Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 742

Search results for: microbial oxygenases

742 Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Isolated from Contaminated Soils

Authors: Z. Abdessemed, N. Messaâdia, M. Houhamdi

Abstract:

The PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) represent a persistent source of pollution for oil field soils. Their degradation, essentially dominated by the aerobic bacterial and fungal flora, exhibits certain aspects for remediation of these soils microbial oxygenases have, as their substrates, a large range of PAH. The variety and the performance of these enzymes allow the initiation of the biodegradation of any PAH through many different metabolic pathways. These pathways are very important for the recycling of the PAH in the biosphere, where substances supposed indigestible by living organisms are rapidly transformed into simples compounds, directly assimilated by the intermediate metabolism of other microorganisms.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial oxygenases, biodegradation, metabolic pathways

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741 Synthesis, Characterization, Validation of Resistant Microbial Strains and Anti Microbrial Activity of Substitted Pyrazoles

Authors: Rama Devi Kyatham, D. Ashok, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, Raju Bathula

Abstract:

We have shown the importance of pyrazoles as anti-microbial chemical entities. These compounds have generally been considered significant due to their wide range of pharmacological acivities and their discovery motivates new avenues of research.The proposed pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activities. The Synthesized compounds were analyzed by different spectroscopic methods.

Keywords: pyrazoles, validation, resistant microbial strains, anti-microbial activities

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740 LIFirr with an Indicator of Microbial Activity in Paraffinic Oil

Authors: M. P. Casiraghi, C. M. Quintella, P. Almeida

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Paraffinic oils were submitted to microbial action. The microorganisms consisted of bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus lincheniforms. The alterations in interfacial tension were determined using a tensometer and applying the hanging drop technique at room temperature (299 K ±275 K). The alteration in the constitution of the paraffins was evaluated by means of gas chromatography. The microbial activity was observed to reduce interfacial tension by 54 to 78%, as well as consuming the paraffins C19 to C29 and producing paraffins C36 to C44. The LIFirr technique made it possible to determine the microbial action quickly.

Keywords: paraffins, biosurfactants, LIFirr, microbial activity

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739 Microbial Contamination of Haemolymph of Honeybee (Apis mellifera intermissa) Parasitized by Varroa Destructor

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana

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The negative effect of the Varroa bee colony is very important. They cause morphological and physiological changes, causing a decrease in performance of individuals and long-term death of the colony. Indirectly, they weaken the bees become much more sensitive to the different pathogenic organisms naturally present in the colony. This work aims to research secondary infections of microbial origin occurred in the worker bee nurse due to parasitism by Varroa destructor. The feeding behaviour of Varroa may causes damaging host integument. The results show that the microbial contamination enable to be transmitted into honeybee heamocoel are Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter, Aspergillus.

Keywords: honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, microbial contamination, Varroa destructor

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738 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja

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Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

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737 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin

Abstract:

We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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736 An Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, L. J. Deng, T. D. C Tran

Abstract:

Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for Biological Wastewater Treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate (SOUR) in a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a Sponge Submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) and Bound-Extracellular Polymeric Substances (BEPS) were found affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.

Keywords: microbial products, microbial activity, specific oxygen uptake rate, membrane bioreactor

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735 Microbial Activity and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Recovery Process in a Grassland of China

