Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: cyclooxygenases

3 Effects of Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Activities of Cyclooxygenases and Levels of Prostaglandins E2 and F2 Alpha Metabolites in the Offspring of Rats with Streptozocin-Induced Diabetes

Authors: H. Y. Al-Matubsi, G. A. Oriquat, M. Abu-Samak, O. A. Al Hanbali, M. Salim

Abstract:

Background: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) is an etiological factor for recurrent pregnancy loss and major congenital malformations in the offspring. Antioxidant therapy has been advocated to overcome the oxidant-antioxidant disequilibrium inherent in diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of lipoic acid (LA) on fetal outcome and to elucidate changes that may be involved in the mechanism(s) implicit diabetic fetopathy. Methods: Female rats were rendered hyperglycemic using streptozocin and then mated with normal male rat. Pregnant non-diabetic (group1; n=9; and group2; n=7) or pregnant diabetic (group 3; n=10; and group 4; n=8) rats were treated daily with either lipoic acid (LA) (30 mg/kg body weight; groups 2 and 4) or vehicle (groups 1 and 3) between gestational days 0 and 15. On day 15 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, and the fetuses, placentas and membranes dissected out of the uterine horns. Following morphological examination, the fetuses, placentas and membranes were homogenized, and used to measure cyclooxygenases (COX) activities and metabolisms of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGEM) and PGF2 (PGFM) levels. Maternal liver and plasma total glutathione levels were also determined. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with LA was found to significantly (P<0.05) reduce resorption rates in diabetic rats and increased mean fetal weight compared to diabetic group. Treatment of diabetic rats with LA leads to a significant (P<0.05) increase in liver and plasma total glutathione, in comparison with diabetic rats. Decreased levels of PGEM and elevated levels of PGFM in the fetuses, placentas and membranes were characteristic of experimental diabetic gestation associated with malformation. LA treatment to diabetic mothers failed to normalize levels of PGEM to the non-diabetic control rats. However, the levels of PGEM in malformed fetuses from LA-treated diabetic mothers was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in malformed fetuses from diabetic rats. Conclusions: We conclude that LA can reduce congenital malformations in the offspring of diabetic rats at day 15 of gestation. However, LA treatment did not completely prevent the occurrence of malformations, other factors, such as arachidonic acid deficiency and altered prostaglandin metabolismmay be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced congenital malformations.

Keywords: diabetes, lipoic acid, pregnancy, prostaglandins

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2 Synthesis of Quinazoline Derivatives as Selective Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-1 Enzyme

Authors: Marcela Dvorakova, Lenka Langhansova, Premysl Landa

Abstract:

A series of quinazoline derivatives bearing aromatic rings in 2- and 4-positions were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Firstly, the compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit various kinases, such as autophagy activating kinase ULK1, 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and TANK-binding kinase 1. None of the compounds displayed any activity on these kinases. Secondly, the compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity expressed as cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. Three of the compounds showed significant selectivity towards COX-1 isoform (COX-2/COX-1 SI = 20-30). They inhibited COX-1 in a single-digit µM range. There was also one compound that exhibited inhibitory activity towards all three tested enzymes in µM range (IC50COX-1 = 1.9 µM; IC50COX-2 and 5-LOX = 10.1µM. COX-1 inhibition was until recently considered undesirable due to COX-1 constitutive expression in most cell types and tissues. Thus, there are not many compounds known with selective COX-1 activity. However, it is now believed that COX-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several acute and chronic disorders, including cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the discovery of effective COX-1 selective inhibitors is desirable and important.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, kinases, lipoxygenases, quinazolines

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1 A Systems Approach to Targeting Cyclooxygenase: Genomics, Bioinformatics and Metabolomics Analysis of COX-1 -/- and COX-2-/- Lung Fibroblasts Providing Indication of Sterile Inflammation

Authors: Abul B. M. M. K. Islam, Mandar Dave, Roderick V. Jensen, Ashok R. Amin

Abstract:

A systems approach was applied to characterize differentially expressed transcripts, bioinformatics pathways, and proteins and prostaglandins (PGs) from lung fibroblasts procured from wild-type (WT), COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- mice to understand system level control mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis of COX-2 and COX-1 ablated cells induced COX-1 and COX-2 specific signature respectively, which significantly overlapped with an 'IL-1β induced inflammatory signature'. This defined novel cross-talk signals that orchestrated coordinated activation of pathways of sterile inflammation sensed by cellular stress. The overlapping signals showed significant over-representation of shared pathways for interferon y and immune responses, T cell functions, NOD, and toll-like receptor signaling. Gene Ontology Biological Process (GOBP) and pathway enrichment analysis specifically showed an increase in mRNA expression associated with: (a) organ development and homeostasis in COX-1-/- cells and (b) oxidative stress and response, spliceosomes and proteasomes activity, mTOR and p53 signaling in COX-2-/- cells. COX-1 and COX-2 showed signs of functional pathways committed to cell cycle and DNA replication at the genomics level. As compared to WT, metabolomics analysis revealed a significant increase in COX-1 mRNA and synthesis of basal levels of eicosanoids (PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, LTB4, PGF1α, and PGF2α) in COX-2 ablated cells and increase in synthesis of PGE2, and PGF1α in COX-1 null cells. There was a compensation of PGE2 and PGF1α in COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- cells. Collectively, these results support a broader, differential and collaborative regulation of both COX-1 and COX-2 pathways at the metabolic, signaling, and genomics levels in cellular homeostasis and sterile inflammation induced by cellular stress.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, inflammation, lung fibroblasts, systemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 219