Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Premysl Landa

7 Synthesis of Quinazoline Derivatives as Selective Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-1 Enzyme

Authors: Marcela Dvorakova, Lenka Langhansova, Premysl Landa

Abstract:

A series of quinazoline derivatives bearing aromatic rings in 2- and 4-positions were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Firstly, the compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit various kinases, such as autophagy activating kinase ULK1, 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and TANK-binding kinase 1. None of the compounds displayed any activity on these kinases. Secondly, the compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity expressed as cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. Three of the compounds showed significant selectivity towards COX-1 isoform (COX-2/COX-1 SI = 20-30). They inhibited COX-1 in a single-digit µM range. There was also one compound that exhibited inhibitory activity towards all three tested enzymes in µM range (IC50COX-1 = 1.9 µM; IC50COX-2 and 5-LOX = 10.1µM. COX-1 inhibition was until recently considered undesirable due to COX-1 constitutive expression in most cell types and tissues. Thus, there are not many compounds known with selective COX-1 activity. However, it is now believed that COX-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several acute and chronic disorders, including cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the discovery of effective COX-1 selective inhibitors is desirable and important.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, kinases, lipoxygenases, quinazolines

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6 Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a PCM Integrated Solar Chimney

Authors: J. Carlos Frutos Dordelly, M. Coillot, M. El Mankibi, R. Enríquez Miranda, M. José Jimenez, J. Arce Landa

Abstract:

Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 °C and allows the activation of PCM panels.

Keywords: energy storage, natural ventilation, phase changing materials, solar chimney, solar energy

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5 Modification of Polyurethane Adhesive for OSB/EPS Panel Production

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Premysl Sedivka, Petra Gajdacova

Abstract:

Currently, structural composite materials contain cellulose-based particles (wood chips, fibers) bonded with synthetic adhesives containing formaldehyde (urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde adhesives and others). Formaldehyde is classified as a volatile substance with provable carcinogenic effects on live organisms, and an emphasis has been put on continual reduction of its content in products. One potential solution could be the development of an agglomerated material which does not contain adhesives releasing formaldehyde. A potential alternative to formaldehyde-based adhesives could be polyurethane adhesives containing no formaldehyde. Such adhesives have been increasingly used in applications where a few years ago formaldehyde-based adhesives were the only option. Advantages of polyurethane adhesive in comparison with others in the industry include the high elasticity of the joint, which is able to resist dynamic stress, and resistance to increased humidity and climatic effects. These properties predict polyurethane adhesives to be used in OSB/EPS panel production. The objective of this paper is to develop an adhesive for bonding of sandwich panels made of material based on wood and other materials, e.g. SIP) and optimization of input components in order to obtain an adhesive with required properties suitable for bonding of the given materials without involvement of formaldehyde. It was found that polyurethane recyclate as a filler is suitable modification of polyurethane adhesive and results have clearly revealed that modified adhesive can be used for OSB/EPS panel production.

Keywords: adhesive, polyurethane, recyclate, SIP

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4 Fail Analysis of the Filter in a Land Dam

Authors: Guillermo Cardoso-Landa, Ana Julita Cuenca-Castro

Abstract:

The present paper focuses to research the possible causes of curtain failure of dam "El Batan" in Querétaro, Mexico, including the design of the fineness of the employee filter during the construction of the curtain was verified since this depends greatly on the proper functioning of this filter. To carry out the required analysis, it was necessary to document elements provided understanding about the composition and behavior of the land curtain, and the main types of failure in these curtains. The general characteristics of the curtain dam "El Batan", the composition of the filter, as well as possible causes resulted in the failure were also analyzed. Once obtained data starting, the actual analysis was carried out by reviewing the following possible causes of failure: fails due to a poor constructive process of the curtain, failure due to hydraulic suppression, fails due to a structural design wrong, fails due to a geotechnical design wrong, fails due to a hydraulic design wrong, fails due to an inadequate design of the curtain filter. It is concluded that the type of the filter employed in the land dam curtain of "El Batan", located in the municipality of Querétaro, México, do not have adequate characteristics, outside of the ranges of design, using the curves: Terzaghi criteria, Sherard and Dunnigan criteria, UCSCS criteria, and Foster and Fell criteria.

Keywords: failure, dam, filter, curtain

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3 Physicochemical and Sensorial Evaluation of Astringency Reduction in Cashew Apple (Annacardium occidentale L.) Powder Processing in Cookie Elaboration

Authors: Elida Gastelum-Martinez, Neith A. Pacheco-Lopez, Juan L. Morales-Landa

Abstract:

Cashew agroindustry obtained from cashew apple crop (Anacardium occidentale L.) generates large amounts of unused waste in Campeche, Mexico. Despite having a high content of nutritional compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, fiber, carbohydrates, and minerals, it is not consumed due to its astringent sensation. The aim of this work was to develop a processing method for cashew apple waste in order to obtain a powder with reduced astringency able to be used as an additive in the food industry. The processing method consisted first in reducing astringency by inducing tannins from cashew apple peel to react and form precipitating complexes with a colloid rich in proline and histidine. Then cashew apples were processed to obtain a dry powder. Astringency reduction was determined by total phenolic content and evaluated by sensorial analysis in cashew-apple-powder based cookies. Total phenolic content in processed powders showed up to 72% lower concentration compared to control samples. The sensorial evaluation indicated that cookies baked using cashew apple powder with reduced astringency were 96.8% preferred. Sensorial characteristics like texture, color and taste were also well-accepted attributes. In conclusion, the method applied for astringency reduction is a viable tool to produce cashew apple powder with desirable sensorial properties to be used in the development of food products.