Authors: Qiushi Ning

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The nitrogen (N) is an important limiting factor of various ecosystems, and the N deposition rate is increasing unprecedentedly due to anthropogenic activities. The N deposition altered the microbial growth and activity, and microbial mediated N cycling through changing soil pH, the availability of N and carbon (C). The CO2, CH4 and N2O are important greenhouse gas which threaten the sustainability and function of the ecosystem. With the prolonged and increasing N enrichment, the soil acidification and C limitation will be aggravated, and the microbial biomass will be further declined. The soil acidification and lack of C induced by N addition are argued as two important factors regulating the microbial activity and growth, and the studies combined soil acidification with lack of C on microbial community are scarce. In order to restore the ecosystem affected by chronic N loading, we determined the responses of microbial activity and GHG emssions to lime and glucose (control, 1‰ lime, 2‰ lime, glucose, 1‰ lime×glucose and 2‰ lime×glucose) addition which was used to alleviate the soil acidification and supply C resource into soils with N addition rates 0-50 g N m–2yr–1. The results showed no significant responses of soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN) to lime addition, however, the glucose substantially improved the soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN); the cumulative CO2 emission and microbial biomass of lime×glucose treatments were not significantly higher than those of only glucose treatment. The glucose and lime×glucose treatments reduced the net mineralization and nitrification rate, due to inspired microbial growth via C supply incorporating more inorganic N to the biomass, and mineralization of organic N was relatively reduced. The glucose addition also increased the CH4 and N2O emissions, CH4 emissions was regulated mainly by C resource as a substrate for methanogen. However, the N2O emissions were regulated by both C resources and soil pH, the C was important energy and the increased soil pH could benefit the nitrifiers and denitrifiers which were primary producers of N2O. The soil respiration and N2O emissions increased with increasing N addition rates in all glucose treatments, as the external C resource improved microbial N utilization. Compared with alleviated soil acidification, the improved availability of C substantially increased microbial activity, therefore, the C should be the main limiting factor in long-term N loading soils. The most important, when we use the organic C fertilization to improve the production of the ecosystems, the GHG emissions and consequent warming potentials should be carefully considered.

Keywords: acidification and C limitation, greenhouse gas emission, microbial activity, N deposition

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734 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li

Abstract:

This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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733 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: corncob, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose, microbial pretreatment

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732 Microbial Quality of Beef and Mutton in Bauchi Metropolis

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed

Abstract:

The microbial quality of beef and mutton sold in four major markets of Bauchi metropolis was assessed in order to assist in ascertaining safety. Shops were selected from 'Muda Lawal', 'Yelwa', 'Wunti', and 'Gwallameji' markets. The total bacterial count was used as index of quality. A total of thirty two (32) samples were collected in two successive visits. The samples were packed and labelled in a sterile polythene bags for transportation to the laboratory. Microbial analysis was carried out immediately upon arrival under a septic condition, where aerobic plate was used in determining the microbial load. Result showed that beef and mutton from Gwallameji had the highest bacterial count of 9.065 X 105 cfu/ml and 8.325 X 105 cfu/ml for beef and mutton respectively followed by Wunti market (6.95 X 105 beef and 4.838 X 105 motton) and Muda Lawal (4.86 X 105 cfu/ml beef and 5.998 X 105 cfu/ml mutton). Yelwa had 5.175 X 105 and 5.30 X 105 for beef and mutton respectively. Bacterial species isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus species. However, results obtained from all markets showed that there was no significant differences between beef and mutton in terms of microbial quality.

Keywords: beef, mutton, salmonella, sterile

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731 Analysis of a Lignocellulose Degrading Microbial Consortium to Enhance the Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straws

Authors: Supanun Kangrang, Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Kittiphong Rattanaporn, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

Rice straw is lignocellulosic biomass which can be utilized as substrate for the biogas production. However, due to the property and composition of rice straw, it is difficult to be degraded by hydrolysis enzymes. One of the pretreatment method that modifies such properties of lignocellulosic biomass is the application of lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microbial consortia to enhance biogas production. To select the high efficient consortium, cellulase enzymes were extracted and their activities were analyzed. The results suggested that microbial consortium culture obtained from cattle manure is the best candidate compared to decomposed wood and horse manure. A microbial consortium isolated from cattle manure was then mixed with anaerobic sludge and used as inoculum for biogas production. The optimal conditions for biogas production were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The tested parameters were the ratio of amount of microbial consortium isolated and amount of anaerobic sludge (MI:AS), substrate to inoculum ratio (S:I) and temperature. Here, the value of the regression coefficient R2 = 0.7661 could be explained by the model which is high to advocate the significance of the model. The highest cumulative biogas yield was 104.6 ml/g-rice straw at optimum ratio of MI:AS, ratio of S:I, and temperature of 2.5:1, 15:1 and 44°C respectively.

