:

Photoelctrochemical (PEC) water splitting using semiconductors (SCs) provides a convenient way to convert sustainable but intermittent solar energy into clean hydrogen energy, and it has been regarded as one of most promising technology to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution in modern society. However, the record energy conversion efficiency of a PEC cell (~3%) is still far lower than the commercialization requirement (~10%). The sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) half reaction on photoanodes is a significant limiting factor of the PEC device efficiency, and electrocatalysts (ECs) are always deposited on SCs to accelerate the hole injection for OER. However, an active EC cannot guarantee enhanced PEC performance, since the newly emerged SC-EC interface complicates the interfacial charge behavior. Herein, α-Fe2O3 photoanodes coated with Co3O4 and CoO ECs are taken as the model system to glean fundamental understanding on the EC-dependent interfacial charge behavior. Intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the competition between interfacial charge transfer and recombination, which was found to be dominated by the charge storage capacities of ECs. The combined results indicate that both ECs can store holes and increase the hole density on photoanode surface. It is like a double-edged sword that benefit the multi-hole participated OER, as well as aggravate the SC-EC interfacial charge recombination due to the Coulomb attraction, thus leading to a nonmonotonic PEC performance variation trend with the increasing surface hole density. Co3O4 has low hole storage capacity which brings limited interfacial charge recombination, and thus the increased surface holes can be efficiently utilized for OER to generate enhanced photocurrent. In contrast, CoO has overlarge hole storage capacity that causes severe interfacial charge recombination, which hinders hole transfer to electrolyte for OER. Therefore, the PEC performance of α-Fe2O3 is improved by Co3O4 but decreased by CoO despite the similar electrocatalytic activity of the two ECs. First-principle calculation was conducted to further reveal how the charge storage capacity depends on the EC’s intrinsic property, demonstrating that the larger hole storage capacity of CoO than that of Co3O4 is determined by their Co valence states and original Fermi levels. This study raises up a new strategy to manipulate interfacial charge behavior and the resultant PEC performance by the charge storage capacity of ECs, providing insightful guidance for the interface design in PEC devices.

Keywords: charge storage capacity, electrocatalyst, interfacial charge behavior, photoelectrochemistry, water-splitting

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