Keywords: astringency reduction, cashew apple waste, food industry, sensorial evaluation

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2 Inactivation of Root-Knot Nematode Eggs Meloidogyne enterolobii in Irrigation Water Treated with Ozone

Authors: I. A. Landa-Fernandez, I. Monje-Ramirez, M. T. Orta-Ledesma

Abstract:

Every year plant-parasitic nematodes diminish the yield of high-value crops worldwide causing important economic losses. Currently, Meloidogyne enterolobii has increased its importance due to its high aggressiveness, increasing geographical distribution and host range. Root-knot nematodes inhabit the rhizosphere soil around plant roots. However, they can come into contact with irrigation water. Thus, plant-parasitic nematodes can be transported by water, as eggs or juveniles. Due to their high resistance, common water disinfection methods are not effective for inactivating these parasites. Ozone is the most effective disinfectant for microbial inactivation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that ozone treatment is an alternative method control in irrigation water of the root-knot nematode M. enterolobii. It has been shown that ozonation is an effective treatment for the inactivation of protozoan cysts and oocysts (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and for other species of the genus Meloidogyne (M. incognita), but not for the enterolobii specie. In this study, the strain of M. enterolobii was isolated from tomatoes roots. For the tests, eggs were used and were inoculated in water with similar characteristics of irrigation water. Subsequently, the disinfection process was carried out in an ozonation unit. The performance of the treatments was evaluated through the egg's viability by assessing its structure by optical microscopy. As a result of exposure to ozone, the viability of the nematode eggs was reduced practically in its entirety; with dissolved ozone levels in water close to the standard concentration (equal to 0.4 mgO₃/L), but with high contact times (greater than 4 min): 0.2 mgO₃/L for 15 minutes or 0.55 mgO₃/L for 10 minutes. Additionally, the effect of temperature, alkalinity and organic matter of the water was evaluated. Ozonation is effective and a promising alternative for the inactivation of nematodes in irrigation water, which could contribute to diminish the agricultural losses caused by these organisms.

Keywords: inactivation process, irrigation water treatment, ozonation, plant-parasite nematodes

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1 Educational Infrastructure a Barrier for Teaching and Learning Architecture

Authors: Alejandra Torres-Landa López

Abstract:

Introduction: Can architecture students be creative in spaces conformed by an educational infrastructure build with paradigms of the past?, this question and others related are answered in this paper as it presents the PhD research: An anthropic conflict in Mexican Higher Education Institutes, problems and challenges of the educational infrastructure in teaching and learning History of Architecture. This research was finished in 2013 and is one of the first studies conducted nationwide in Mexico that analysis the educational infrastructure impact in learning architecture; its objective was to identify which elements of the educational infrastructure of Mexican Higher Education Institutes where architects are formed, hinder or contribute to the teaching and learning of History of Architecture; how and why it happens. The methodology: A mixed methodology was used combining quantitative and qualitative analysis. Different resources and strategies for data collection were used, such as questionnaires for students and teachers, interviews to architecture research experts, direct observations in Architecture classes, among others; the data collected was analyses using SPSS and MAXQDA. The veracity of the quantitative data was supported by the Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient, obtaining a 0.86, figure that gives the data enough support. All the above enabled to certify the anthropic conflict in which Mexican Universities are. Major findings of the study: Although some of findings were probably not unknown, they haven’t been systematized and analyzed with the depth to which it’s done in this research. So, it can be said, that the educational infrastructure of most of the Higher Education Institutes studied, is a barrier to the educational process, some of the reasons are: the little morphological variation of space, the inadequate control of lighting, noise, temperature, equipment and furniture, the poor or none accessibility for disable people; as well as the absence, obsolescence and / or insufficiency of information technologies are some of the issues that generate an anthropic conflict understanding it as the trouble that teachers and students have to relate between them, in order to achieve significant learning). It is clear that most of the educational infrastructure of Mexican Higher Education Institutes is anchored to paradigms of the past; it seems that they respond to the previous era of industrialization. The results confirm that the educational infrastructure of Mexican Higher Education Institutes where architects are formed, is perceived as a "closed container" of people and data; infrastructure that becomes a barrier to teaching and learning process. Conclusion: The research results show it's time to change the paradigm in which we conceive the educational infrastructure, it’s time to stop seen it just only as classrooms, workshops, laboratories and libraries, as it must be seen from a constructive, urban, architectural and human point of view, taking into account their different dimensions: physical, technological, documental, social, among others; so the educational infrastructure can become a set of elements that organize and create spaces where ideas and thoughts can be shared; to be a social catalyst where people can interact between each other and with the space itself.

Keywords: educational infrastructure, impact of space in learning architecture outcomes, learning environments, teaching architecture, learning architecture

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