Keywords: lignocellulolytic biomass, microbial consortium, cellulase, biogas, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

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730 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

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Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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729 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

Abstract:

Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

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728 Lipid Extraction from Microbial Cell by Electroporation Technique and Its Influence on Direct Transesterification for Biodiesel Synthesis

Authors: Abu Yousuf, Maksudur Rahman Khan, Ahasanul Karim, Amirul Islam, Minhaj Uddin Monir, Sharmin Sultana, Domenico Pirozzi

Abstract:

Traditional biodiesel feedstock like edible oils or plant oils, animal fats and cooking waste oil have been replaced by microbial oil in recent research of biodiesel synthesis. The well-known community of microbial oil producers includes microalgae, oleaginous yeast and seaweeds. Conventional transesterification of microbial oil to produce biodiesel is lethargic, energy consuming, cost-ineffective and environmentally unhealthy. This process follows several steps such as microbial biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction, solvent recovery, oil separation and transesterification. Therefore, direct transesterification of biodiesel synthesis has been studying for last few years. It combines all the steps in a single reactor and it eliminates the steps of biomass drying, oil extraction and separation from solvent. Apparently, it seems to be cost-effective and faster process but number of difficulties need to be solved to make it large scale applicable. The main challenges are microbial cell disruption in bulk volume and make faster the esterification reaction, because water contents of the medium sluggish the reaction rate. Several methods have been proposed but none of them is up to the level to implement in large scale. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae) investing minimum energy. Electroporation technique results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. Electroporation is required to alter the size and structure of the cells to increase their porosity as well as to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to leak out the intracellular lipid to the solution. Therefore, incorporation of electroporation techniques contributed in direct transesterification of microbial lipids by increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production rate.

Keywords: biodiesel, electroporation, microbial lipids, transesterification

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727 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari

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Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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726 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

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725 Biological Treatment of a Mixture of Iodine-Containing Aromatic Compounds from Industrial Wastewaster

Authors: A. Elain, M. Le Fellic, A. Le Pemp, N. Hachet

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Iodinated Compounds (IC) are widely detected contaminants in most aquatic environments including sewage treatment plant, surface water, ground water and even drinking water, up to the µg.L-1 range. As IC contribute in the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) level, their removal or dehalogenation is expected. We report here on the biodegradability of a mixture of IC from an industrial effluent using a microbial consortium adapted to grow on IC as well as the native microorganisms. Both aerobic and anaerobic treatments were studied during batch experiments in 500-mL flasks. The degree of mineralization and recovery of iodide were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron acceptor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive deiodination of IC while sodium chloride even at high concentration (22 g.l-1) had no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S RNA gene sequence (MicroSeq®) was applied to provide a better understanding of the degradative microbial community.

Keywords: iodinated compounds, biodegradability, deiodination, electron-accepting conditions, microbial consortium

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724 Efficiency of Background Chlorine Residuals against Accidental Microbial Episode in Proto-Type Distribution Network (Rig) Using Central Composite Design (CCD)

Authors: Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi, Luiza Campos, Qizhi Zhou, Kim Keu

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A quadratic model (p ˂ 0.0001) was developed by using central composite design of 50 experimental runs (42 non-center + 8 center points) to assess efficiency of background chlorine residuals in combating accidental microbial episode in a prototype distribution network (DN) (rig). A known amount of background chlorine residuals were maintained in DN and a required number of bacteria, Escherichia coli K-12 strain were introduced by an injection port in the pipe loop system. Samples were taken at various time intervals at different pipe lengths. Spread plate count was performed to count bacterial number. The model developed was significant. With microbial concentration and time (p ˂ 0.0001), pipe length (p ˂ 0.022), background chlorine residuals (p ˂ 0.07) and time^2 (p ˂ 0.09) as significant factors. The ramp function of variables shows that at the microbial count of 10^6, at 0.76 L/min, and pipe length of 133 meters, a background residual chlorine 0.16 mg/L was enough for complete inactivation of microbial episode in approximately 18 minutes.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), distribution network, Escherichia coli, residual chlorine

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723 Influence of Different Ripening Agents on the Shelf-Life and Microbial Load of Organic and Inorganic Musaceae, during the Ripening Process, and the Health Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji

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Local farmers and fruit processors in developing countries of West Africa use different ripening agents to accelerate the ripening process of plantain and banana. This study reports on the influence of different ripening agents on the shelf-life and microbial load of organic and inorganic plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening process and the health implication for food security in Nigeria. The experiment consisted of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening agent was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating their micro flora (Bacteria, Yeast and Mould) using pour plate method. Microbes present in the samples were enumerated, characterized and classified to genera and species. The result indicated that the microbial load of inorganic plantain from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 12.11 cfu/g for ripened; and the microbial load of organic plantain from Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching and Research Farm (OAUTRF) increased from 6.00 for unripe to 11.60 cfu/g for ripened. Also, the microbial load of inorganic banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 11.50 cfu/g for ripened; while the microbial load of organic banana from OAUTRF increased from 6.50 for unripe to 9.40 cfu/g for ripened. The microbial effects of the ripening agents increased from 10.00 for control to 16.00 cfu/g for treated (ripened) organic and inorganic plantain; while that of organic and inorganic banana increased from 7.50 for control to 14.50 cfu/g for ripened. Visual observation for the presence of fungal colonies and deterioration rates were monitored till seven days after the plantain and banana fingers have fully ripened. Inorganic plantain and banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife are more contaminated than organic plantain and banana fingers from OAUTRF. The ripening accelerators reduced the shelf life, increased senescence, and microbial load of plantain and banana. This study concluded that organic Agriculture is better and microbial friendlier than inorganic farming.

Keywords: organic agriculture, food security, Musaceae, calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis, Newbouldia laevis

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722 Bio Energy from Metabolic Activity of Bacteria in Plant and Soil Using Novel Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: B. Samuel Raj, Solomon R. D. Jebakumar

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging and promising method for achieving sustainable energy since they can remove contaminated organic matter and simultaneously generate electricity. Our approach was driven in three different ways like Bacterial fuel cell, Soil Microbial fuel cell (Soil MFC) and Plant Microbial fuel cell (Plant MFC). Bacterial MFC: Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated and identified as the efficient electricigens which is able to produce ±2.5V (689mW/m2) and it has sustainable activity for 120 days. Experimental data with different MFC revealed that high electricity production harvested continuously for 90 days 1.45V (381mW/m2), 1.98V (456mW/m2) respectively. Biofilm formation was confirmed on the surface of the anode by high content screening (HCS) and scanning electron Microscopic analysis (SEM). Soil MFC: Soil MFC was constructed with low cost and standard Mudwatt soil MFC was purchased from keegotech (USA). Vermicompost soil (V1) produce high energy (± 3.5V for ± 400 days) compared to Agricultural soil (A1) (± 2V for ± 150 days). Biofilm formation was confirmed by HCS and SEM analysis. This finding provides a method for extracting energy from organic matter, but also suggests a strategy for promoting the bioremediation of organic contaminants in subsurface environments. Our Soil MFC were able to run successfully a 3.5V fan and three LED continuously for 150 days. Plant MFC: Amaranthus candatus (P1) and Triticum aestivium (P2) were used in Plant MFC to confirm the electricity production from plant associated microbes, four uniform size of Plant MFC were constructed and checked for energy production. P2 produce high energy (± 3.2V for 40 days) with harvesting interval of two times and P1 produces moderate energy without harvesting interval (±1.5V for 24 days). P2 is able run 3.5V fan continuously for 10days whereas P1 needs optimization of growth conditions to produce high energy.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, biofilm, soil microbial fuel cell, plant microbial fuel cell

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721 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of Fe Environment in Porous Anode of Shewanella oneidensis Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Gayathrie Amarasuriya, N. Gadura, G. Tremberger Jr, D.Lieberman, Harry Gafney, Todd Holden, T. Cheung

Abstract:

The iron environment in Fe-doped Vycor Anode was investigated with EXAFS using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. The iron-reducing Shewanella oneidensis culture was grown in a microbial fuel cell under anaerobic respiration. The Fe bond length was found to decrease and correlate with the amount of biofilm growth on the Fe-doped Vycor Anode. The data suggests that Fe-doped Vycor Anode would be a good substrate to study the Shewanella oneidensis nanowire structure using EXAFS.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, Shewanella oneidensis, microbial fuel cell

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720 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar

Abstract:

Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

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719 Landfill Leachate: A Promising Substrate for Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: Jayesh M. Sonawane, Prakash C. Ghosh

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Landfill leachate emerges as a promising feedstock for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In the present investigation, direct air-breathing cathode-based MFCs are fabricated to investigate the potential of landfill leachate. Three MFCs that have different cathode areas are fabricated and investigated for 17 days under open circuit conditions. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) is observed to be as high as 1.29 V. The maximum cathode area specific power density achieved in the reactor is 1513 mW m-2. Further studies are under progress to understand the origin of high OCV obtained from landfill leachate-based MFCs.

Keywords: microbial fuel cells, landfill leachate, air-breathing cathode, performance study

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718 Bacterial Diversity Reports Contamination around the Ichkeul Lake in Tunisia

Authors: Zeina Bourhane, Anders Lanzen, Christine Cagnon, Olfa Ben Said, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau, Robert Duran

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The anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas increases dramatically with the exploitation of environmental resources. Biomonitoring coastal areas are crucial to determine the impact of pollutants on bacterial communities in soils and sediments since they provide important ecosystem services. However, relevant biomonitoring tools allowing fast determination of the ecological status are yet to be defined. Microbial ecology approaches provide useful information for developing such microbial monitoring tools reporting on the effect of environmental stressors. Chemical and microbial molecular approaches were combined in order to determine microbial bioindicators for assessing the ecological status of soil and river ecosystems around the Ichkeul Lake (Tunisia), an area highly impacted by human activities. Samples were collected along soil/river/lake continuums in three stations around the Ichkeul Lake influenced by different human activities at two seasons (summer and winter). Contaminant pressure indexes (PI), including PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), alkanes, and OCPs (Organochlorine pesticides) contents, showed significant differences in the contamination level between the stations with seasonal variation. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) gene metabarcoding. Although microgAMBI indexes, determined from the sequencing data, were in accordance with contaminant contents, they were not sufficient to fully explain the PI. Therefore, further microbial indicators are still to be defined. The comparison of bacterial communities revealed the specific microbial assemblage for soil, river, and lake sediments, which were significantly correlated with contaminant contents and PI. Such observation offers the possibility to define a relevant set of bioindicators for reporting the effects of human activities on the microbial community structure. Such bioindicators might constitute useful monitoring tools for the management of microbial communities in coastal areas.

Keywords: bacterial communities, biomonitoring, contamination, human impacts, microbial bioindicators

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717 Microbial Dark Matter Analysis Using 16S rRNA Gene Metagenomics Sequences

Authors: Hana Barak, Alex Sivan, Ariel Kushmaro

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Microorganisms are the most diverse and abundant life forms on Earth and account for a large portion of the Earth’s biomass and biodiversity. To date though, our knowledge regarding microbial life is lacking, as it is based mainly on information from cultivated organisms. Indeed, microbiologists have borrowed from astrophysics and termed the ‘uncultured microbial majority’ as ‘microbial dark matter’. The realization of how diverse and unexplored microorganisms are, actually stems from recent advances in molecular biology, and in particular from novel methods for sequencing microbial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes directly from environmental samples termed next-generation sequencing (NGS). This has led us to use NGS that generates several gigabases of sequencing data in a single experimental run, to identify and classify environmental samples of microorganisms. In metagenomics sequencing analysis (both 16S and shotgun), sequences are compared to reference databases that contain only small part of the existing microorganisms and therefore their taxonomy assignment may reveal groups of unknown microorganisms or origins. These unknowns, or the ‘microbial sequences dark matter’, are usually ignored in spite of their great importance. The goal of this work was to develop an improved bioinformatics method that enables more complete analyses of the microbial communities in numerous environments. Therefore, NGS was used to identify previously unknown microorganisms from three different environments (industrials wastewater, Negev Desert’s rocks and water wells at the Arava valley). 16S rRNA gene metagenome analysis of the microorganisms from those three environments produce about ~4 million reads for 75 samples. Between 0.1-12% of the sequences in each sample were tagged as ‘Unassigned’. Employing relatively simple methodology for resequencing of original gDNA samples through Sanger or MiSeq Illumina with specific primers, this study demonstrates that the mysterious ‘Unassigned’ group apparently contains sequences of candidate phyla. Those unknown sequences can be located on a phylogenetic tree and thus provide a better understanding of the ‘sequences dark matter’ and its role in the research of microbial communities and diversity. Studying this ‘dark matter’ will extend the existing databases and could reveal the hidden potential of the ‘microbial dark matter’.

Keywords: bacteria, bioinformatics, dark matter, Next Generation Sequencing, unknown

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716 The Ability of Consortium Wastewater Protozoan and Bacterial Species to Remove Chemical Oxygen Demand in the Presence of Nanomaterials under Varying pH Conditions

Authors: Anza-Vhudziki Mboyi, Ilunga Kamika, Maggy Momba

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The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival limit and capability of commonly found wastewater protozoan (Aspidisca sp, Trachelophyllum sp, and Peranema sp) and bacterial (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, and Pseudomonas putida) species to remove COD while exposed to commercial nanomaterials under varying pH conditions. The experimental study was carried out in modified mixed liquor media adjusted to various pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10), and a comparative study was performed to determine the difference between the cytotoxicity effects of commercial zinc oxide (nZnO) and silver (nAg) nanomaterials (NMs) on the target wastewater microbial communities using standard methods. The selected microbial communities were exposed to lethal concentrations ranging from 0.015 g/L to 40 g/L for nZnO and from 0.015 g/L to 2 g/L for nAg for a period of 5 days of incubation at 30°C (100 r/min). Compared with the absence of NMs in wastewater mixed liquor, the relevant environmental concentration ranging between 10 µg/L and 100 µg/L, for both nZnO and nAg caused no adverse effects, but the presence of 20 g of nZnO/L and 0.65 g of nAg/L significantly inhibited microbial growth. Statistical evidence showed that nAg was significantly more toxic compared to nZnO, but there was an insignificant difference in toxicity between microbial communities and pH variations. A significant decrease in the removal of COD by microbial populations was observed in the presence of NMs with a moderate correlation of r = 0.3 to r = 0.7 at all pH levels. It was evident that there was a physical interaction between commercial NMs and target wastewater microbial communities; although not quantitatively assessed, cell morphology and cell death were observed. Such phenomena suggest the high resilience of the microbial community, but it is the accumulation of NMs that will have adverse effects on the performance in terms of COD removal.

Keywords: bacteria, biological treatment, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nanomaterials, consortium, pH, protozoan

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715 The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast Culture on Microbial Nitrogen Supply to Small Intestine in Male Kivircik Yearlings Fed with Different Ratio of Forage and Concentrate

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya, Nadide Hulya Ozdemir

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The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) live yeast culture on microbial protein supply to the small intestine in Kivircik male yearlings when fed with different ratio of forage and concentrate diets. Four Kivircik male yearlings with permanent rumen canula were used in the experiment. . The treatments were allocated to a 4x4 Latin square design. Diet I consisted of 70% alfalfa hay and 30% concentrate, Diet II consisted of 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrate, Diet I and II were supplemented with a SC. Daily urine was collected and stored at -20°C until analysis. Calorimetric methods were used for the determination of urinary allantoin and creatinin levels. The estimated microbial N supply to small intestine for Diets I, I+SC, II and II+SC were 2.51, 2.64, 2.95 and 3.43 g N/d respectively. Supplementation of Diets I and II with SC significantly affected the allantoin levels in µmol/W0. 75 (p<0.05). Mean creatinine values in µmol/W0. 75 and allantoin:creatinin ratios were not significantly different among diets. In conclusion, supplementation with SC live yeast culture had a significant effect on urinary allantoin excretion and microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik yearlings fed with high concentrate Diet II (P<0.05). Hence urinary allantoin excretion may be used as a tool for estimating microbial protein supply in Kivircık yearlings. However, further studies are necessary to understand the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast culture with different forage: concentrate ratio in Kıvırcık Yearlings.

Keywords: allantoin, creatinin, Kivircik yearling, microbial nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisia

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714 Electricity Production Enhancement in a Constructed Microbial Fuel Cell MFC Using Iron Nanoparticles

Authors: Khaoula Bensaida, Osama Eljamal

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The electrical energy generation through Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) using microorganisms is a renewable and sustainable approach. It creates truly an efficient technology for power production and wastewater treatment. MFC is an electrochemical device which turns wastewater into electricity. The most important part of MFC is microbes. Nano zero-valent Iron NZVI technique was successfully applied in degrading the chemical pollutants and cleaning wastewater. However, the use of NZVI for enhancing the current production is still not confirmed yet. This study aims to confirm the effect of these particles on the current generation by using MFC. A constructed microbial fuel cell, which utilizes domestic wastewater, has been considered for wastewater treatment and bio-electricity generation. The two electrodes were connected to an external resistor (200 ohms). Experiments were conducted in two steps. First, the MFC was constructed without adding NZVI particles (Control) while at a second step, nanoparticles were added with a concentration of 50mg/L. After 20 hours, the measured voltage increased to 5 and 8mV, respectively. To conclude, the use of zero-valent iron in an MFC system can increase electricity generation.

Keywords: bacterial growth, electricity generation, microbial fuel cell MFC, nano zero-valent iron NZVI.

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713 Performance of Osmotic Microbial Fuel Cell in Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation: A Critical Review

Authors: Shubhangi R. Deshmukh, Anupam B. Soni

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Clean water and electricity are vital services needed in all communities. Bio-degradation of wastewater contaminants and desalination technologies are the best possible alternatives for the global shortage of fresh water supply. Osmotic microbial fuel cell (OMFC) is a versatile technology that uses microorganism (used for biodegradation of organic waste) and membrane technology (used for water purification) for wastewater treatment and energy generation simultaneously. This technology is the combination of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and forward osmosis (FO) processes. OMFC can give more electricity and clean water than the MFC which has a regular proton exchange membrane. FO gives many improvements such as high contamination removal, lower operating energy, raising high proton flux than other pressure-driven membrane technology. Lower concentration polarization lowers the membrane fouling by giving osmotic water recovery without extra cost. In this review paper, we have discussed the principle, mechanism, limitation, and application of OMFC technology reported to date. Also, we have interpreted the experimental data from various literature on the water recovery and electricity generation assessed by a different component of OMFC. The area of producing electricity using OMFC has further scope for research and seems like a promising route to wastewater treatment.

Keywords: forward osmosis, microbial fuel cell, osmotic microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment

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